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Full text of "Indian place names of New England"

51 





MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 

HEYE FOUNDATION 

1962 

^UL 2 2000 

•Varies, 



^ITHSOT^ 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE 

MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 

HEYE FOUNDATION 

VOL. XVIII 



INDIAN PLACE NAMES 
OF NEW ENGLAND 

Compiled by 

JOHN C.HUDEN 



NEW YORK 

MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 

HEYE FOUNDATION 

1962 



Library of Congress catalog card number 62-18399 

Printed in Germany at J.J. Augustin, Gliickstadt 



TO 

Grace Braem Huden 

with much love 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword vii 

Preface ix 

Historical Background ix 

Population Estimates x 

Linguistic Aids xi 

Alien Tongues Involved xi 

The Approach to the Problem xii 

Acknowledgments xiii 

Introduction i 

Pronunciation 3 

Spelling 6 

Translating Algonquian Place Names 8 

A Word about Maps 12 

Indian Place Names of New England 15 

Appendix 299 

Dictionary of Grammatical Roots 301 

Place Name Glossary 369 

Camp Names 377 

Bibliography 387 

Index 395 



FOREWORD 

The native geographer has come and gone in New England ; as 
is true of so many aboriginal inhabitants, his was a light touch 
which left little impress upon the land. Because the White emi- 
grant to the region had little understanding of the various local 
dialects, and even less interest in native cultures, by and large the 
names the Indian gave to his landmarks have disappeared. Many 
of these have survived in extremely distorted forms, and only a 
small proportion of the currently-used place names are clearly 
defined and readily translatable Indian terms. This is an unfor- 
tunate loss to our historic heritage. 

As part of a continuing interest in the preservation of informa- 
tion related to all aspects of Amerindian life, this volume is 
published in an attempt to bring together as large a body of data 
as possible relating to the toponymy of New England. 

The compiler, John C. Huden, has been active in the study of 
the early Indian history of New England for the past forty years. 
He is familiar with several Algonquian dialects, and has spent 
many years of intensive research into the particular field of 
place names. From these researches has come an extended 
record of publications on the subject. Currently on the faculty of 
the University of Vermont, Dr. Huden has a background of first- 
hand acquaintance with the region and its aboriginal inhabitants. 

It is confidently anticipated that this compilation will prove 
useful to the reader who is interested in the Indian background of 
New England. It is also hoped that it will encourage the publi- 
cation of other studies of a similar nature, so that in due course, 
the Indian place name structure of the entire United States will 
be available in published form* While there are many titles in the 
literature on the subject, much is yet to be done. 

The Museum is particularly grateful to Dr. Huden for his untir- 
ing efforts in gathering together this information before it is 
entirely lost, and also to Mr. Lawrence K. Gahan for the generous 
loan of his notes pertaining to the Massachusetts area. 

Frederick J. Dockstader 
May, 1962 Director 

vii 



PREFACE 

Many years ago, J. Hammond Trumbull remarked that, "trans- 
lating of [Indian] names in Southern New England is far more 
difficult than in "new" states [Michigan, Minnesota, etc.] where 
Algonkian is not a dead language. Half the Indian names in Rhode 
Island are so corrupt as to defy analysis!" (Trumbull, 1912, p. 68). 

This declaration can be applied as arbitrarily to all of New 
England. Many place names included in this, and other compila- 
tions, continue to resist satisfactory translation. Native languages 
were very difficult for New England colonists, most of whom 
were not the best of penmen — nor, in many cases, even masters 
of English usage. Many Indian locatives were first heard from 
terrified, unwilling lips by prejudiced Puritans — circumstances 
hardly conducive to linguistic clarity! It is not surprising, then, 
that a colonist who speUed his own name six or eight different 
ways would employ a half-dozen variant spellings of a Wampanoag 
term in a single document. 

Even educated English officials had trouble with dialectal 
differences between such closely-related tongues as Wampanoag, 
Natick, and Narragansett. Ministers who had studied Latin and 
Greek found considerable difficulty when they tried to force 
Algonquian phrases into classical moulds. Some early students 
attempted to reinforce a then-current belief that the Amerindians 
were the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel by applying Hebrew grammar 
to Algonquian constructions; Old Testament cosmology was 
compared with Indian beliefs, which only compounded the con- 
fusion. In addition, many Indian customs and religious ceremonies 
were suppressed as pagan, and unchristian; the result was an 
inevitable spotty rendition. It is from just such unsatisfactory 
bases that the present compilation has arisen. 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 

It is not the function of this work to set forth anything more 
than a very brief review of New England Algonquian history. 
For the purpose of orientation, it must suffice to say that, be- 
ginning with the arrival of the earliest Europeans, Algonquian- 
speaking peoples of the region were continually being mauled, 

ix 



expelled, exhorted, acculturated or killed. By the end of the 
American Revolution, only a pitiful remnant lingered in Connec- 
ticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, most of whom could 
speak their aboriginal languages imperfectly, if at all. By 1825 the 
Algonquian languages of Southern New England were practically 
dead. The last fluent speaker of Wampanoag died around 1827, 
by which time Narragansett had already followed Nauset, Nip- 
muck and Pennacook into oblivion. By a strange set of circum- 
stances, Mohegan survived until the death of Mrs. Fidelia Fielding 
in 1908 (Speck, 1928, pp. 223-225). 

Thus, in three hundred years from the Pilgrim landing at Ply- 
mouth Rock, the Wampanoag, Natick, Nipmuck, Narragansett, 
Pequot, Mohegan, Wappinger, Mahican, Pocumtuck and Pennacook 
tongues had all disappeared, leaving only an assortment of poorly- 
transcribed and ill-understood place names as their monuments. 

In the North, Abnaki, Malecite and Micmac still survive. 
Fewer than 2,000 Maine Indians, mostly mixed bloods, today 
use dialects derived from their ancient language. 

POPULATION ESTIMATES 

Swanton (1952) indicates that in 1600 there were from 25,000 to 
30,000 Algonquians in New England, speaking upwards of 20 
dialects. The i960 U. S. Census presents official figures totaling 
some 6,084 New England "Indians," most of whom are mixed 
bloods. It is therefore obvious that from 1600 to i960, New Eng- 
land lost about eighty percent of its Indian population, together 
with ninety percent of their native languages. 

Although there are no accurate population statistics available — 
the colonists rarely made fine distinctions between the various 
tribes — the following estimates have been compiled by James 
Mooney (1928). This classic study, based upon painstaking evalu- 
ation of all of the historical material available, remains the most 
reliable compilation we have to date. 

NEW ENGLAND ALGONQUIAN POPULATION IN 160O 

Abnaki 3,000 Pennacook 2,000 

Eastern Niantic 400 Pequot 2,200 

Mahican 3,000 Pocumtuc 1,200 

Mohegan 2,200 Wampanoag 2,400 

Narragansett 4,000 Wappinger i,75o 

Natick 1,200 Western Niantic 600 

Nipmuck 500 TOTAL 27,450 



Authorities agree that this total would represent the minimum, 
rather than maximum, number. It should also be noted for the 
purposes of this volume that these figures do not include such 
non-New England peoples as the Micmac, Malecite, or Delaware, 
nor the Iroquoian tribes of neighboring New York. 

The contemporary population figures of the New England region 
are of interest, but it must be emphasized that the vast majority 
are not full-blooded Indians. As a matter of objectivity, it is 
doubtful whether more than a handful of full-blood Indians 
remain in New England today, and these latter would be concen- 
trated in upstate Maine. 

INDIAN POPULATION OF NEW ENGLAND 





ACCORDING TO I960 CENSUS 




Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts 


923 New Hampshire 
1,879 Rhode Island 
2,118 Vermont 


135 
932 

97 



TOTAL 6,084 

LINGUISTIC AIDS 

Over these three hundred years, satisfactory dictionaries have 
been compiled for only three of the languages concerned, namely 
Abnaki, Narragansett and Natick. Although many students have 
devoted their interest to the languages of the American native, 
very few have been willing to spend the necessary time to organize 
that initial tool of linguistic study; rather, they have concerned 
themselves with grammatical and comparative studies, often 
failing to establish basic vocabularies for use in continuing re- 
search by others. 

ALIEN TONGUES INVOLVED 

Most of the non-Algonquian names found in New England are 
Iroquoian, notably Mohawk. There are several historical and 
archeological evidences of Mohawk occupation in the extreme 
northwestern portion of New England, particularly the Champlain 
Valley of Vermont. 

Practically all of the Mohawk place names in Vermont included 
herein have been taken from French and English maps dated 
before 1790; the rest have been gleaned from old documents of 
many varieties. These Mohawk names were submitted to Charles 
A. Cooke, Thawenensere, for examination and comment just prior 
to his death in 1958. His tentative translations were sent to Dr. 
Floyd G. Lounsbury for checking [see Lounsbury, i960.) 

xi 



Cooke was born on a reservation at Lake of Two Mountains, 
Quebec, on March 12, 1870. He spoke only Mohawk until he was 
twelve, and as a child he made many trips with relatives through- 
out the Albany-Montreal-Richelieu-Champlain corridor areas. He 
recognized all of the names submitted to him, and suggested many 
more. Lounsbury (i960, p. 58) makes this interesting observation 
on Cooke's efforts: "Mr. Cooke may have been translating the 
European names back into Mohawk in these and in other cases 
where an original Mohawk name was not historically documented." 
This may well be — but it would have perhaps been fairer to say 
that either Huden did not understand Cooke clearly, or else that 
Cooke, bedridden and able to work only a few hours a day in his 
last years, did not have the energy to supply anything more than 
the barest requirements of the task. 



THE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 

This is not an original work. It represents a compilation of New 
England place names of Indian origin, assembled from maps, 
globes, charts, novels, poems, diaries, conversations with infor- 
mants, and obviously the material in previous compilations. These 
latter sources are listed in the appended bibliography. It is 
organized to give the simplest basic information, rather than 
extended linguistic analyses; to have done the latter would have 
required another several years preparation, and it was felt better 
to proceed with the material presently in hand, and assure the 
publication of those data, which represent the concentrated 
efforts of the past decade. 

The form used throughout this listing presents the Indian place 
names in boldface type, using the most-commonly-seen spelling; 
this is followed by any secondary term, in lightface (such as Lake, 
River, Pond, etc.) ; then the location is given by county and state 
for all place names included. When followed by?, this indicates 
that the place name has been found in early documents, but that 
its actual location is not known for certain today. The dialect or 
language is indicated in italics; if doubtful, that doubt is shown 
by?. Suggested translation of the name, and any comments are 
then given, followed by variant spellings or cross-references, the 
latter in boldface. Thus all actual place names are in boldface, 
linguistic terms are in italics, and the balance is in lightface type 
throughout the listing. 

xii 



Selection of the names to be included has been primarily based 
on the occurrence of names on historic or quadrangle maps, their 
appearance in a historical document, or in any generally-accepted 
work of literature. In several instances, informants have supplied 
almost-forgotten * 'undocumented" items. Those which are Indian 
translations of names invented by whites (e. g., Majihondopemab- 
Hmk, "Devil's Foot Prints," a Penobscot translation of such a 
white-invented term), or pseudo-Indian names (such as "Smile 
of the Great Spirit," "Indian Lovers' Leap," etc.), have not been 
included. Some terms which refer simply to Amerindian folklore, 
but which are not truly place names have been omitted, such as 
Moshop, Nodumkanwet, and Squant — references to mythological 
creatures, sometimes confused with locatives. 

Many Indian names are preserved in four, five, or, as in the 
case of Winnepesaukee (see pages 6-7), as many as one hundred 
forms. In this work, only the major variants are included; ex- 
treme cases of linguistic diversity are not used, simply due to 
lack of space. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Any compilation of place names depends upon the work of 
many people; this volume has drawn from the contributions of 
others in even greater degree. Indian informants have been most 
helpful, particularly the following Abnaki friends: 

Stephen Laurent, Intervale, New Hampshire 

Robert-Elie Obumsawin, Odanak {deceased) 

Urbain Obumwasin, Odanak 

William Simon Obumwasin, Odanak (deceased) 

Theofil Panadis, Odanak 

John Wadso, Odanak (deceased) 

Alice Mast a Wawanolett, Odanak 

Oliver Wawanolett, Odanak (deceased) 

The contributions of Mr. Charles Cooke have been mentioned, as 
have the appreciated comments of Dr. Floyd Lounsbury, Yale 
University. 

Rev. Thomas M. Charland, O. P., Montreal, and Mr. Herbert 
E. Putnam, of the University of Vermont, have aided in matters 
relating to Canadian Affairs. The cartographic knowledge of Mr. 
Theodore E. Layng, of the Canadian National Archives, Ottawa, 
has proven of great assistance in locating map details. 

xiii 



Translations of certain European languages have been patiently 
provided by Messrs. Paul D. Evans, Malcolm D. Daggett, Brady 
B. Gilleland, John H. Kent, and James E. Pooley, all of the Uni- 
versity of Vermont; and Mrs. Grace B. Huden, of Burlington, 
Vermont. 

The use of documentary material, together with helpful refer- 
ences to many others, has been facilitated by Mr. Harrison A. 
Brann, Bailey Library, University of Vermont; Miss Virginia 
A. Knox, Connecticut State Library, Hartford; and Mr. L. Felix 
Ranlett, Librarian, Bangor, Maine. 

Much of the assistance rendered in Massachusetts area place 
names was unselfishly furnished by Mr. Lawrence K. Gahan, who 
placed his notes and other material at our disposal. In the early 
stages of this manuscript, Mr. E. K. Burnett, then Director of the 
Museum of the American Indian, offered considerable encourage- 
ment and wise counsel. 

There are many others, too numerous to mention, who have 
been helpful in this task ; but none contributed more in the direct 
and back-breaking labors of t5rping, editing and proofreading 
than Mrs. Nancy S. AbeU, and Mrs. Grace B. Huden, both of 
Burlington. Without these two aides, this volume would truly 
have never come into being. To all of the foregoing, and to the 
patience and direction of Dr. Frederick J. Dockstader, I am 
sincerely grateful. 

John C. Huden 
University of Vermont 
Burlington 

January, 1962 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION 

In Dunlap and Weslager (1950, p. viii), the late Frank G. Speck 
commented, "Interpreting some of these Indian place names re- 
corded by early white scribes who knew nothing about Indian tongues 
is like trying to juggle sand." [Italics mine — JCH]. This volume 
will amply demonstrate the truth of that observation. While many 
of the place names herein listed can be readily translated into 
English, some completely defy analysis, and a few cause the would- 
be interpreter to doubt whether they be truly of Indian origin. 

Relatively few aboriginal names have persisted in the northeast. 
For instance, only two of the six New England states — Connecticut 
and Massachusetts — have Indian names, as compared with at 
least twenty-four of the fifty United States at large. This general 
percentage carries on through all of the toponymy of the region. 
Most of the names used today are English in origin, although 
French has left its mark, as have a few other European tongues. 

In some instances, original Amerindian names have been re- 
placed by English names suggested by the original, viz. : Mosketu- 
auke, Rhode Island, eventually became Mosquito Hawk, an ob- 
vious rendering of the fancied sound. Others, such as Naumkeag, 
now Salem, and Sicaog, now Hartford, were completely lost and 
replaced by English names with no references to the original. 

Indian names are almost invariably common appellatives. New 
England Algonquian place names could be, and have been, plain 
words which appear throughout the region; in fact, Algonquian 
dialects were (and a few still are) used all along the Atlantic sea- 
board from Nova Scotia to Virginia. These dialects are some- 
times very similar to each other, much as the English use of 
honour as compared with the American honor — or they may differ 
completely, as English petrol and American gasoline. The differ- 
ences are usually noun localisms ; grammar and general construc- 
tions normally parallel closely, and in all cases, the wider differ- 
ences indicate long periods long of separation of the two dialects, 
either in time or in space. 

New England Indians did not develop a naming system of the 
type more familiar today. Rarely did they use terms referring to 



far-away places. Common terms were employed for places in their 
own neighborhood, as we do for sections within our own fre- 
quently-visited areas — farms, cities, towns, or counties. They 
renamed places and persons almost at will. Lacking writing, they 
were unable to consolidate these terms, thus no gazetteer devel- 
oped to firmly establish a given form. 

Historically speaking, many Indian place names did not linger 
very long. Since 1600 the Connecticut River has been known 
variously as Counnitegou, ("Long River"), Manigana tica uoit 
("Mahican's River"), Sicojocke ("Mud People"?), and Sokoquois 
("South People's River"), etc. ; the Mahican, Sicojocke and Sokoki 
are gone, their names all but forgotten — but Connecticut, the 
Long River, is still there. Similarly, Lake Champlain has been 
Petow-pargow or Peton-bowk (the "double pond," or "pond 
between") to the Algonquian peoples, and Caniadieri Garont 
("lake with a bulge") to Iroquoian-speaking Indians. Massa- 
chuset, "place of the big hills," (the Blue Hills near Boston), 
and the name of the major tribe in that region, now officially 
indicates the whole state area. 

The usual references to color, vegetation, flora and fauna, natur- 
al phenomena and the like, are to be found throughout the topo- 
nymy of New England, and in this category, little difference is to 
be discerned from place name practices in other parts of the United 
States — ^with perhaps only a slightly greater degree of emphasis 
upon water-usages (pond, lake, river, etc.). 

Designations of tribes, mythological characters, and long-dis- 
carded processes or implements are to be found. Hundreds of 
personal names of important personages are recorded; most are 
at best only approximated in translation, for meanings of a ma- 
jority of these are lost, while many have been suppressed by early 
writers as being pagan, ridiculous, or obscene. These proper nouns 
give great difficulty, for often they are further distorted by at- 
tempts to Anglicize not only the form of the name, but often its 
meaning — a process almost guaranteed to entirely obliterate any 
resemblance to the original! Furthermore, many Indians were 
known by more than one name, which only increases the confusion ; 
Massasoit, "the great commander," was also known as Osamequin, 
"yellow feather." Such dual usages were quite common. 

But perhaps the simplest cause for error arose from the basic 
inability of either side to communicate. When the colonial White 
£Lsked the Indian the name of a given place, the latter often replied 



by giving his own personal name, thinking this was what was 
requested. And out of just such simple misunderstandings have 
come many of the place names of the nation. 

PRONUNCIATION 

Completely aside from the matter of translating Indian place 
names is the question of their actual sound as spoken by natives. 
It has already been remarked that a majority of the colonists 
were barely fluent in English, and thus could hardly be expected 
to handle such alien tongues as Abnaki, Narragansett or Pequot 
with ease. Moreover, the unfamiliar sounds could give completely 
different meanings if even slightly mispronounced. Therefore, the 
first emigrants into the New England region found themselves in 
linguistic trouble almost immediately upon landing. 

The lack of written gazetteers, together with the very few 
dictionaries or other written records, makes the problem extremely 
difficult. So it is that the matter of indicating correct pronuncia- 
tion amounts to a practical impossibility today. Such linguistic 
studies as have been compiled to date show all too clearly how 
difficult is this matter of accurate sound. Laurent (1884), for 
example, gives three pages of extremely detailed directions for 
pronouncing Abnaki. Even such standard references as The 
Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World, and The Encyclopedia 
Americana give varying renderings of similar terms, apparently 
based primarily upon local usage. 

Many of the more commonly-used Indian terms have come to 
enjoy what may be called a "standard" pronunciation, and this is 
usually found in the larger dictionaries. Yet it must be emphasized 
that at this late date there cannot be anything like a "correct** 
pronunciation of most of these terms. For this reason, this work 
avoids almost entirely the matter of syllabication and pronunci- 
ation. Just as in English the sound har in various contexts wil- 
indicate "to bear," meaning to carry or support; "bare," indicatl 
ing clear, treeless, or nude; or "bear," referring to an animal, just 
so are there homonyms in Indian tongues which require context 
for reasonable interpretations. 

Saugatuck has been uttered as Saw'gatuck, Sawgat'uck, Sawga- 
tuck* and Soggertick — all referring to the same place. In the Natick 
Dictionary (Trumbull, 1901, p. ix), Edward Everett Hale wrote, 
"with good sense, Eliot used the English [alphabet] letters with 
the sounds which Englishmen gave them," and, "In Sherman^s 



translations, Latin vowel sounds were used, so Eliot's wadchu 
(mountain) appeared as uijuii.'* 

As a youth, this compiler knew some of^the last Mont auk and 
Mohegan speakers. Wyandank Pharaoh, a Montauk, used to say 
Zzungee\ (it's cold!), but Mrs. Nonesuch, a Mohegan, would ex- 
claim, Ssonkeel None of these old people could construct whole 
sentences, but they had quite a store of nouns, such as torup 
("snapping turtle"), pootap ("whale"), nitop ("friend"), etc. They 
could, and did, use parts of the Lord's Prayer (Speck, 1928, p. 251), 
and a simple grace before meals; apparently these passages came 
to them word-of-mouth from great-grandparents who "fit in the 
Revolution." 

We have tried to determine contexts, and the translations in 
this work reflect contexts wherever found. An attempt has been 
made to furnish generally-accepted spellings, relying primarily 
upon that form most commonly used in the region involved. 
Variants are essentially those which seem to represent secondary 
usage. 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to establish any "guide to pro- 
nunciation" which would be consistently helpful for the terms in 
this volume. Not only have the forms undergone the extreme 
changes mentioned previously in this section, but there were as 
many exceptions to the rules of pronunciation in Algonquian as 
exist in English. One can generalize, for instance, that in Maine, 
place names have no silent letters ; that those letters usually have 
but one sound, which must be learned by imitation ; and that the 
stress varies in a given word, but normally the strongest accents 
fall towards the ends of words. Yet an examination of some 
Maine place names immediately reveals some of the hazards in 
trying to establish rules : 

1. Monosyllables are few, but are usually pronounced as spelled. 
Example: Quack. 

2. Names with two syllables usually stress the first: 

Apskek Ap'skeck 

Cobscook Cob'skook 

Essick Ess'ick 

Saco Say'ko [but also Saw'ko, and Sack'o) 

Winskeag Wins'keeg 

3. Polysyllabic names usually stress the second or third syllable, 
but this rule is not rigid: 



Metinic Me-tin'ick 

Pemetic Pem-e'tick 

Pemskudek Pem-skood'eck 

Agawam- Ag'a-wam {but also Aga-wam') 

Aquadoctan Ak-wa-dock'tan 

Matinicus Ma-tin' e-kuss 

Madahumuck Ma-da-humm'uck 

Pemjeedgewock Pem-jeej'e-wock 

Pemtegwatook Pem-teg-wa'took 

4. Names formed of many combined syllables break into several 
forms, and must be learned by practice : 

Aguahassideck A-gwa-hass'ee-deck 

Alnambi kwaysah wayk Al-nam'bi-kway-sa'wake 
Talagodissek Ta-la-go-dee'seck 

The Southern New England language groupings follow some- 
what similar rules, even to the matter of inconsistency, viz : 

1. Words of one syllable are rare, and usually may be readily 
pronounced as spelled, e. g., Paug. 

2. Words of two or three syllables usually stress the first syllable : 

Acqueet Ak'weet 

Gatumb Cat'umb 

Mystic Mis' tick 

Seipican See'pi-kan 

Sippican Sip pi-kan 

Wekopee Week'o-pee 

3. Polysyllabic words tend to stress the latter ends of words, 
although this is not rigid : 

Connecticut Co-nek' ti-kut 

Wesquadomeset Wes-kwa-dom'e-set 

Poohookapaug Poo-hook' a-pog 

Mishimayagat Mish'ee-may'a-gat 

Nunkatusset Nunk-a-tuss'et 

Massanagtakwonah Mass'a-nag-tak'wo-nah 

In conclusion, this quotation from Speck may be of some 
pertinence. Speaking of Mohegan-Pequot, he wrote, ". . .no doubt 
the phonetic qualities of the dialect have been somewhat corrupted 

by a long period of contact with the English this dialect is 

phonetically uniform with other southern New England divisions 
except for the y distinction in the transposition of r, 1, n, y. ..." 
(Speck, 1928, p. 226). 

To sum up : In the absence of standard reference works, about 
the only way to achieve a competent pronunciation for an Indian 



place name in most of New England is to divide it into syllables 
representing Indian root-meanings and put the stress in the 
middle or toward the end of the word. 



SPELLING 

Reference has been made to the problems involved in the 
"proper" transcription of Indian terms. Fanny Hardy Eckstorm 
makes a cogent point concerning this matter in her comments on 
the lack of a fixed spelling. She points out the confusions between 
similar words, and asks, 

How did Captain John Smith pronounce his EUzabethan English ren- 
dition of Indian words ? And if, in going further, we today try to ex- 
plain Smith's EUzabethan-English-Indian forms, or we use the Gallicized 
Abnaki of Father Rasles, we only compound the difficulty. Our best 
authority of Modem Abnaki, Father O'Brien, veered inconsistently be- 
tween Enghsh and French notation; unfortunately, he did not live to 
revise his work. Who shall say today how his words should be transcribed ? 
Yet upon the sound he meant may depend the grammatical root of the term 
in question." (Eckstorm, 1941, pp. xx, xxi. Italics mine-JCH.) 

As a simple demonstration of the other side of this coin, the 
following list is presented, which includes fifty variant spellings, 
all of the same place name, as found on various official documents. 
And it should be noted that this is a selected list — there are over 
fifty more variant spellings for this same body of water ! Even so, 
who is to say which of these many forms is "correct," and which is 
"wrong" ? At this late date, there can be no rule other than the 
arbitrary decision of most-common-usage, or the dictum of a 
quasi-official Geographic Board. And both of these authorities 
can as readily decide in favor of an accepted spelling which might 
be totally unintelligible to the original propounders of a given 
place name, were they to return to the scene today. 



Wenapasicke 

Wenapesioche 

Wenepesioca 

Wenepesiocho 

Wenepesiokee 

Winassosawque 

Winepisackey 

Winepiscocheag 

Winepiseoka 

Winepisokey 

Winipasekek 

Winipisaro 



Winipisiocke 

Winipisioke 

Winipisioky 

Winipisokee 

Winisipisiokie 

Winnapissaacka 

Winnapissiaukee 

Winnapresseakit 

Winnapusseakit 

Winnapussykat 

Winnepesaukee 

Winnepeseochee 



Winnepisoogee 

Winnepissk 

Winnepissocay 

Winnepossockey 

Winnipesse 

Winnipiseoca 

Winnipiseoce 

Winnipiseokee 

Winnipisocy 

Winnipissacca 

Winnipissiaikee 

Winnipissioca 



Winipiseocee Winnepesocket Winnipissiocky 

Winipishoky Winnepiseoge Winnipissoake 

Winipisiackit Winnepiseokee Winniposockett 

Winipisiakit - Winnepisioco Winnopisseag 

Winipisinket Winnepisiokee Winnopusseag 

To settle this vexing matter, the State of New Hampshire de- 
creed that the "official" spelling shall be Winnepesaukee. Who can 
argue at this late date which is the most correct form ? * 



* Yet, even as this volume goes to press, a new "official state map" has 
just been published by New Hampshire, on which Lake Winnipesaukee 
appears (!). 



TRANSLATING ALGONQUIAN PLACE NAMES 

Here are some very general rules by which the reader may 
develop an understanding of the technique followed by the com- 
piler in arriving at a meaning of many of the place names in this 
volume. While this is by no means a "do-it-yourself kit" for such 
translating, it is hoped that these suggestions may enable a 
student to achieve his own analysis of many Algonquian terms. 

1. Seek the original or earliest available spelling of the name. 
This is important, for unless you can establish a fairly early 
form, your translation may go seriously awry. 

a. What dialect does it presumably represent ? 

b. If the name contains a v, f, or the ph diphthong, it is 
probably miscopied; these sounds are absent, but can 
be easily mistaken in hearing Algonquian speakers. 

Thus: Maffachusetts is patently Massachusetts spelled with the 
old-fashioned J, usually printed in more recent times as f. An- 
other: Foxon, from Poxon. 

c. Remembering that b sometimes changes to p, that d may 
change to t, and that 1, n, r, and y are interchangeable 
from one dialect to another, cast the place name into 
several forms . 

Thus: Bash Bish from pashpishau, and Bantam from Peantam. 
Also, cognates, such as nitap and nidoha, are from Natick and 
Abnaki, respectively; both mean "friend." 

d. Bear in mind the historical shift of r to 1 in Abnaki. 
Words spelled with r in Old Abnaki are now customarily 
found with an 1 in Modern Abnaki. 

2. Using Algonquian groupings, break the name into syllables. 
In this, you must seek the basic root, or root-word— a funda- 
mental sound or group of sounds which convey an idea 
(usually some kind of action). 

De Forest (1851, p. 41) explains the problem as follows: 
"[Indian language has] the power of uniting various syllables 
of different words, into one new word, which should express 
all of the original terms from which it was compounded. Thus 

8 



a Delaware (kindred dialect of the Mahican) girl in playing 
with a dog might give utterance to her pleasure by exclaiming 
Kiiligatschis, that is, "thy pretty little paw." This word 
would be compounded from K' , *'thy," wulit, "pretty," 
witchgat, "paw," and the diminutive, schis', so that four 
equally distinct and perfect words would be melted into an- 
other equally perfect, which would contain only part of their 
sounds, but the whole of their meanings." Thus, the farts of 
those sounds remaining were the roots. 

The root word sesek or sisikw (the root is actually s-s-k) conveys 
the idea of "rattling," as seeds rattling in a dry gourd; a ceremonial 
turtle-shell rattle; dry beans or pea pods; or a rattlesnake. Another, 
-be- or -pe-, is found in many words pertaining to "water," as nehe, or 
Winnipesaukee. The root -tp- is found in antep, or ontop, meaning 
"head." Also, -tn- and -dn- are roots for the inseparable -adn-, "moun- 
tain," as found in Monadnock. 

Sometimes only the root appears in compound words, as Algon- 
quian languages are highly agglutinated — ^that is, built up from other 
words, all telescoped into one. In Hampden, Maine, there used to be 
a high glacial sand bank (long since carried away for gravel), called 
Tolbuntbessek, "turtle head," because of its shape. The word has this 
analysis: tolheh, "turtle," antep, "head," plus the locative -essek. 
Hence, "turtle head place," or in more grammatical English, "at the 
place of the (sand bar resembling a) turtle head." 

3. See if the syllables are root words similar to those in other 
analyzed names. A listing of such roots is helpful (for ex- 
amples, pages 301-368 of this volume). 

To analyze Moskwastooxees : look up a similar term, Moskwaswa- 
gamok, the meaning of which is given herein as "muskrat lake." Thus 
the first part of your word, Moskwas, probably means "muskrat." 
Your root list gives tuck, or took, as "river, driven by waves"; you 
also have took-sees, as "brook, or rivulet; diminutive." The name 
Moskwastooxees, then, probably means, "muskrat's little river," 
or, more grammatically, "muskrat creek." 

4. Then, check this against context: could the meaning indeed 
refer to the place name ? Does it make sense ? If your term is 
attached, say, to a mountain peak, but seems to translate as 
a waterway (highly unlikely, but it does happen), then there 
has either been a loss of a syllable, or else the spelling has 
undergone a major change in the past. There is always the 
chance that the name was affixed to the locale by a 
white settler, in error. However, do not require too tight an 
application of this rule — ^let it suffice that the name makes 



reasonable sense as an appellative. At this distance from the 
original source, you are working in a vast sea of uncertainty; 
it is easy to find yourself swamped ! 

In order to test the formula suggested above, here are a few 
examples of Algonquian terms, with their analyses : 

Lake Shoonkeek Moonkeek, in Berkshire County, Mass. This 
was traditionally Mahican territory, but since there are no 
satisfactory Mahican vocabularies, the related Delaware (Brin- 
ton, 1888) was used. Confirmation was found in Tooker (1911), 
which includes many Delaware terms. 

1 . The oldest available spelling is Shonkamonk. 

2. Dividing this into syllables, we get shonk a monk. 

3. This is somewhat similar to Ouschankamaug, a Delaware term 
derived from ousacheu, "slippery," and -amaug, "fishing place." 
Also found is schachamek, "slippery things caught with a hook, 
i. e., "eel." 

From this, we decide that Shonkamonk (and therefore Shoon- 
keek Moonkeek) means "eel fishing place." 

4. This makes complete sense, since this lake (now called Pontoosnc) 
has indeed many eels. The -eek endings of this term are apparently 
humorous Anglicized additions. 

Housatonic River, in Connecticut and Massachusetts: 

1. The older available form is Ousatonuc. 

2. Divided into syllables: ous-a-tan-uc. 

3. Apparently ous derives from Delaware awossi, "beyond, the other 
side, over;" -atan- is the inseparable form of "mountain;" -uc is a 
locative ending, "place of." 

4. Hence, Housatonic means, "place beyond the mountain(s)." This 
makes complete sense, since Mohegan people said that they, as 
well as the river, came from "a place beyond the mountain." A 
variant form, House of Tunnick, is a poorly modified Anglicization 
of the original. (See also Aswahdenick, apparently an Abnaki 
cognate of Housatonic). 

But a word of caution should be introduced here : it is usually 
unsatisfactory to try to unravel, say, Abnaki, by means of Natick 
root- words. Although there are many similarities shared by the 
two, (and other cognate tongues), generally speaking such an 
attempt is as risky as trying to use an Italian dictionary on 
French words. Your average will be about the same — you may get 
the general sense of the meaning, but almost never will you 

10 



achieve any precise translation, and you may get a completely 
wrong interpretation. 

To make the problem more difficult, the same form may give 
considerable confusion unless the root words as originally used by 
the Indian people can be located. For example : 

A. Winnisquam Camp, Chittenden County, Vermont. Abnaki, "at the 
top of the tree." 

B. Winnisquam Lake, Belknap County, New Hampshire. Abnaki, 
"sahnon fishing around here." 

Note that these are the same word, same tongue, but have totally 
different meanings. The first entry derives from the original wanaskiwi, 
meaning, "end, end-place, top place, or summit." The suffix -quam, or 
kwam, is peculiarly Abnaki for "tree" in composite words. Hence, 
wanaskiwi-quam telescope into Winnisquam, meaning "top of the tree." 
As a final test. Camp Winnisquam is adjacent to a huge apple orchard. 

In the second form. Lake Winnisquam also has been passed along as 
an Abnaki or Pennacook term. In this, originally winne- means "here- 
abouts, or the neighborhood around here," while mskuamagw refers to 
"red fish," or salmon. Thus, a reasonable translation of winne-mskua- 
magw would be, "around here, there are salmon." 

In like manner, other terms are confusing until the histories as 
well as the etymologies are considered. Squam, in Essex County, 
Mass., is often confused with Squam Head, on Nantucket. Squam 
was originally Wanashquompskqut, from wanasq, "top, summit,*' 
plus -ompsk, "rocks," plus -ut, "thither.'' Taken together, these 
yield, "at the summit of the rock," and so it is, geographically. In 
course of time, this has been eroded to Squam, or Squom. But the 
Nantucket term derives from mi shquam manock, "red fish," or 
salmon. It, too, has lost syllables over the centuries, leaving only 
the middle form to contemporary usage. 

And, in closing, another example of lost-syllable confusion is 
Tomheganompskut, which is due course has become Higganum. 
Without knowledge of the historical changes which some of these 
terms have undergone, any accurate translation of a term like 
Higganum would obviously be impossible. 



II 



A WORD ABOUT MAPS 

In preparing this work some 500 maps were consulted, chiefly 
topographic quadrangles of New England dating from the early 
1900's. These were painstakingly examined; every Indian-appear- 
ing name was noted, then checked against standard vocabularies. 
Following this, maps of New France, Nova Scotia, New England 
and adjacent territories were checked with equal care. The more 
important such sources are listed below. 

In northern New England, early French and English map 
makers wrote Mohawk, Huron, Abnaki, Pennacook, Malecite and 
Micmac names as they heard them; since there was no written 
aboriginal language, spellings could not be checked. Likewise, 
pioneer Dutch, English and German scribes entered names as 
their European ears registered the two-score dialects used in Mass- 
achusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. It is not surprising, 
therefore, to note that Winnepesaukee is found in at least one 
hundred spellings ; that Memphremagog (erstwhile Mehemsabegek, 
long J, or s miscopied) is now speUed with a ph where none such 
appears on early maps; or that Montaup became Mount Hope. 

Changes within languages can be traced through map entries, 
as Wambighe to Umbagog; Ouramon into Olamon; etc., as Old 
Abnaki gradually became Modern Abnaki. Maps also contribute 
to errors; the continuous process of copying and re-copying of 
various editions of maps which were published throughout the 
early days left a synonymy which will probably never be entirely 
unravelled. 

Some old maps yielded many names, as Father Joseph Aubery's 
fine 1715 chart of New France and New England. Others provided 
fewer names, and some none at all. The same observation applies 
to most charts up to about 1750, by which time many Indian 
names had been replaced by English. For example, Naumkeag, 
Massachusetts, had been renamed Salem; and Sicaog, Connecticut, 
had become Hartford. Very few "new" Indian names were added 
to New England places after 1750 ; most of these were imports or 
transplants due to the influence of Longfellow's Hiawatha or the 
return of soldiers to New England after the Civil War. 

12 



Occasionally old Indian names were preserved on relatively 
recent documents, as on the Dorchester map of Lower Canada 
(1794). On this map alone appears Misquiquaungameck, the Ab- 
naki name for the Clyde River. 

The following is a summary of only the more important maps 
which contributed in a large measure to this study. In addition to 
these major topographical charts, extensive use was made of a 
tremendous variety of maps in books, pamphlets and other scat- 
tered publications. 

1542? Author Unknown. Harleian Mappemonde (Plate VIII). Colored 

manuscript "Map of the New World." Unsigned, undated; from 

the original in the British Museum. 
1544 Jean Alfonse, Cosmogvaphie (Plate VI). A manuscript map in the 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
1550 Pierre Desceliers, Manuscript Map of the World. (Plate XIV), 

Original in the British Museum. 
1566 Bolognino Zaltieri, II Desegno del Discoperto delta Nova Franza. 

Venice. 
1569 Gerard Mercator, Nova et Auota Orbis Terrae, etc. 
1597 Cornelius Wytfliet, Nova Francia et Canada. 
1610 Author Unknown. "Simancas" or Velasco Map, sent by Luis 

de Velasco (junior) to Philip III of Spain in 1611. Made for James I 

of England. 
1613 Samuel de Champlain, Map of Canada and New France. Also 1616. 
1624 Captain John Smith, New England; maps to illustrate his Generall 

Historic of Virginia. 
1627 ? Author Unknown, Nova Belgii, Niew Niederlandt, Nova Anglica, 

Almoushicoisen, etc. A Dutch map similar to Visscher, 1720, infra. 
1650 ? Unknown French Artist, Chemin des Iroquois. 
1653 Samuel de Champlain, Le Canada. A posthumously published 

map, similar to his 161 3 work, supra. 
1656 Nicolas Sanson, Canada or New France. 
1680? Robert Morden, New England and New York. 
1688 Karapinski, New France and New England. 
1 715 Rev. Joseph Aubery, Carte pour les hauteurs de terre, etc. 
1720 CoRELis Visscher, New Map of North America. 
1750? The Crown Collection of Photographs of American Maps. Published 

by the British Museum in 1895. 
1755 ? Thomas Pownall, Grand Pass from New York to Montreal. 

1762 William Brassier, Survey of Lake Champlain, etc. A survey made 
for Sir Jefiry Amherst. 

1763 Captain Carver, et al., A New Map of the Province of Canada, (etc). 
1790 ? William Hall, Part of the Province of Quebec, etc. 

1794 The "Dorchester Map," Plan of Part of the Province of Lower 

Canada, etc. Made on order of Lord Dorchester. 
1800- Many local and regional maps made in the Nineteenth Century 
1900 were examined, but few yielded much additional information. 

13 



I900- U. S. Geological Survey, Quadrangles. Several editions, covering 

i960 practically all of New England; especially the surveys since 1914. 

1903 Sidney S. Rider, Map of the Colony of Rhode Island; Giving the 
Indian Names of Locations, etc. 

1905 Frank E. Hull and Fred T. Dow, Map of Moosehead Lake, etc. 
Made for the Kennebec Water Power Co. 

1911 Charles Edward Banks, Martha's Vineyard as known to the In- 
dians; Showing its Algonkian Names. 

1930 Mathias Spiess, Map of Connecticut circa 1625; Indian Trails 
Villages, Sachemdoms. 

1955- Many road maps, as furnished by oil companies, gasoline stations, 

1 96 1 chambers of commerce, etc. 

1959 Vermont Development Commission, Vermont Touring Map and 
Brochure. 

1961 Connecticut State Highway Department, Connecticut Map 
Showing Historic Sites, State Parks, etc. 

1 961 Maine State Highway Commission, Official Highway Map 6. 

1 961 Rhode Island Department of State, Highway Map Showing 
Historic Sites, etc. 

1962 New Hampshire State Planning and Development Council, 
New Hampshire Tourist Map. 



14 



INDIAN PLACE NAMES OF NEW ENGLAND 

-A- 

Abacotnetic Bog, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, ''stream opening 

out from between mountains." 
Abagadusset Stream and Point, Sagadahoc County, Me. Micmac, 

"little parallel river." 
Abagamok West Lake, Hancock County, Me. Micmac, "lake 

parallel to" Nicatous Lake. 
Abahguit the sound between Lubec, Washington County, Me., 

and Campobello Island, New Brunswick. At one time the 

island was the summer home of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Malecite, "something parallel to the main land." 
Abahos Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Micmac, "runs parallel 

to" [another river]. 
Abalajackomegus Stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"bare, no trees." 
Abaquage Pond, Windham County, Conn. Nipmiick, "place 

where rushes grow." 
Abaquakea Essex County, Mass. Natick, "land of flags or rushes." 
Abbouset River, Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "place of going 

up stream" ( ?) 
Abenaki Lake and Mountain, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "dawn 

land" or "easterners." Other spellings include Wahanakee, 

Waubanakie, Wapanakkee, Ahnaki, etc. 
Aberjona River, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "junction or 

confluence." 
Abessah Bar Harbor, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "clam 

bake place." 
Abnaki Indians, one of the major northeastern Algonquian tribes. 

Their name, more properly Wabanaki, means "dawn people," 

or "easterners." They lived in western Maine, Carroll County, 

N. H., and north into New Brunswick. Today their des- 

15 



cendants mostly live at Odanak (St. Francis), Quebec. Also 
spelled Abenaki, Abenaqui, Wmibanakee, etc. 

Abocadneticook now Baker River, Grafton County, N. H. Abnaki, 
"the place of the stream opening out of the mountains." 
Some translate this "stream narrowed by mountains;" 
the interpretation seems to depend on which way one is 
looking. 

Abocadneticook the West Branch of Penobscot River, Piscataquis 
County, Me. Abnaki, see above. 

Abocadneticook Pond, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, see above. 

Abojedgewak a stream connecting North and South Twin Lakes, 
Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "two currents flow, one on 
each side" [of an island]. 

Abol Deadwater Pond and Trail, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"bare, devoid of trees." 

Aboljackarmegas Stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"[banks of] swift stream, smooth, bare of trees." 

Abonegog the Black River, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "open- 
ing wide" as it gets nearer the ocean. 

Abonesig River, Lincoln County, Me. Modern Abnaki, "small 
resting place"(?) or "small baking place. "(?) Translation 
depends upon whether the original was derived from abon, 
"oven," or "bread," or from abi, "sit down; rest." 

Abraquidasset Point, Washington County, Me. See Abagadusset. 

Abrigada Hill, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "hiding- 
place or shelter." Variant spelling, Abrigador. 

Absalona Hill, Providence County, R. L Probably not Indian, 
but perhaps named for an Indian named Absalom. (?) 

Absalonomiscut Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 
of the fish trap" or "where fish are caught in a weir." 

Acadia Village, Aroostook County, Me. Micmac, "the earth," 
"the place," or "the land." 

Acapasket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 
cove," or "at the separated branch. "(?) 

Accomack Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "on the other 
side." 

Accomonticus Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "beyond the little 
river." See Agamenticus. 

i6 



Acemy Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''dry land," [i. e., 

''ashore"]. 
Achagomiconset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "where 

there are green meadows," as for pasture. Also Ashagomi- 

conset. 
Achagomiconset Meadow, New London County, Conn. Eastern 

Niantic, "place of green pastures or green meadows." 

Achetaqupag see Maruscopag. 
Achetonsick see Assapumsic. 

Acoaxet Bristol County, Mass. Narrangansett, "at the fishing 
promontory," or "at the place of pines"(?); or "place of 
small fields."(?) 

Acocisco see Auco Cisco. 

Acokesit River. See Acoaxet. 

Acomekes or Acomeques New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"land across," or "place on other side." See Accomack. 

Acomes Falls, Androscoggin County, Me. Ahnaki, "high." 

Acontaug Brook. See Aguntaug and Aquntaug. 

Acoomemeck Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place 
across" (?). An ancient village site. 

Acoont River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
across" or "place on the other side." 

Acquasimink Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "abode of the 
woodchuck." 

Acquebapaug Pond, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
"before the pond" or "alongside the pond." Also Acqui- 
bapaug. 

Acquebatuck Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the 
end of the river." 

Acquedneseth Tract, R. L See Acquidnesit. 

Acqueedenuck or Acquidaneck Windham County, Conn. Mohe- 
gan? Nipmuck? "place beyond the hill." 

Acqueednuck River, a branch of the Pawtuxet. Washington 
County, R. I. Nipmuck? Mohegan? "place beyond the hill." 

Acqueet River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "boundary 
or ending place." 

a 17 



Acquehadongonock Point, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "place 
where canoes are slid out of, or into, water." Probably a 
canoe-harbor at a fishing place. 

Acquessuc Franklin County, Me. Ahnaki, "place of the slender 
trout," the oquassa, [Salvelinus oquassa). 

Acquettink see Aquidneck. 

Acquidnesit Tract, Washington County, R. I. Narrangansett, 

"place beyond the hill." 
Acquiunk Falls and Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"under a tree." 
Acqunkoke or Acquunkquoke Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"elevated place," or ''high land," gunnunkque ohke. 
Acrupsak the Hobart Stream, Washington County, Me. Micmac, 

"rough, rocky bottom." 
Acunepequash Brook, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "high 

level ground." 
Acushena Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag? NausetP "at the 

cove," or "swimming place" ? or "wet place"? or "fish weir"? 
Ai;ushnet City and River, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 

"at the cove," or "wet place." 
Adden Mountain, Essex County, Vt. If Indian, possibly from 

Ahnaki, "a mountain." See Misadene. [But the -adn- root 

is normally not found isolated; perhaps this is an English 

name]. 
Adogenadesk Wolve's Rocks, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"place lashed by storms." 
Adonniate Thompson's Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, 

"it is a point." 
Adowaukeag Hancock Point, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, 

"near the knoll where the current runs out." 
Adowaukeskeag Falls Point, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, 

"at the ridge where the strong tide goes out." 
Agamenticus Lake, Mountain, and River, York County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "a little river which lies behind an island at its 

mouth," or perhaps "other side of the little river." Variant, 

Aggamantukoos. See Sasanow. 

Agamuntaeg Pond, Franklin County, Me. Ahnaki, "place on the 
other side of the river." See Agamenticus. 

i8 



Agawam Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "low land/' or, "land 

overflowed by water;" also, "place to unload canoes." 
Agawam Hampden County, Mass. (two such places); also in 

Plymouth County, Mass. Nipmuck, "low land," or "over- 
flowed by water;" also "place to unload canoes." 
Agenyateonnia Colchester Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, 

"point at the end." 
Aggamoggin Strait, Maine. See Eggemoggin. 
Aghenibekki River. See Kennebec. 
Agicomook Stony Creek, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 

"sheltered haven." Found also as Aigiocomock, Ajicomick, 

etc. 
Agiochook is Mount Washington, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"at the place of the concealed one." Variant, Agiocochook. 
Agiscohos see Aziscoos. 
Agoncy a mythical { ?) Indian place near the mouth of Penobscot 

River, Waldo County, Me. Huron, "an island." Anciently 

Aguncia, q. v. 
Aguadocta just west of Saco, York County, Me., on 1690 map. 

Abnaki, "at the end of the portage, where we take canoes 

out of the water." 
Aguahadongonock several localities along the Maine Coast in 

York and Cumberland Counties. Abnaki, "the place where I 

draw (canoe) out of the water," as at the end of a portage. 
Aguahassideck Fort Point, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "landing 

place for canoes." This term was also applied to places where 

otters slid into the water; "otter-slides." 
Aguahega Damariscove Island, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "a 

landing place" for canoes. 
Aguncia Waldo County, Me. Probably Huron, "an island." See 

Agoncy. 

Aguntaug Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "under 

a tree," or "big tree place." 
Aguspemokick Island, Gould's Island, Newport County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "short narrow straits." See Aquopimokuk. 

Agutteback Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "kettle pond." 
This was originally aucuck paug or ohkeek pog; it is near a 
soapstone (steatite) deposit where Indians made kettles, 

2* 19 



dishes, ladles, etc. Another source translates this as "herb 

pond," from ohkeit paug. 
Ahampatimshauge Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

''beyond the round pond (where rushes grow?)" or "place 

of small pointed stakes," (some sort of garden fence?) 
Ahapaconsett Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "flags or 

rushes" to make mats for covering. 
Ahbasak and Ahbaysauk Bar Harbor, Hancock County, Me. 

Abnaki, "where we bake and dry soft shell clams" (steamer 

clams, Mya arenaria). 
Ahionwatha variant of Hiawatha, q. v. 
Ahmelagognetercook Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "at the 

place of drying and curing" [fish and game]. 
Ahquahunwansuh Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "here 

the flat land ends," or "the plain ends here." 
Ahquanahaganoc Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "a sweat bath." 

See Pissepimk. 

Ahquannis Sowamsoo River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "boundary of Sowam's country," 

Ahqueedaiikee Belknap County, N. H. Pennacook, "drag-up place 
[i. e., landing-place] for canoes." Also Ahquedaukenash. 

Ahsedakwasic Turner Brook, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, 
"stick pointing to a branch of the stream," a type of direc- 
tional sign for canoe travelers. 

Ahumpatimshaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "beyond 
the round pond," or "little pointed stakes place." 

Ahwassoos Aden Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, literally "bear 
mountain." 

Ahyosupsuck Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place 
of wild hemp." 

Aigio commuck Stony Creek, New Haven County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"at the enclosed place," or "sheltered harbor." 

Akoaxet See Acoaxet. 

Akusenag Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the cove." 
(now Dartmouth). 

Akweekek a hill near Eddington, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"at the steep place." 

20 



Alamascook See Alamoosak, Allamoosook. 

Alamoosak Lake, Hancock County, Me. Garbled Malecite, "at 

the fish spawning place." 
Alexander see Wamsutta. 

Algonkine Point, Grand Isle County, Vt. See below. 

Algonquin Mountain, Washington County, Vt. If Micmac, ''at 
the place of spearing fish [as at the bow of a canoe]." If 
Algonquin, "people of the other shore." 

Algonquin State Forest, Litchfield County, Conn. See above. 

Alipconk Village, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, [a Wap- 
pinger sub-group] "over-flowed place." 

Alkarmus Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "insect which 
causes oak-galls." 

Allagash Lake, faUs, and stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"bark cabin," or "birch-bark shelter." 

Allagash Falls, lake, river and village, Aroostook County, Me. 
See above. 

Allagask wigamook Churchill Lake and Mountain, Piscataquis 
County, Me. Abnaki, "at the bark cabin lake." 

Allahtwkikamoksis Pond, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "at 
the little field where much game has been killed." 

Allamoosook Pond, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "place of the 
small dog." See Alum. 

Almouchicoisen This name, which appears on several old maps, 
refers to the Indians of northeastern Massachusetts, south- 
eastern New Hampshire and adjacent Maine. Abnaki, "little 
dog people." 

Alnambi-i-menahan Old Town, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"our own [Indian] people's island." cf. Laurent (1884) : 
alnoba, "Indian;" pogui alnobak, "full-blooded Indians." 

Alnambi kwaysah wayk Indian Point, Hancock County, Me. 
Micmac? "Indian point," or "our own people's point." 

Alnobaganock Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "place of our 
[Indian] ceremonial dance." Refers to the Alnobagan cere- 
monial dance performed at weddings. There were probably 
many such "dancing places." 

Alskachewack the Black River, Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"at the great pile of shells." But see Kaskactchawak. 

21 



Alum Lake, Providence County, R. I. Nifmuck, ''a dog." Appa- 
rently the Pequot people called this same pond A'wumps, 
q. V. Also Allum, Wallum, etc. 

Alum Pond. Several ponds in Worcester County, Mass. See above. 

Amaganset Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the well," or 
perhaps "at the (council) place where we smoke." Smoking 
was commonly referred to as "drinking weak tobacco." 
Sometimes translated as "at the fishing place," or "at the 
point." 

Amalingan the regions occupied by the Mahican in western New 
England, Maine, and in eastern New York. This name is 
apparently a corruption of Mahican, q. v. 

Amanuseag River, same as Ammonoosuc. 

Amaseconti Several places of this name in Maine. Abnaki, "plenty 
of fish." 

Amataconet Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "observation 
place, "[?] or "meeting place. "[?] 

Ambajack mockamas Falls, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"slantwise of the regular route." 

Ambajejus Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "two currents, 
one on either side [of an island]" See Abojedgewak. 

Ambajemackomas Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "a 
little pond crosswise" of the usual route. 

Ameriscoggin Several places of this name in Maine. Probably 
Old Abnaki, "catching and curing fish." See Androscoggin. 

Amessagunticook Farmington Falls, Franklin County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "at the place abounding in alewives," or "plenty of 
migratory fish here." 

Amessecantee now Farmington Falls, Franklin County, Me. 
Mahican, "plenty of fish." It is believed that Amessecantee 
was an Indian village established by Mahican refugees from 
New York and New England around 1697. 

Amgopilasig Ponds, Penobscot County, Me. Micmac, "little lakes 

tied together by brooks." 
Amiciskeag Kittery Point, York County, Me. Abnaki, "fishing 

at the point." 

Amilcungatiquoke Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "at the 
river where fish are caught and cured." 

22 



Amilesk Big Lake, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, ' 'where 
provisions are cured and stored/' 

Amilkan Lisbon Falls, Androscoggin County, Me. Ahnaki, "a 
fish drying place.'* 

Amiskeag same as Amoskeag. 

Amitgon pontook Lewiston Falls, Androscoggin County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "at the river-falls where fish are cured." 

Ammacongan Falls, St. George River, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, 
''fish drying and curing" station. Variant: Ammon-congin. 

Ammadamast the Cold Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"fish, or alewives, here." 

Ammanatocksuck Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk (a 
Wappinger sub-division), "lookout place on a hill near a 
brook outlet." See Manatuck. 

Ammecungan Falls, Presumpscot River, Cumberland County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "where [migratory] fish are caught and cured." 
Ammeriscoggin River; same as Androscoggin. 
Ammesokantis Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "abundance of 

alewives." 
Ammocangen Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "a fish-curing 

place." 
Ammonoosuc River (Lower), Grafton County, N. H. Ahnaki, 

"small narrow fishing place." Sometimes spelled Omanosek. 

Ammonoosnc River (Upper), Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "small 

narrow fishing place." Another spelling, Ammoosuc. 
Amobscot Muscongus Island, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"fishing near shore ledges." 
Amonontuck Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "lookout 

place" [?] See Manatuck. 
Amoscommun see Androscoggin. 
Amoskeag old name for Manchester, Hillsboro County, N. H. 

Pennacook, "a fishing place." Also spelled Amokeag. 
Anackatuseck River. Location unknown, Kent County, R. L(?) 

Narragansett, "place where brooks join."? Also Anacka- 

tusicke. 
Ananepeheren Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. ? Mohican, "fish 

traps." 

33 



Anaquacutt Pond and Stream, Newport County, R. I. Narra- 

gansett, ''at the end of the river." 
Anasagunticook Lake, Oxford County, Me. Ahnaki, ''at the river 

with the sandy bottom." 
Anchamaunnack kaunack Pond, New London County, Conn. 

Mohegan, "at the oak (acorn-producing) grove"[?] 
Andiarocte the southern end of Lake Champlain, Addison and 

Rutland Counties, Vt. Mohawk, "where the lake narrows" or 

"tail of the lake;" also, "dead end of waterway, where lake 

tapers off to an end." 
Androscoggin County, Island, Lake and River, Me. Ahnaki, "the 

place where fish are cured," by drying and smoking. 

Androscoggin River, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "fish-curing 
place." Variant, Ameriscoggin. 

Aneksassisscuk Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "ant's 
nesting place." 

Anequasset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the abode 
of the striped ground squirrel." 

Angaakwatchwak Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "place of the 
White Mountains." 

Angualsicook Mahican, "place of barter." See Annisquassicoke, 

Aniadarawdnte the narrows on Lake Champlain near Ticonderoga, 
N. Y., and Addison County, Vt. Mohawk, "a lake attached 
to another." 

Anitaash Pond, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic or 
Narragansett, "rotten corn." These Indians would bury ears 
of com in muck until they decomposed, then eat them. 

Ankokemany Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "path to 
the end place." 

Ankokemaug Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fishing place 
at the end." 

Anmessok York County, Me. Ahnaki, "fish here." 

Anmoughcawgen Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "place for 
curing fish." 

Annabessacook Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "at that 
particular lake," or "lake where small fish are caught"[?]. 
Also given as "at the beautiful body of still water." 

24 



Annahooksett Falls, Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "at 

the place of beautiful trees." 
Annaquassacook Bennington County, Vt. ? Mohican, "at the end 

of the brook (or marshy place)" or "as far as the brook (or 

marshy place) extends." 
Annaquatucket River and Road, Washington County, R. I. 

Eastern Niantic, "at the end of the river," or "at the end of 

the tidal current." Possibly also "overflowing river." 

Annasnappet Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the source [or head] of the stream." Also given as "place of 
shells," and "gravelly brook"[?]. 

Annawamscutt Creek, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"rock summit"[?], "end of the rocks"[?], or possibly "ruler's 
hiU"[?]. Also given as Anowanscut, "commander's rock." 

Annawomscut Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the shell 

rock," probably a shell heap midden. But see Annawon's 

Rock, below. 
Annawoncoate Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "ruler's 

house." 
Annawon's Rock, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, one of 

King Philip's most trusted lieutenants, Annawon, was 

captured in 1675 near this rock in Squannahonk swamp. 
Annisnippi Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "rocks in 

water." See Annasnappet. 
Annisquam Village and Harbor, Essex County, Mass. Natick, 

"at the rock summit," or "end of the rock." 
Annisquam an Ahnaki word for "summit" is applied to several 

White Mountain peaks in northern New Hampshire. 

Annisquassicoke now West Arlington, Rutland County, Vt. 
Mahican, "at the end of the boggy place." Also Angualsi- 
cook. 

Annocotuckett or Annogotucket R. I. See Annaquatucket. 

Annursnack Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "lookout 

place," or "summit." 
Annusautonset River Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"garden hilled up with hoes," or "hoed garden place." 
Annuskumikak Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "broken up 

land," or "land hoed, ready for planting." 

25 



Anqepenick Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, ''end of the 

sloping land/' 
Anqueet Windham County, Conn. Narragansett?" chipmunk place." 
Anquepogskit New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the end 

of the small pond.'' 
Aii8handuck see Antashantuck. 

Antaghantic Neck, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"turning backwards river" [oxbows]. 

Antashantuck Neck and Pond, Providence, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"well forested place." See Meshanticut. 

Antassawamock Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, from an 
expression meaning "other side of Sowam's land,"[?], or 
"place of shell heaps." Also given as "backwards-always- 
things" i. e., lobsters. 

Aokeets Pond, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "hornet place" ? 
or possibly, "adversary's place"[?]. 

Apananawapeske River, Hancock County, Me. Ahnaki, "place 
where [the river] opens out [or widens] at the ledges." 

Apautuck Rhode Island. A modification of Pawtucket, q. v. 

Apehimqunset River, Washington County, R. I. Possibly a cor- 
ruption of Aponaganset, Apponaug, or Ponaganset? Narra- 
gansett} "flags, or rushes." Other roots suggest, "place of 
traps among the stones," and "waiting place at the ledge." 

Apistama Cumberland County, Me. According to Douglas- 
Lithgow, the name of the Atlantic seaboard from Casco Bay 
eastward. Ahnaki, "rocky land." 

Apmoojene-gamook Chamberlain Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "lake crosswise" [of the usually-traveled route]. 
Variants: Appmoojene-quamook, Apmoojenneh-gamook, etc. 

Aponahock Brook Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "oyster 
place," or "where he roasts oysters;" and possibly, "the 
waiting place." See Apponaug, and Abonesig. 

Aponake or Aponihauk see Apponaug. 

Aponeg part of the Sheepscot River, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"where it widens out." 

Appalachia Station, Coos County, N. H. See Appalachian Gap. 

Appalachian Gap in the Green Mountains, Chittenden County, 
Vt., derives its name either from a Choctaw expression 

26 



meaning ''a helper," or Muskhogean words describing "people 
on the other side." 

Appalachian Trail. See above. This pathway traverses the Appa- 
lachian system from Katahdin, Maine to Mount Ogelthorpe 
in Georgia, a distance of more than 2,000 miles. 

Appalachie Pond, Lincoln County, Me. See Appalachian Gap. 
However, if this name is derived from Old Abnaki, the term 
might mean "a, bare place, devoid of trees," or "treeless 
land;" from abol, "open, smooth, bare," plus auke, "country, 
land, or place." 

Appamapog Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "pond where 
rushes [for mats] grow." Also a brook in Berkshire County, 
Mass. 

Appamatox Cheshire County, N. H. Powhatan (Virginia) ?, "a 
resting place," or "resting under a tree." It may have ori- 
ginated iiom Abnaki or Pennacook, api-metek, "a bower"[?]. 

Appaquag River, Windham County, Conn. Windham County, 

Conn. Nipmuck, "where flags (for making mats) grow." 

Also found as Appaquaog; and see Abaquage. 
Appaum Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a trap," or 

possibly "a waiting place." Also as Appoam, Umpame, etc. 
Apponagansett Bay, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "beyond 

the fishing place." Also given as "oyster bay;" "waiting 

place" and "jutting reefs." 
Apponaug Brook and Village, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"where he roasts oysters," (or other shellfish). Also given as 

"waiting place." Other spellings Aponake, Aponihoak, 

Aponahock, etc. 
Apponecett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "waiting 

place." 
Apponequet Lake, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "sitting 

or waiting place." 
Appowick part of Damariscotta River, Lincoln County, Me. 

Abnaki, "widening-out place." 

Apskikek on Mopang Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 
"at the rock place" or "near the boulders." 

Aptuxet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fish weir in the 
tidal creek," or "waiting place at the small river." 

27 



Apwonnah Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "oyster" or "he 
roasts;" probably where shellfish were baked or roasted. 

Aquadocta ancient Abnaki village in York County, Me. Abnaki, 
"canoe landing place." See Aquadoctan and Aquidnet. 

Aquadoctan now The Weirs, Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, 
"a landing place" for canoes. Other variants: Aquedoctan, 
Aquedahtan, Aqiiedaukenash. See also Aquidny. 

Aquahattan where the Merrimack River issues from Lake Winne- 
pesaukee, Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, "I drag my canoe 
out." 

Aquanahagonog see Ahquanahaganoc. 

Aquantaug Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, ''under 

the trees," or "big trees." 
Aquapaukset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "end of the 

small pond, or swamp." 
Aquapauksit New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "at 

the end of the small pond." 
Aquaquamset River, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, [modified?] 

"canoe landing," or perhaps modified Niantic, "rock summit." 

Apparently this is misspelled; some authorities trace it to 

M'squamicut, "salmon fishing place." 
Aquaquesset Bogs, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "end 

of rocks place." 
Aquassik Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "large boulder." 
Aquebapaug Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, "at the 

head of the pond." Also Aquabapaug, Acquabapoge, etc. 
Aquedaukenash see Aquadoctan. 
Aquedenesick Newport County, R. L Narragansett, "at the small 

island." 
Aquednesset now Dutch Island, Washington County, R. L 

Narragansett, "place of the small island." 
Aquednessick Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the small 

island." (Rhode Island). 
Aquednet, Aquidnic, Aquidy, Aquiday, R. I. Narragansett, "at 

the island." 
Aquednet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the island." 
Aqueedenuck Washington County, R. I. Nipmuck, "at the is- 
land," or possibly, "place beyond the hill." 

28 



Aqueednuck Kent County, R. I. Nipmuck[}] or Mohegan[}], 
"place beyond the hill/' See Quidnic, R. I., and Acqueeden- 
uck, R. I. 

Aquehedongonock same places as Aguahadongonock, q. v. 

Aquehonga Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "high place," or 
"high bluff." 

Aquene-ut Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, derived from 
Chief Aquinuh[?]; or perhaps "place of peace." [An Indian 
named Aquetoquash witnessed Metacom's submission to the 
English crown in 1662.] 

Aquibapaug Pond, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "before or 
alongside of the pond." 

Aquidneck Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the island." 
This translation was supplied by Indians at Rhode Island 
in 1637. 

Aquidness Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 
island." 

Aquidnet Point, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
island." Also given as Quidnet. 

Aquidnic Rhode Island, Narragansett, "the island." 

Aquidny Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "appears as 
floating, like a ship at anchor, not under way," or "an island." 
Aquidny might be "a knoll rising out of a flat plain." 

Aquidy variant of Aquidnic, q. v. 

Aquitamosit or Aquitawosit Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "at the end of the meadow or plain." 

Aquittukasset Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "lan- 
ding place on little stream," or "islands place" [?] 

Aqunoonogqutut Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
hollow where a stone stands." 

Aquntaug Brook; see Aguntaug 

Aquonset Point, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
of fortification." 

Aquopimokuk Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the short narrow straits which separate the island from the 
mainland." 

Arambec see Norumbega 

Aranbega same as Norumbega, q. v. 

29 



Aransoak The Kennebec River from its source to Norridgewock, 
Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "place of rapids." 

Araugacutack New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, ''place of 
the furthest cultivated meadow." 

Arauscatuck location unknown. Perhaps in New Haven County, 
Conn. If so, probably Quinnipiac, "furthest river."[?] 

Aresiket River. See Harraseeket 

Armonek River; Byram River, between Connecticut and New 
York. Siwanoy[l], "fishing place," ox Delaware[l}, "beaver." 

Aroosabaug Mirror Lake, Carroll County, N. H. Ahnaki, "bright 
pond." 

Aroostook County and River, Me. Micmac, "beautiful, or shining 
river." See Wallastook. 

Arramopskis Falls, on Medomak River, Lincoln County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "falls over small rocks." 

Arrockaumecook Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "place of 
working (curing or drying) fish and meat," or "place of work- 
ing (hoeing?) enclosed land," possibly cornfields. See 
Rockomeko. 

Arrockaumecook Oxford County, Me. See above. 

Arrosa-eg see Arrowsic, below. 

Arrowamett River, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk? Prob- 
ably from the name of an Indian, Aramet or Arramamett, 
who deeded land in 1672. 

Arrowsic Island and village, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"place of the obstruction." This island blocks the channel of 
the lower Kennebec River. Variant Arrosa-eg. 

Arumsunkhungan Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"fishing place below the outlet." 

Asabeth River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "wild flax 
place." Also translated as "miry place." See Sebethe. 

Asamuck Greenwich Creek, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, 
"wild flax" [?]. 

Asapumsic, Asapumsic, etc. See Assapumsic. 

Asawacomuck New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "plan- 
tation or enclosure between" [two streams?] 

Ascocompamacke Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small 
place closed in by boulders." 

30 



Ascomacut Washington County, R. I. Possibly Eastern Niantic, 
"trees at this place," but see Misquamicut. Other forms, 
Ascomicut, Askoiuackock. 

Ascoochames Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag "snake-like 

fish" (eels? pipefish?). Another source translates this as "end 

of dwarf pines place." 
Ascutney Mountain, Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, "at the end of 

the river fork." 
Ashagomisconset see Achagomisconset. 
Ashanat see Ashowat. 
Ashanteaug Rocks, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"lobsters." 
Ashappaquonsett Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where nets 

are spread." 
Ashawaug River, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"land in the middle." Spelled also Ashawake, Ashawogue, 

Ashawog, Ashawa, etc. 
Ashaway River and Village, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 

Niantic, "land between" [river branches]. 
Ashawog River, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

"place between," or "land in the middle." 
Ashcannunsuck or Ashkannunckset Hampden County, Mass. 

Nipmuck "at the place of narrowing" ? or "at the end of the 

rocks" ? 
Ashimuet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the spring." 
Ashowat a locality between Amston and Federal, Tolland County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "place between." 
Ashowugh Commock Mystic Harbor, New London County, Conn. 

Mohegan, "fishing place in harbor, halfway between" large 

island and mainland. 
Ashpaquonsett Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place where 

nets are spread" to mend and dry. Variant, Ashappaquonsett. 
Ashpatuck River, Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "high 

place." See Aspanansuck, Aspetuck, Aspmet and Aspotucket. 
Ashquoash Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "green garden 

stuff," such as melons, squash, etc. One authority gives this 

as part of a word meaning "at the end of" [something]. 
Ashuelot Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "land between place." 

31 



Ashuelot Berkshire County, Mass. Natick, "land between place." 
Ashuelot Mountain, Pond, River, and Village, Cheshire County, 

N. H. Pennacook, "to the mountain"? or "place between"? 

Also Ashwillet, Jossawilok. 

Ashumet Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

spring." 
Ashunaiunk River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"rocky point," "stony point," or perhaps "stony stream." 
Ashwawott same as Ashowat. 

Ashwillet River, Cheshire County, N. H. Pennacook, "place 
between" ? (See Nashua) or, "to the mountain," same as 
Ashuelot? Also a brook in New London County, Conn. 

Askachewack Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, "near the grassy 
mountain." 

Askaskwigek Wadjo Mount Anthony, Bennington County, Vt. 
Abnaki, "green grass covered mountain." 

Askenonton Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, "a deer." Also see 

Ohskenonton. 
Askomaekock see Ascomacut. 

Askoonkton Location unknown ? Possibly Norfolk County, Mass. 
Natick, (?) "live upright tree," or "green tree." 

Askutegnik the Sugar River, Sullivan County, N. H. Abnaki, 
"at the end of the river fork." See Ascutney. 

Asnacancomic Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "ait the 
long stone house." Another spelling, Asnacomet. 

Asuebumsket Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "rocks 
upon rocks," or "boulder cliff." 

Asneconick Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
field enclosed by stones." [or "stone house" ?] 

Asnela Island. Orson Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, an 
Indian rendition of the English "Orson Island" [Asen elan), 
in the Penobscot River. Orson was an Abnaki chief there 
before 1793. 

Asnemscusset Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the swift flowing rocky brook." 

Asnuntuck River, Hampden County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "rocky 
river." 

32 



Asnuntuck Brook, Hartford County, Conn. Agawam, "stony 

stream." 
Aspanansuck Location uncertain. Washington, County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "high place," or "brook near the high hiU"[?]. 
Aspetock River. See Ashpatuck. Variants : Aspetuc, Aspetuck, etc. 
Aspetuck Reservoir, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "at the 

high place." 
Aspetuck River and Hill, Litchfield County, Conn. Probably the 

same derivation as Aspetuck Reservoir, above; however, 

Tooker gives "fish net place" for this location. 
Aspinet Road, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

net place." 
Aspinook Pond, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "at 

the high place." 
Aspotucket Providence County, R. L Narragansett, "at the fish- 
net cove." But one authority gives, "at the high place." 

Still another says Aspotucket is a corruption of Pawtucket, 

"at the falls." 
Aspowunk Hampden County, Mass. Nipmvick "place where weirs 

are made," "summit," or "lookout place"[?]. 
Asproom an elevation near Ridgefield, Fairfield County, Conn. 

Mahican, "high, lofty, elevated." 
Asquam Lake, Mountain, and River, Carroll and Grafton Counties, 

N. H. Ahnaki. "salmon place." 
Asquam Chumakee the Baker River, Grafton County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "salmon spawning place." Variants, Asquam Chu- 

mauke, Asquam Chommeock, etc. 
Asqueanunckton Brook, Merrimack County, N. H. Ahnaki, "rapid 

stream which extends as far as mountain." 
Asqueebapgamuck Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

end of the double pond." 
Asquoach or Asquach Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Probably 

Natick, "at end of hill," but possibly Nipmuck, "some 

squashes. ' ' Another source gives ' 'boulder hill place, ' ' Aps quach. 

Assabasset Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place 
between small brooks." Also, "wild flax place" ? 

Assabet Brook, Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the miry 
place." Also a river in Worcester County, Mass. 

3 33 



Assabumbedock Falls, York County, Me. Abnaki, "sloping, sandy 

bottom." 
Assameekq Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, ''a cave" or 

''stone roof." 
Assanapset Brook, Providence County, R. I. Possibly Nipmuck, 

"where the net was held down by rocks," or "at the small 

rocky stream." 
Assanotucket Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

tidal stream obstructed by rocks." 
Assapumsic Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 

where wild hemp is gathered to make cords and nets;" or 

"great meadow;" or perhaps "stony crossing place." Spelled 

also Assopumsett, Ossopimsuck, etc. 

Assatayag Hampden County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "big trees." 
Assawaga Worcester County, Mass. Nipmvick, "place between" 

or "halfv^^ay place." Also Assowaga, Assawaug. 
Assawaga "place between." Like Nashua, there are several such 

places in Southern New England. Also Assawaug. 
Assawampsett Plymouth County, Mass. Narragansett, "trading 

(or barter or exchange) place"? or Wampanoag "place of 

the large upright rock" ? 
Assawassuck Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "place between" 

two brooks. (Locally known as Wassuck). 

Assawompset Village, Pond, and Neck, Plymouth County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, "at the place of the large rock," or "stone 

plain place;" also "trading place" or "place of barter." 
Assekonk Brook and Swamp, New London County, Conn. Mohe- 

gan, "much green grass at this place." 
Assinek or Assunoc "stone place." See Hassunek. 
Assinipi Brook, and Village, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"rocks in water." 
Assonet Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the rock." This 

rock is the famous Dighton Rock, bearing aboriginal rock 

markings. 
Assonomock Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place of the rock." 
Assoowamsoo Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the halfway 

place," or "half way to southwest;" also "other side of 

Sowam's place." 

34 



Assopamukquod Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

giving thanks/' or "place of refuge." 
Assowetough see Squaw Betty. 
Assunek Worcester County, Mass. Nipmiick, "cave" or "overhang 

of rocks" or "ledges place." Variant, Hassunek. 

Asticou Northeast Harbor, Mt. Desert Island, Hancock County, 

Me. Probably Abnaki, from the name of a chief who lived 

there. Some sources claim this is from kaski tegou, Old Abnaki, 

"deep river." 
Astimoost Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the spring," 

or "at the small stony ford." 
Asumsowis Fairfield County, Conn. Probably Paugussett, "a 

small fish net," or possibly "a small raccoon." 
Asupsuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place where 

wild hemps bounds." 
Aswaguscawadic River, Aroostook County, Me. A branch of the 

Mattawamkeag. Abnaki, "place where a canoe is dragged 

through a stream" (rather than carried). 
Aswaguscawadic Stream. A tributary of Lake Winnipesaukee, 

Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, ''compelled to drag the 

canoe through [shallow grassy] stream." 
AswaMenick Chittenden County, Vt. ^6w<^^^, "at the place beyond 

the hill." See Housatonic. 
Atchaubennuck Hill, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at 

the dividing place, or boundary;" "Boundary Hill." 
Atgatogwisas Places along the Hoosic River, Bennington County, 

Vt. Mohawk, "he scoops up fish in a basket." 
Atie ompsk a ooe di Mountain (now Moat Mountain), Carroll 

County, New Hampshire. Old Abnaki, "dogs at rocks, eating 

meat" ? or "wild animals resembling dogs, among the rocks." ? 
Attaquahunchonett Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

''at the hill where deer abound." 
Attawan Beach, New London County, Conn. Roots not clear, nor 

tribe; possibly Eastern Niantic, "hills or dunes." ? 
Attawaugan Village, Windham County, Conn. Possibly Nipmiick, 

"a knoll, or hill, or height of land." See Adowaukeag, Me. 
Attean Lake and Mountain, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, 

from name of Attean (Etienne) Orson, 1793. 

3* 35 



Attebemeuck Island, Choke-Cherry Island in the Penobscot 
River. Abnaki, literally "choke-cherry place." Variant 
Atabeminock. 

Atthammonasset or Athemonosseck same as Hammonasset. 

Attilah Mountain (Bartlett Peak), Carroll County, N. H. If 
Indian, this may be a garbled form of attitaash, from the 
Narragansett, meaning "blueberries." More likely derived 
from Attila the Hun. 

Attitash Lake, Essex County, Mass. Natick (or perhaps Penna- 
cook?) "huckleberries" or "whortleberries." 

Auco Cisco Back Bay, Portland, Cumberland County, Me. Micmac, 
"bay muddy" or "cove muddy." 

Aucoot Cove, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a small 
cove." 

Augamtocook Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "great trees 
place," or "wading place in the river," or "river cove." 

Augomagoit St. Croix Lakes, Washington County, Me. Malecite 
or Abnaki? "The place where we wade across." 

Augutteback Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "kettle- 
pond." See Agutteback. 

Aukumbumsk New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "other side 
of the rock ledge." 

Aiunough-cawgin Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "places for 
curing fish." 

Auquebatuck Hill Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "top of 
tree." Another spelling, Ocquebituck. 

Aushpook an ancient Mohegan village in New London County, 
Conn. Mohegan, "place (or brook) where wild flax grows." ? 

Aussatonag Berkshire County, Mass. See Housatonic. 

Austunoog see Housatonic. 

Autoposit or Autopscot Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the walled-in well or cistern." L. K. Gahan says, "water 
drawing place." Also found as "place of wet rocks." 

Awanadjo Blue Hill, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, literally, "the 
misty mountain." 

Awanganis Priestly Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, free 
translation, "little canoe harbor" or "little place where we put 
canoes in or take them out;" literally "little journey." 

36 



Awannoa Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Wampanoag, "who are 
you"? Hence: "Enghshmen," or "strangers/* 

Awasaswi Menahan Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, (literally) 
"Bear Island." Variant, Awososwi M'naan. 

Awashonks Park and Swamp, Newport County, R. I. Awas- 
honks was squaw sachem {suncksqua, "woman who rules") 
of the Sogkonates. She gave aid to the English in King Phi- 
lip's War, 1675-1676. 

Awasoos Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "a bear." 

Awassawamkeak Sears Island, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, 
"the shining sandy beach and beyond." 

Awassokik Bearcamp River, Carroll County, N. H. Abnaki, "at 
the abode of the bear." {Awassos-auke) . 

A'waumps see A'wumps, 

Awcumbuck near Gales Ferry, New London County, Conn. This 
was the residence of Pequot chiefs before the English came. 
Possibly Mohegan, "stones used in scraping or drying pelts, 
or sharpening stones" ? or "Cecum's place" ? Another sugges- 
tion is, "across from the ledges." 

Awseed local Mohegan name for the Thames River, New London 
County, Conn. Meaning lost ; possibly this is part of a longer 
name indicating, "it flows down as far as the bay." 

A'wumps Pond; now Wallum Lake, Providence County, R. I., 
and Worcester County, Mass. Pequot, "the Fox," name of a 
Quinebaug chief, A'waumps, who lived there in 1673. 

Ayasup Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "wild hemp, 
or flags, or rushes." 

Azicoos Falls, Lake, Mountain and River, Oxford County, Me. 
Abnaki, "small pine trees." 

Aziscoos Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "small (young) pine trees." 

Azoiquoneset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "small 
island where we get [or use] spruce pitch." Possibly for 
torches used for spearing fish at night. Another source gives 
"yellow point place," or "golden flames," suggested by the 
yellow flames of the burning pitch. 

Azzastakak the Missisquoi River, Franklin County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"contrary to expectations, the stream turns." [i. e., oxbows]. 
Also Azzasataquake. 

37 



-B- 

Baamchee nungamook Chamberlain Lake, Piscataquis County, 
Me. Abnaki, "lake crosswise" of a usually-traveled route. 

Baamchenungamis see Baamchee nungamook, below. 

Baamchen ungamook Chamberlain Lake, Aroostook County, Me. 
Abnaki, "extended stretch across the lake," also "lake that 
is crosswise." Other spellings Boamchenungamo and Boam- 
chenunquamook. 

Babaquamshk Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "split rock." 
See Pabaquamsk. 

Babbatasset Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the double 

brook," or "where the brooks unite." 
Baboosic Brook and Ponds, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki? 

Pennacook? "sluggish current." However, this name may 

come from an Abnaki word babeskw, "a leech or bloodsucker." 

Other roots give: "middle brook," or "brook between." 
Baddacook Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the round 

place." See Pataconk. 
Bagaduce The Castine Peninsula, Hancock County, Me. Micmac, 

"large tideway stream." 
Bahkah soksik the meadows above Third Machias Lake, Wash- 
ington County, Me. Malecite, "long straight deadwater." 
Bakun Gunahik Crooked Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"at the crooked island." 
Bamedumpkok Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "place of 

sand bars." 
Bamonewengamok Cross Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, 

"lake athwart or crosswise" of the usually-travelled route. 
Banneg Beg Mountain and Pond, York County, Me. See Bonny 

nague. 
Bantam Lake and Village, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, 

"he prays." [Natick form, peantam). 
Bapetanshant or Bapetaushaut Washington County, R. I. Nana- 

gansett, "hollow place," or perhaps "a cave," or "hiding 

place" ? 
Baquag River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "clear water," 

(now Millers River). Also Pa quag. 

38 



Bashbish Falls and Mountain, Berkshire County, Mass. Mohican, 
"it bursts forth," or "it is daybreak." Or Illini, "a water- 
fall?" [Natick form, pashpisheau) . 

Bash Bish Falls, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, Basha or 
Mombasha was shot in the Esopus War, hence, "she is shot." 

Baskahegan Lake and Stream, Washington County, Me. See below. 

Baskahegan River, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "branch 
downstream," or "branch stream that turns down current." 
Variants, Bascohegan, Bascanhegan, etc. 

Bassoqutogaug Grove Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"where trees were split"? But, if the correct spelling is 
Basskutoquoge, then "river branch place." 

Bayakosk the Fifth Machias Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Malecite, "at the end or source of the lakes." 

Bedabek Knox County, Me. Malecite, "head of the bay" at Rock- 
land. Variant, Bedabedec. 

Beegwatook Pushaw Pond. See Bigwadook. 

Beemsquamketook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Anbaki, "pond 
in branch of river" ? or "extended sandbars in stream" ? 

Beezelake Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. If Indian, perhaps 
Mahican? "muddy place" or "sticky place." Another source 
gives "water place." 

Bellamaqueen Bay, Franklin County, Vt. Probably Abnaki, 
modified by French, "good beaver." 

Bemidjiwok Treat's Falls, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "where 
water runs out swiftly." See Pemigewasset. 

Beseck Lake, Middlesex County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the water- 
place." 

Betcumcasick see Petcumcasick. 

Betuckquapock Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "round 
pond." Variant, Pituquapaug. 

Bigaduce Peninsula, Hancock County, Me. See Bagaduce. Vari- 
ants, Biguaduce, Bigwaduce, Bagyduce, etc. 

Bigwadook Pushaw Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki "bent 
stream" or "stream turns." 

Bimilick Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Said to be from the name 
of a Narragansett chief, possibly abbreviated from Abimelech 
[an Old Testament name?]. Also Bumilick, and Bimilikus. 

39 



Boamtuquet see Pentaquiauktook. 

Bog Lake, Washington County, Me. Probably just plain English 
"bog;" if Indian, Abnaki for ''pond/' 

Boggistow Brook, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, ''turning 

place." 
Boggochaug Hills, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

turning place." See Packachaug. 
Bogochico Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "open, hilly, 

land." 
Bokajenesquis Island; Jug Island, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"jug shaped place." 

Bombazine Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Chief Abomazine, or 
Bomazeen, was an Abnaki leader who was killed at Norridge- 
wock in 1724. Abnaki, "keeper of the ceremonial fire." See 
below. 

Bomoseen Lake, Rutland County, Vt. Abnaki, "keeper of cere- 
monial fire." Other spellings Abomazeen, Bombazine, Obam- 
Saween, etc. William Simon [Obum Sawin], last male Abnaki 
resident of Vermont, died in 1959. 

Bonnynague Pond, York County, Me. Abnaki, "spread out lake." 
Variant Bonnyneag, Banneg Beg. 

Bopquam Bay, Franklin County, Vt. Probably modified Abnaki, 
"a beaver." 

Bosebuc Mountain, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "at the outlet 
of the spread-out stream." 

Boskquenuguk Island, Broken Island, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, "burying ground island." 

Bosquenaghook Island, Cemetery Island, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, "island where the dead are buried." Other spellings, 
Bosquenoosick, Boskanosic, etc. See also Bosquenuguk. Prob- 
ably these all mean "broken land island." 

Bosquenoosic Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "little 
broken island." 

Boxet Pond, Kent County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "small pond." 
See Oxoboxo. 

Brassua or Brass way Lake, Aroostook County, Me. English- 
Abnaki? probably from the Abnaki pronunciation of "Frank," 
a minor chief. 

40 



Buhsuh-gwuntuk-sug Muddy Cove on Thames River, New Lon- 
don County, Conn. Mohegan, "little muddy cove with outlet 
in river." 

Bumbahook Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "sandy shoal." 

Bungamic Landing, Stream and Reef, Cumberland County, Me. 
See Bungamug, "boundary-mark." 

Bungamug Brook, Cumberland, Me. Abnaki, "fishing place at the 
boundary." 

Bunganock Pond, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "at the boundary 
place." 

Bunganut Pond, York County, Me. Abnaki, "at the boundary 
mark." 

Bungay New Haven County, Conn. If Indian, perhaps Quinnipiac, 
"boundary marker?" Some say this place takes its name 
from a village in Norfolk County, England. 

Bungee Brook, Windham County, Conn. If Indian, possibly 
Nipmuck, "a boundary." See Bungamug, Me. 

Bungy Rock, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "the bound- 
mark." 

-€- 

Cabassauk an ancient name for the Merrimack River, N. H. 

Abnaki, "at the place of the sturgeon." 
Cabbadetus Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "it is rough, the throat 

[of the harbor opening] is closed." 
Cabbo Lake, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki[?], "sturgeon." 

Perhaps modified from kabbassah? 
Cacauwonch Kent County, R.I. NarraganseU[}] "the beginning 

place." 
Cacumgunsett Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "whetstone 

quarry," or "place of high rocks." 
Cahass or Cohass see Coos. 
Cajacet see Conanicut. 
Cajoot a plumbago mine in Washington County, R. I. This name 

is not apparently of Indian origin ; no Algonkin roots seem to 

apply. However, one source gives "fir tree plain." Also 

Cojoot. 

41 



Calumet Worcester County, Mass. Although this word is not 
Indian, it is included here because of the frequent con- 
fusion. This derives from Latin-French calamus, "a reed." 
Reeds were used in ancient times as ceremonial pipe stems, 
hence the common name "calumet" for the so-called peace 
pipe. 

Cambolassie Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Micmac, "chain of 
ponds" connected by streams. Spelled also Cumbolassy. 

Canada Falls, Somerset County, Me. Mohawk, "a group of houses" 
or "village." 

Canada Hill, Cumberland County, Me.; see above. 

Canangogum Northwestern Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck, 
"the fence or boundary," or "highland" ? 

Canapitsit Channel, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
place of the long fish weir." 

Canasixet River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "witch hazel 
place" ? 

Canaumet Reservoir, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"long fishing place." (eels?) 

Candatowa Fairfield County, Conn. Paugusset (greatly modified), 
"great mountain." 

Canestow River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "pickerel 
place." 

Caneunsquisset Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "high 
place," or possibly "high rocky cliff." 

Caniaderi Guarunte or Caniadari Quaront Lake Champlain, north 

of Shoreham, Addison County, Vt. Mohawk, "lake with a 

bulge in it," or "wide lake." 
Caniaderi -Oil see Yotenyatarokte. 

Canihequi River, Kennebec County, Me. Same as Kennebec, q. v. 
Canobeola Essex County, Mass. "long lake"[?] This appears to be 

a constructed term ; the dialect or tribe is not recognizable. 

Perhaps from Seminole? 
Canobie Lake, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "abundant 

water." 
Canonchet Brook, Lake, and Village, Washington County, R. I. 

Canonchet was a Narragansett chief, the son of Miantunomoh. 

He was killed by the English in 1675. 

42 



Canonicut Island, Washington County, R. I. Named for the 
famous Narragansett chief, Canonicus, who was active in the 
Pequot War, 1637. Also Caunaunacus. 

Canopache Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long fish 
weir," or possibly "at the fenced-in water place," or "closed 
cove place." 

Canopaug Brook and Swamp, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett "a long pond." 

Canoza Lake Essex County, Mass. Pennacook "pike," or 
"pickerel." 

Canuxsawhory mountains around lower end of Lake Champlain, 
Vt. and N. Y. Mohawk, "high dwellings." 

Capage New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "closed-in place." 

Capanagansitt Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 
the enclosed (or plugged-up) well;" or "closed-up meadow" ? 
See Ponaganset. 

Capanewagen now Newagen, Lincoln County Me. Ahnaki, freely 
translated as "channel closed up, no choice but to cross here 
by land." The most acceptable version is "closed route," or 
"stopped-up trip." Variant, Capenawhagen. 

Capaum Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "an en- 
closed place, or harbor." 

Capawack Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag "enclosed harbor, 
or place of refuge," or just perhaps "overcast, shut in by 
clouds"[?]. An old name for Martha's Vineyard. 

Capawong Franklin County, Mass. Mahican? "enclosed place," 
or "stopped-up by the bend [oxbows]." 

Capawonk Meadow, Hampden County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "en- 
closed place; protected place; place of refuge; stopped-up 
by the bend in the river." 

Capecorpus York County, Me. Ahnaki, "closed to boats,"? i. e., 
plugged up by sandbars. 

Cape Higgon Dukes County, Mass. Just possibly a corruption of 
Capoag, q. v. 

Cape Newagen see Capanewagen. 

Cape Poge Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, see below. 

Capissic River, Cumberland County, Me. Ahnaki, "dammed-up 
branch." Variants Capisick, Capipissoke, Capesseck, etc. 

43 



Capmanwagan an old spelling (1623) of Kepan-ahwangan, ''closed 
route/' now (Cape) Newagen, q. v. 

Capoag Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''enclosed pond, or 
harbor." See Cape Poge and Capawack. 

Cappacomuck Swamp, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"place of refuge," or "hiding-place," 

Cappiquat Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the refuge- 
summit," or "closed-in place." (This is Cuttyhunk Island). 
See Poocuttahunkanow. 

Cappoquidnet Dukes County, Mass. Narragansett? "island of 
refuge." (No-Man's-Land Island.) 

Cappowack see Capoag. 

Cappowongamuck Franklin County, Mass. Mohican, "place en- 
closed by a bend" in the river. 

Capsuptic Lake, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "dammed-up 

spring-fed stream." 
Caratunk Lake, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, "forbidden stream," 

or "crooked stream." 
Caribou many place names throughout Maine bear this name. All 

derive from Abnaki, kalibu, "the shoveler," i.e., "he who gets 

his food by pawing or shoveling." 

Carrabassett River, Franklin County, Me. Abnaki, "small moose 

place," ? or "sturgeon place" ? 
Carrartoank Falls. See Curritunk. 

Carrituck Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, "crooked swift stream." 
See Curritunk. 

Cascadnac local name for hills around the White River, Windsor 
County, Vt. Abnaki, "at the steep mountains" or "in the 
ravine." 

Casco Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Micmac, "mud" or "muddy." 

Caskak Ches quash Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "squash 
gardens" ? or "big thicket" ? or "deer hide" ? 

Caskata Beach and Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"a sea snail or periwinkle," or possibly "a sturgeon" [ ?]. Also, 
"where grass is mowed," kes asketuh. 

Casowetchawege Mountains, Windsor County, Vt. Probably the 
same as Skitchewaug, q. v. 

44 



Cassacubque ledges near Colchester, New London County, Conn. 

Mohegan, "at the high rocks." 
Cassacubque an ancient village near Mianus, Fairfield County, 

Conn. Possibly Siwanoy, "high rocks," (Cos Cob). 

Cassomacook New London County, Conn. Hammonassett, "rocky 

place." 
Catacoonamug Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "great 

long fishing place" (eels?). Another authority gives "thirsty 

land," kohkuttoonoonk. 
Catamawawa North Branch of Marsh River, Waldo County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "very rough" ? (k'tamahaga). 
Catantaquk Swamp, head of Pachaug River, New London County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "place of large cedar trees." 
Catardin Mountain, Maine. Variant of Katahdin, q. v. 
Cataumet Harbor, Neck and Village, Barnstable County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, "at the ocean," or "landing place near the open 

sea." 
Catawamkeak shores of Knox County, Me., near Rockland. 

Ahnaki, "principal landing place" for canoes. 
Gathance River, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "the principal 

fork." 
Cathaneu River, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "the main 

stream." 
Cathanisk Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "main branch of 

the stream," or "main stream." 
Catumb Reef, near New London County, Conn. Mohegan- Pequot, 

"at the place of the great rocks." 
Caucaujawatchuk Providence County, R. L Narragansett, "sharp 

mountain peak" or "sharp mountain." Found also as Caucan, 

and Caucaunjawach. 
Caucomgomoc Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "lake 

abounding with gulls." 
Caucumgomock Mountain, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "place 

(or lake) abounding with gulls?" Name transferred to the 

peak from a lake. 
Caucumsquissic Brook, Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, 

"at the place where there are small sharpening stones." Another 

sources gives, "sharp stones in a cove;" also, "high cliff"? 

45 



Cawatoquisset River, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
ever-running brook." 

Cawcawmsquissick see Caucumsquissic. 

Cawkinchawg or Cawgenchaug Middlesex County, Conn. Wan- 
gunk, "long swamp." 

Cawncawnjawatchuk Providence County, R. I. iV^rr^g^ws^^^, "very 
long hill." But see Caucaujawatchuk and Quanquanjawatchuck. 

Cawsumsett Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "sharp 
rock place," or "whetstone rock place." 

Cawwatoquisset Providence County, Conn. Narragansett, "high 
place along the brook." But see Cawatoquisset. 

Chabanakongkomuk Worcester County, Mass. Nipmvick-Mohegan, 
"boundary fishing-place," or "place of separation where we 
fish." Some say "Treaty Pond," This is one of the places 
rendered as "yo^ ^sh on your side, I fish on my side, nobody 
fish in the middle — no trouble." Also Chaubunagungamaug. 

Chabatawece Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "little 
separated place." Also found as Chibaehuesa, Chibachuweset, 
Chippacurset, etc. See Chappaquiddick. 

Chaboken Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nifmuck, "hell pond." 
Literally, "place of separated (spirits)," from tcheppi-ohke. 

Chabunnuck between Griswold and Voluntown, New London, 
County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the place which bounds or 
divides." 

Chachabunk kakowok location unknown; somewhere in Wor- 
cester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the boundary," or "at 
the agreement place." 

Chachapacasset Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "near the great 
widening out place," or "place of the rocks in rushing stream." 
Other spellings Chackapacauset, Checkapaucasset, etc. 

Chachapacassett Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "where the 
stream divides and opens out," or "torrent rocks place." 

Chackacust Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, probably 
same as Chacbapacasset, "at the great widening out place." 
Another source gives "it burns here" or "fire place." 

Chackapacauset Neck. See Chachapacasset. 

Chagum Pond, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "a black 
bird." (The bobolink? or the redwinged blackbird?) or a 

46 



variation of shakum, [washakum) ''surface of the sea, the 

great provider" ? or "pouring out" ? 
Chamcook River, Aroostook County, Me. Micmac, "spawning 

place." 
Chamquassabamtook Lake, see Chemquasabamticook. 

Chanangonum Location unknown; "somewhere in Nipmuck 
country," possibly Providence County, R. I. Nij)fmick, "great 
reed place" ? Another spelling, Chanangongum, "great paint 
place." 

Chapomeset Hill, Providence County, R. I. See Chopmist. 

Chapomis Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "little separated 
place." 

Chapompamiskock Providence County, R. I. Narragansett? Nip- 
muck? "big fishing place near boundary rock" ? 

Chappanacoy Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "(unin- 
habited) land, separated from rest." 

Chappapemeset Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
extended, isolated beach." See also Chopmist. 

Chappaquiddick Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the separated island," from tseppi-aquidne-auke. 

Chappaquoit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
separated place," or "boundary hill place." 

Chappaquonsett Creek and Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "long place (or thing) of separation." ("long creek 
separates, etc."). 

Chargoggagoggmanchogaggogg Pond, Windham County, Conn. 
See Chabanakongkomuk. 

Chataguay the Swift River, Carroll County, N. H. Pennacook, 
"the principal stream." 

Chaubamaug Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "fishing place 
at boundary." 

Chaubanakongkomun or Chabunakongkomun. See Chabana- 
kongkomuk. Mass. 

Chaubaqueduck Dukes County, Mass. Same as Chappaquiddick. 

Chaubatick Providence County, R. I. An ancient village of the 
Narragansett tribe; "at the forked river," or "the river 
which bounds." 

47 



Chaubongum Pond Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "the 
boundary mark," or "the limit." 

Chawonk Neck, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "great neck" or 

"big peninsula." 
Cheapschaddock New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, "big rocks 

at boundary place." 

Chebacco Lake, Essex County, Mass. Probably Pennacook, "big 
pond;" but possibly Natick, "crossed over." Another source 
gives Old Ahnaki or Pennacook roots, tsibai-ki, "place of 
departed spirits." 

Chebatigosuk Penobscot County, Me. Malecite, "short way from 
river" or "short cut across." 

Chebeague Village, Strafford County, N. H. Ahnaki, "almost 
separated." See below. Variant, Chebeaque. 

Chebeague Island, Cumberland County, Me. Ahnaki, "almost 
separated." At low tide a connecting beach is exposed; at 
high water the sea separates the two high ends. Literally, 
the name means "separated place." 

Chebeguadose a large bay in Hancock County, Me. Malecite, 
"principal cove" or "great bay." 

Chebogardinac Knox County, Me. Penohscot, "at the high hill." 

Checapscaddock an ancient Mohegan village. New London County, 
Conn. Mohegan, "big rocky hill." 

Checkechnusset Brook, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Ni- 
antic, "at the boundary" or "brook at the place of separation." 
Another spelling, Chechechnessett. 

Checkecknessett Brook, New London County, Conn, and Wash- 
ington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, "at the boundary" 
or "at the separation brook." 

Cheebeeantups a bald hill near Colchester, New London County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "a skull." Literally, "a separated head," "a 

head cut off the body." 
Cheebee At que Seep Monument Brook, the boundary between 

Aroostook County, Me., and New Brunswick, Canada. 

Passamaqitoddy, "separated by marking (or boundary) 

brook." 
Chee Coke the falls in the Connecticut River near Bellows Falls, 

Windham County, Vt. Pennacook, "the great kettle." 

48 



Cheekheek Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck? "fire place." 

Cheekwakat see Che qua quel Lake. 

Cheemahn Island, Long Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"a large island." 
Cheepauke Location unknown; probably Providence County, 

R. I. Narragansett? ''a, place apart" or "an isolated place." 
Cheesechankamuck a branch of the Farmington River, Hartford 

County, Conn. Tunxis, "great enclosed place for fishing," or 

"big fish weir pool." 
Cheetoskeunke Kent County, R. I. Nipmuck or Narragansett? 

"at the principal wading-place (ford, or bridge?)." 
Chegewanussuck Falls, Lincoln County, Me. Malecite, "large 

rapids and falls." 
Chegony Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Probably Micmac, "knee 

shaped." 
Chehockset Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the prin- 
cipal forest grove." 
Chemangase Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"small canoe" ? or "small waterway" ? or "big brant goose" ? 

Other spellings Chemagaze, Chemaunguz, etc. 
Chemaun Nayaug Chimney Point, Addison County, Vt. This name 

is a strange mixture of Chippewa and Natick, "canoe point." 
Chemo Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "a large bog." 
Chemquam Sabamticook Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"where there is a large lake together with a river." 
Chemquassabamticook Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Same 

as above. 
Chemung Road, Norfolk County, Mass. Delaware, "the great 

horn" ? or (modified) Natick, "a canoe" ? 
Chemung Strafford County, N. H. If Delaware, "big horn"; if 

modified Natick, "a canoe." 
Chemunganock Hill and Pond, Washington County, R. I. East 

Niantic? This name is badly distorted. Probably "at the 

abode of the brant goose"; possibly "big stink place," 

(rotting vegetation) or "place where we put down paddles," 

or "big ash tree place." 
Chemunganset Pond. See Chemunganock. 
Chemunkanuck Pond. See Chemunganock. 

4 49 



Chenayok Carroll County, N. H. Ahnaki, "principal neck of 
land," the Moultonboro penninsula in Lake Winnepesaukee. 

Cheouanasag Falls, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the big 
portage." 

Chepachague Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "prin- 
cipal turning place." Also Chepachuach. 

Chepachet River and Village, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "place of separation," that is, where rivers divide. 
Also, "boundary place." 

Chepachewag River, Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, 
"principal turning place." Other spellings Chepacheway, 
Chepachuach, etc. 

Chepacheweset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "boundary 
place." 

Chepados Hill, New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "principal 
hunting place"? Perhaps, "hill where the big nuts grow.'' 
Another spelling, Chepadas. 

Chepatset Nipmuck territory in the Northwestern part. Provi- 
dence County, R. I. Nipmuck, "boundary place" or "place 
of separation." 

Chepmoxet Island, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "little 
separated place," or "Devil's Island," or "Hell Island," i. e., 
"place of the departed spirits." 

Chepiwanoxet Island and Village, Kent County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "at the end of the small separated place." (Narrow 
neck covered at high water). 

Chepontuc Ottauqueechee Falls, Windsor County, Vt. Ahnaki, 
"principal fall in river." 

Cheppipogut Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the separated 
pond" or "place of the out-of-the-way, isolated pond." Also 
given as "spirit's-place pond." Variant, Chuppipoggut. 

Cheputneticook Grand Lake, the Schoodic system, Washington 

County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the place of the big hill stream." 
Chequapee Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "rushing water," 

(or "cedar tree?") See Chicopee. 
Chequaquet Lake, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the fire place" ? or "it is daybreak," ? or "big swamp place." ? 

Also "big hill place." 

50 



Chequesset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "violent 
waters." (Possibly ''great waves because of north wind?" or 
"big rock place" ?) 

Chesewane Island, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "big 
shells," or "great scattered shells," or "large shell heaps." 
Also given as Chesewanne and Chesewannock, but see Chisa- 
wamicke, Mass. 

Chesquonopog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "great long 
pond." 

Chesuncook Lake and Village, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"at the place of the principal outlet." 

Chewonki Neck, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "a great bend," 
or "a large ridge." 

Chibachuesa Island (Prudence Island) Newport County, R. I. 
Narragansett, "separated at high tide" (from Patience Is- 
land) ? Variants: Chibachuweset, Chebbachuesset, etc. 

Chibacoweda Patience Island, Newport County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "separated by a passage" i. e., from Prudence Island. 

Chibanook Seponac Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "the 

big opening." 
Chiboctous Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "the big bay." 
Chickabi River; see Chicopee. 

Chickamug near Stonington, New London County, Conn. Eastern 
Niantic, "big fishing place," or "fish-weir place." 

Chickamug Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "fish 
trap," or "fish weir," or perhaps "a fishing place; the prin- 
cipal fishing place." 

Chickasheen Brook, Washington County, R. 1. This name might 
be Eastern Niantic, Narragansett, or even Nipmuck. It has 
several possible meanings: "fish weir," "high water," or 
"cedars." Most likely, however, is "big spring." 

Chickatawbut Road, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "his house 
is on fire," or, "his house is burning violently." The name of 
a chief at Weymouth, c. 1621. One source suggests "place of 
raging water "[?] 

Chickawaukee Lake, Knox County, Me. This is not a genuine 
Indian name, but a composite attempt at "good, sweet, 
fresh, or drinkable." 

4* 51 



Chickemmoo Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fish weir." 
Chickons Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, ' 'burned place, burned 
so as to be clear, ready for planting/' 

Chickons Cattones Akees Hampden County, Mass. Natick?, 
"small plantation," Also Cottinyakies, Cottinackeesh, Ki- 

tikanakish. (But a Chickens lived at Fairfield, Conn., in 1725.) 

Chickwolnepy Stream, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "frog pond.'' 
Also Chickwalnipy, Chigglneepa. See Jigwallick. 

Chicomico Creek, New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, "large 

enclosed place," or "big house." 
Chicopee Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "violent water," 

I (or "cedar tree" ?) 
Chicopee York County, Me. See above. 
Chikabi see Chicopee. 
Chikkabi Hills, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "cedar?" or 

"birch bark" ? See also Chicopee. 
Chihiucook Grand Lake, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "great 

open place." 
Chimenasanganum Big Lake, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"at the place where boards are heaped up near the big lake." 

Chimkazaooktook Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "big black 

stream." 
Chimmenticook Lake and Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"principal islands in river." 

Chimon Island, Fairfield County, Conn. If Indian, possibly 
Paugussett, "he paddles" a canoe? But see Mamachimins. 

Chinquist Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big rocks 
place." 

Chipchug Pond, New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, "place 
apart," or "boundary place." 

Chipchug Pond, Washington County, R. I. See above. 

Chipohke see Cheepauke. 

Chiponaug Point, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "separated 
or isolated point" ? "place of the large oysters" ? or "prin- 
cipal resting place" ? 

Chippachaug Mason's Island, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"place separated," apart from main land. Also Chippichuock. 

52 



Chippachooag Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, "where 

it [stream] divides/' or "place of separation." 
Chippachuachack R. I. See Chippachooag and Chippuachack. 
Chippaciirset Island, R. I. See Chibachuesa. Another spelling, 

Chippecurset. 
Chippaquiddick see Chappaquidick. 
Chippascutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place 

of separation." 
Chippenhook Village, Rutland County, Vt. If Indian, perhaps 

Abnaki, "big extended run of water." If not Indian, perhaps 

Dutch, as Shippen's Hoek[?] One source gives Natick, 

"separated place." See Chibanook. 
Chippewa Indians, also known as Ojibwa, were the largest Algon- 

quian-speaking tribe. They lived in the region of the Great 

Lakes, and Longfellow's Hiawatha includes many of their 

legends, although Hiawatha was actually an Iroquoian hero. 

Their name is a reference to their puckered-seam moccasin. 
Chippopoquet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

place of the separated pond." Also spelled Chuppipoggut. 
Chippuachack Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, "at the 

boundary hill place." See Quowatchaug. 
Chiputneticook see Cheputneticook. 
Chipuxet River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "little 

separated place," or "isolated small pond."? SpeUed also 

Cheppuxet, Chepuckset, etc. 

Chisapeak Bay, Merrymeeting Bay, Sagadahoc County, Me. 

Abnaki, "at the large part of the river," or "big salt bay." 
Chisawamicke Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

old field." Spelled also Chessawanacke. 
Chisawannock Bristol County, R.J. Narragansett, "principal 

fishing place" ? or "muddy bottom" ? This is Bristol Harbor. 

Other spellings Chesewane, Chesewanock, Chisweanocke, etc. 

Chochichok FaUs of the Cochecho River, Strafford County, N. H. 

Abnaki, "at the rapid current." (Perhaps "big kettle" ?) 
Chockalaug River, Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck, "fox 

place." See Chockalog, above. 
Chockalog Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "fox place" ? 

or "burned land" ? See also Chickwohiepy. 

53 



Chocksett Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "fox place." 

Chocorua Lake, Mountain and Village, Carroll County, N. H. 
Pennacook, from the great chief whose name may have meant 
"sharp knife." (Or perhaps from tsikweres, "a frog." One 
source gives "fox.") 

Chomowauke Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, misspelling 
of Ohomowauke, meaning "owl place," i. e., a place of refuge 
or concealment. 

Chopequonset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "isolated 
plantation," or "separated fields" or "fields at boundary 
place." 

Chopmist Hill and Village, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett? "boundary or dividing place." (Given also as "prin- 
cipal crossroads"). 

Chouacoet part of the Saco River, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "at 
the outlet." (This name used by Champlain and Lescarbot.) 

Chuppipogut Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

boundary pond," or "at the closed-up pond" [kuppi poget) ? 
Chuqnisak probably a creek outlet near Yarmouth, Cumberland 

County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the muddy place." 
Chusick Brook, Hampshire County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "mountain 

place." 
Cinebaque see Kennebec. 
Coaksett Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "pine place," or 

"at the place of pines." See Cokesit and Coaxet. 
Coassatuck Hill, New London County, Conn. MoheganP or 

Niantic? "pine tree place," or "pine tree river." Also Co- 

wissatuck. 

Coassit Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "at the pine tree 

place." (Probably connected with Koessek, q. v.) 
Coasuck Brook, Franklin County, Mass. Pennacook, "pine-tree 

place." 
Coaticook River, Essex County, Vt. Ahnaki, "the river near the 

pines." 
Coatue Beach, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

pine tree place." (Also Coatuit, Cotuit, Coituate, etc.) 
Coaxet Newport County, R. L Narragansett, "pine place." See 

also Cowekesit, 

54 



Cobosse Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, ''a sturgeon." 
Cobossecontee Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "plenty of 

sturgeon." Variants: Cobeskonte and Cobbasseeconteag. 
Cobscook Bay, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "rocks under 

water," or "underwater boulders." In several Maine place 

names, cook means "turbulent, eddying currents." 
Cocacocks New Haven County, Conn. Quinnifiac, "drinking 

place." 
Cocasset Pond, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the small 

kettle." (Glacial kettle hole?) Also translated "boundary 

place" and "pine-hill place." 
Cocheco Marsh, Point, Pond and River, Strafford County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "place of the rapid current." Variants, Cochecha, 

Cochchechoe, etc. 

Cochessett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

small pine trees." 
Cochichewick Lake, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "at the 

place of the swift current." 
Cochikuack Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "fast, 

strong, dashing current." 
Cochituate Lake and Village, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, 

"place of swift water." 
Cochnewagon Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "closed up 

route." See Capanewagen. 
Cochpinnecote Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

green bank" (grass covered rim?) Also given as "owl's nest 

place." 
Cockamong River, Byram River, between Connecticut and New 

York. See Armonek and Comonck. 
Cockampoag Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "long pond." 

Also Cocumpaug. 
Cockaponset State Forest, Middlesex County, Mass. Wangunk, 

"the boundary is at this falls." 
Cockenoe Island and Harbor, Fairfield County, Conn. Montauk, 

"he interprets and sets things down." From name of the 

Indian who arranged Norwalk deeds in 1652. Also Checkinoo. 

Cocumcussuc Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? "high 
place" or "place of high rock." 

55 



Cocumscusset Brook, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? 
''place of high rock." (Given also as "whetstones-place, *' 
''stones in brook," and "outlet of cove.") 

Coddank New London County, Conn. Mohegan-Pequot, "cleared 
land." 

Coddude Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the end," or 
"thesummit"[?] 

Codtaumut Barnstable County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "desired 
place"[?], "place of trading" [?] or "where they sing"[?] 

Goes Reservoir and Village, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"pine tree." 

Coeset Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "pine place." See 
Cowekesit. 

Coginchaug Brook, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangimk, "at the 
place where they cure fish" by drying and smoking. Similar 
to Androscoggin. Another source gives "long swamp." 

Cohanit Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the long place," 
or "at the pine place" ? 

Cohannet Road, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
long place," or "at the pine place." 

Cohasset Village, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "high place 
(where we fish)" or "at the promontory." See Quonahassit. 

Coheassuck Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "pine tree place" ? 
or "brook near the pines" ? 

Cohoes Brook, Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "a pine tree." 

Cohoos Pond, Cheshire County, N. H. Ahnaki, "a pine tree." 

Coicus see Nonacoicus. 

Cokesit see Coaksett. 

Colicum Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "whistling 
duck." 

Collegewidgwock see Kollegewidgewook. Ahnaki, "mixed rapids." 

Collicut Brook, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the place of 
flames." 

Comet Hollow, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "at the house." 
Also given as "long hollow" or "pine hollow." See Asnacan- 



conuc. 



56 



Commquessakumkanet (Herring Pond) Plymouth County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, ''at the rock which stands erect." Variant, 

Commassakumkanit. 
Comonck River; Byram River, between Connecticut and New 

York. Siwanoy\_l^, "fishing place." 
Comphegan see Quamphegan, * 'scoop net." 
Compo Neck, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "long pond" ? 

or "scoop net" ? 
Compounce Pond, Hartford County, Conn. Named after an old 

Tunxis Indian, John Compound; hence Compound's Pond, 

etc. 
Conamicut Island; same as Conanicut, Quonanicut, etc. 
Conampsquenooncoat River, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "at the 

long stone ledge." Sometimes given as "long rat meadow 

field." 
Conanicut Island, Park and Point, Washington County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "the especially long place." Named for chief 

Canonicus, who died in 1647. Variants Conanticut, Canonicut, 

Quonaniquot, Quononicut, Quononiquit, etc. 
Conaquetoque Island, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"place of the long stream." 
Conaquotoag see Quanacontaug or Quonacontaug. 
Conaytuck Brook, New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long 

stream," or "tall tree" ? Also Connoughtug. 
Conconchewachet see Caucaujawatchuk and Cawncawnjawatchuk. 
Condeskeag Me. See Kenduskeag, "eel weir place." 
Congamond Lakes, Ponds and Village, Hampden County, Mass. 

Nipmuck, "long fishing place." Another source gives "parched 

land place." 
Congamuck Lakes, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long 

fishing place." 
Congamund Pond, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long 

enclosed fishing-lake." See Congamuck. 
Conic Lake and Stream, Washington County, Me. If this should 

be spelled Gonic, it is probably Abnaki, "spearing place." 
Conimicut Point and Village, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett; 

probably from the name of Canonicus's granddaughter, 

Quenimiquet (or Quinimikit). 

57 



Connaug Pond, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "long 
place." 

Connecticut Lakes, River, and State. Rising in Coos County, 
N. H., the Connecticut flows south to separate New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont, then divides Massachusetts and Conn- 
ecticut. Hence in several New England dialects, ''the place 
of the long river." 

Connitic see Connecticut. 

Conob Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "long 

rock". 
Conockonquit Rose Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"place at the long point." 
Conohasset see Cohasset, and Quonahassit. 

Conomo Point and Village, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "plenty 
of fish," or possibly, "long fish (eels, or lampreys)." 

Consamasset Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "place 
of sharp rocks" ? or "place of long fish (eels)" ? 

Consamasset Land, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "sharp 
rocks place." Also Consamset, Consmassic, Cawsumsett. 

Conskuet Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
long rock or reef," "at the long outlet," or "the long pouring- 
out place." 

Consue Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the long soft, 
miry place" or "extensive bog." 

Consumpsit Rock, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "sharp- 
ening rock," "whetstones," or "sharp rock." 

Conticoog Branch. See below. 

Contocook Merrimack County, New Hampshire. Originally fa- 
kunteku, possibly from Ahnaki, "nut trees river," or Naiick, 
"small plantation at river." 

Contoocook River, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "place of the 
river near the pines." Given also as "at the river of the crows," 
but see Coaticook. 

Coocatoonemaug Brook and Pond, Worcester County, Mass. 
Niprmick, "eel fishing place." See also Catacoonamug. 

Cooksacky Rutland County, Vt. Mahican, "snake-place," or 
"owl place," or "rocky point." 

Coojoot see Cajoot. 

58 



Coonamesset Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long 

fish place," also "pine place/' 
Coonempus Road, Block Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragan- 

sett, "long reef" or "long gravelly place'' ? 
Coos Intervales, along both sides of the Connecticut River from 

Newbury, Orange County, Vt., and Haverhill, Grafton 

County, N. H., northward through Essex County, Vt., and 

Coos County, N. H. Coosuc [a Pennacook subdivision], "the 

place of the pine trees." 
Coos County, N. H. Pennacook, "a pine tree." 
Coos Junction, Coos County, N. H. Pennacook, "a pine tree." 
Coosauk Falls, Coos County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the place of 

the pines." 
Coosuck now Newbury, Orange County, Vt. Pennacook, "at the 

place of the pines." Variant, Koes-seck. 
Cooxissett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the grove 

of small pines." 
Copassanatuxet Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, a modification 

of OccMpessatuxit, "cove on small tidewater river or inlet." 

Other spellings Copassnetuxit, Copessnatuxit, etc. 

Copecut Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "thicket place, 

place of refuge; closed-in place." 
Copicut Neck, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the closed- 

up place." 
Copicut River and Hill, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at 

the refuge place." 
Coppoanissett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "little har- 
bor" or "small landing place (for canoes)." Also Coppanissett. 
Coquitt Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "an arrow point," 

or possibly, "at the high point." 
Corum Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a valley," or "low 

country." Perhaps originally Moonouhkoigeum, "low land," 

later corrupted into Moncorum. 
Cosattuck see Coassatuck. 
Coschow Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick, "high" or 

"summit," or from a Wangunk family of that name. 
Cos Cob ViUage, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "high rock." 

See Cassacubque. 

59 



Coskata Beach and Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"grove of trees" ? or "broad woods" ? 

Cossonowock Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonasset, "long stone 
place," or "pestles-place." Also Cassomacook and Cousso- 
unacock. 

Cotackta Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "hill top," or 
"at the summit." 

Cottinackeesh Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "little farms 
place," or "he digs and plants a field." Also translated as 
"ground planted now, little heaps" i. e., hills of com and 
beans. 

Cottonchusett Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"piled up hills place." A reference to sand dunes, or to hills 
of corn and beans ? 

Cottoyowsekeesitt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "miry 
brook meadow." 

Cotuit Barnstable County, Wampanoag, "at the long planting 

fields." 
Coucomgomoc Lakes, etc. See Caucomgomoc. 

Counnitegou The Connecticut River. Abnaki, "the long river." 

So spelled on a 1713 map published in France. 
Couxsachrage see Koghserage. 

Cowamps a locality in Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "shar- 
pening rock," or "whetstone rock." Also Cowomsq, Cowomsk, 
Cowomsque; these last possibly "sharp, jagged rocks." 

Cowasset River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
place of pines." 

Cowassit New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the pine 
woods." Given also as Cowissick, Koessek, etc. 

Cowate Middlesex County, Mass. Nalick, "pine tree place." An 

ancient village site. 
Cowaude Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "pine place." 

Cowautacuck Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "pine woods 
place." 

Cowekesit Kent County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "pine tree place" 
or "place of young pines." Spelled Coweset, Cowesit and 
Cowesuck. 

60 



Cowesawaskoog Peak, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, "sharp- 
pointed mountain place." Possibly the same as Kearsarge, q. v. 

Cowesiseck River, Mill River, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "pine 
tree place.*' 

Cowissewaschook Kearsearge Mountain, Merrimack County, N. H. 
Abnaki, "at the pointed mountain." 

Cowsigan Narrows, Sheepscot River, Kennebec County, Me. 
Malecite, "rough rocks." Also Cowsegan and Cowseagan. 

Cowsumpsit Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, "place of sharp 
rocks." 

Cowsumsett Neck, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
of sharp rocks." 

Cowwaus New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "pine grove." 

Cowwautatuck River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"pine woods river." (If Cowwautacuck, "pine woods land.") 

Crackatuxet Cove, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "swampy 
little stream, or creek." 

Crockemago "corn-hoeing?" See Rockomeko. 

Cromesit Point, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
fishing place; deserted place," or "deserted fort." 

Cumma^d Harbor and Village, Barnstable County, Mass. 
Wampanoag, "enclosed place" or "harbor." Also given as 
"shore of the island." 

Cumnuck Island, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "shut- 
in place." (As this island is in a shallow pond, perhaps the 
meaning includes "we can walk over to it.") Also Cimmoc. 

Cunney Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. (Probably Sawyer's 
Mountains?) If this is Indian, it is possibly the same as 
EJneo, q. v. 

Cupheag a cove near Stratford, Fairfield County, Conn. Paw- 
giissett, "at the cove," or "at the enclosed place," or "place 
of shelter." 

Cuppacomuck Swamp, Ledyard Pine Swamp, New London 
County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of refuge," or "enclosed 
grove" where we hide from our enemies. 

Cuppan augunit an ancient place of refuge north of Stonington, 
New London County, Conn. Pequot or Eastern Niantic, 
"enclosed hollow place," probably a geologic kettle hole. 

6i 



Cupsuptic Brook, Mountain, Pond and River, Oxford County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "a. closed-up stream." Some Indians say the closure 

was a wooden fish trap. 
Curritunk Falls, Township and Village, Somerset County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "crooked swift stream." 
Cushankamaug Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis? "eel-fishing 

place." Also, Onshankamaug. 
Cushcna Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "wet land?" 

"rough country" ? or possibly "near where it (the tide) runs 

out." 
Cushenag Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "wet 

place." See Acushnet. 
Cushnoc near Augusta, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "head 

of the tide." Also found as Cusinock, Cushuoog, Kussinak, 

etc. 
Cusumpe Pond, now Asquam Lake, Grafton County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "choked-up pond." Also possibly, "large rocks." 
Cutchegun Rock, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, from 

the name of Caleb Cutchegun, an Indian who lived near this 

rock. Said to be the largest detached boulder in New England. 

The famous Uncas lived near here, circa 1637. ^^so found as 

Corchegan. 

Cuttoquat Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the great 

tidal river." See Titicut. 
Cuttyhunk Harbor and Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

from poo-cutahunk-anow , "a thing that lies out in the great 

water." Another authority gives papaquantuck as a possible 

source, meaning "broken land." 
Cuxabesis Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Malecite, "little swift 

water." Also Cussabexis. 



-D- 

Daaquam River, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "thy beaver." 
Damariscotta Lake, and Village, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"plenty of alewives." 
Damariscove Island, Lincoln County, Me. Not Indian? More 

likely English, "DamerelFs Cove"[?] See Aguahega. 

62 



Damisokantic An old name for Megantic Pond, Franklin County, 
Me. Ahnaki, modified from Namesokantsik, ''place of many 
fish." 

Darongowa Apple Tree Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, 
"a large duck." 

Dawinehneh Big and Little Otter Creeks, Addison County, Vt. 
Mohawk "at the abode of otters" (The Mohawks made a pun 
on this name and that of a French missionary, the Abbe 
Thavenet, whom they called Pere Dawinet.) 

Debsconeag Deadwater and Lakes, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "ponds at the high place" or "ponds at the head of 
the waterway." 

Deekeewenskek upper Dobsy Lake, St. Croix System, Wash- 
ington County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the head or the source of 
the river." 

Dekaswenkarorens near Swanton, Franklin County, Vt. Mohawk 
"a sawmill." The French had a sawmill here in the late 1740's 
and early 1750's, on land leased from Missisquoi Indians, 
chiefly Abnaki, and Mahican. 

Delaware Indians inhabited New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, 
and much of lower New York. Calling themselves Lenni Le- 
nape, "real men," they were a confederation of three sub- 
groups, the Unami, Unalachtigo and Munsee. Many of the 
smaller Algonquian tribes looked upon them as their ances- 
tors. 

Deowcook Rattlesnake Peak, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, 
"that hill," or "great hill," kdj-watchuk. 

Deyehonwakwatha now the Carrying Place, Grand Isle County, 
Vt. Mohawk, "with which one picks up a canoe." 

Donwagayon meadows in Addison County, Vt. Mohawk, "an old 
muskrat lodge." 

Douaquec Hancock County, Me. Ancient name (1688) of territory 
between Penobscot and Union Rivers. See Douaquet. 

Douaquet ancient name for Falls Point, Hancock County, Me. 
Malecite, "a ridge;" a glacial kame. See also Adowaukeag. 

Dyonondakren probably Mt. Mansfield and Camel's Hump, 
Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, "mountains near to each 
other." 

63 



-E- 

Eacklionk River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "this 

is the end of the fishing place," or "as far up as the migratory 

fish go." Another authority suggests megunk, "a dry tree," or 

"a large tree.") See Egunk. 
Eascoheag see Escoheag. 
Easkissey Hill, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "old traps," 

"little green things," or perhaps "melon vines"[?] 
Ebeeme Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. If Indian, perhaps 

Abnaki, "extended." Also given as Ebeemin; in which case 

the translation would be "berries," perhaps huckleberries. 
Ebenecook Harbor, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "opens out behind 

the entrance-place." 
Edali andalach sime mook Castine Neck, Hancock County, Me. 

Abnaki, "place where they waited and rested." 
Edali chichi quasik Cape Rosier, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"the place where it is very narrow." 
Edali qu saguh holdemook Prospect Ferry, Hancock County, Me. 

Abnaki, "where one goes across." 
Edali seback lemook Castine Neck, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"where they waited for the tide." 
Edali teh wakeel amook Bald Hill Cove, Waldo County, Me. 

Abnaki, "the place where they run up hill" as a trial of 

strength and endurance. 
Edali weekek hadimook Hampden Narrows, Penobscot County, 

Me. Abnaki, "place where they (dwarfs, like Irish leprechauns) 

made marks on the cliff." 
Edal skowasimook Castine Neck, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"where you would have to wait and keep watch." 
Edawi maniwik inlet of Hermon Pond, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "where you can go either way." (Here one has a 

choice of two routes downstream.) 
Edjida Waskodek cleared place near Orono, Penobscot County, 

Me. Abnaki, "grassy place cleared by fire." 

Eggemoggin Reach, Hancock County, Me. Malecite," fLshweivplsice." 
Egol bayik the Third Machias Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Malecite, "long, narrow lake." 

64 



Egunk Hill, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the turn 

or bend" in a river or trail. 
Egunk Sonkapaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, ''at the 

turn, a cool spring/' 
Ehkapsak Little Falls Stream, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"rocky bottom." 
Ekonk Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck? "a bend or turn." 

See Eackhonk, and Egunk. 

Ekwanok Mountain, Bennington County, Vt. A fake? Many 
Vermont students have labelled this as an Indianized form 
of "equinox." If it were Indian, its Ahnaki form would be, 
roughly, "place of the fog;" if Delaware, "where clothing is 
distributed;" if Chippewa, "place of the woman." See Naidni, 
and Retaw-erif. 

Elandam ook ganop skitschwak the East Branch of the Penobscot 
River, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "where the falls go 
down like steps." See Skitchewaug. 

Elat Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "toward the hills. "[?] 

Ellala gwaga waysek Islands, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"where freshets overflow." 

Elligo Pond, Orleans County, Vt. If Indian, possibly from Ah- 
naki, "a birch bark dish" or "bowl-shaped, or scooped-out." 
Some suggest "it is a good" pond, but Day effectively argues 
against this on grammatical ground. Also Eligo Scootloon. 

Elligo-sigo now Black River, Orleans County, Vt. Ahnaki, "good 
river" ? This name, like Elligo above, defies translation. 
Perhaps Elligo-sigo means "a good place to plant (or return 
to) in the springtime." 

Ellitegway gamek a stream connecting Lewey's Lake and Big Lake, 
Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "where two lakes are con- 
nected by a river," or "waterway which enters into another." 

Emikus wassissek Ant Hills Island, Penobscot County, Me. 
Penobscot, "at the ants' nests." 

Emmetinic Matinicus Island, Knox County, Me. This old form 

appears in the Jesuit Relations, 1611. See Matinicus. 
Ennenstyacks same as Yennenstyaks, q. v. 

Epawames Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "covering tree," 
or "bark-covering of a tree"[?] Variant, Apawamia. 

5 65 



Epituse probably Fisherman's Island, Lincoln County, Me. 
Malecite, "sticking up, you have to go around." 

Eptchedgewak Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "up and down- 
stream currents (or opposing currents) meet here." 

Epuk unikek Harrison's Island, Washington County, Me. Male- 
cite , "island you have to go around." 

Equies Brook and Swamp, Bristol County, Mass. Said to be 
from Mohegan, an abbreviation of "Tantoquieson's." See 
Tanta quidgeon. 

Erascohegan Parker's Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"a watching place." 

Escoheag Village, Kent County, R. I. Quinehaug (a Nipmuck 
subdivision), "this is as far as the fish-spearing goes," or "fork 
in the river where we spear fish." This is given as "three forks 
in the river," or "source of three rivers." Also, possibly from 
muskoheag, "red land," or from mickuckaskheek," a meadow." 
Variants, Escoheague and Eastrig. See Neastoquaheaganuck. 

Escumbuit Island, Rockingham County, N. H. Micmac, "at the 

watching place." 
Escutassis Brook and Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"brook trout," or "small trout." 
Escutnagen Mopang Lake, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"trout lake." 
Eskweskwewadjo Bald Mountain, Katahdin Range, Piscataquis 

County, Me. Ahnaki, "green tree covered mountain," or 

"evergreen hill." 
Espowet Creek, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett? or Wam- 

panoag? "at the large cove." See also Sapowet. 

Esqui wamigook Spruce Island, Washington County, Me. Ah- 
naki, "greens right down to the shore," or "place of green 
boughs." 

Essick Stockton, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "clam place." 
These were soft clams, Mya arenaria, used for baking and 
steaming. 

Eyamquittoo wau connuck Mohegan Village, New London County, 
Conn. Mohegan, "town or plantation of equals or brothers." 
This name was also given to Brothers Town, a New England 
Christian Indian settlement at Deansboro, N. Y. 

66 



-F- 

Fennapoo Bowditch Ledge, Baker's Island, Barnstable County, 
Mass. If this is Indian, it may be a corruption of a Wampa- 
noag word, pennapu, meaning ''sloping seat," or "lobster 
trap." However, since F is absent in Algonkian dialects, it 
may be from sennapu, "rock seat." 

Foxon New Haven County, Conn. Mohegan? Peqiwt? Foxon, 
alias Poxon, witnessed deeds in 1640. A possible derivation 
may be puck sun, "fiat stone," or "level rock." 

-G- 

Gaentake now Beaver Brook, Rockingham County, N. H. Penna- 
cook, "red river." 

Gallowa Several places along the Maine coast; exact locations 
now lost. Derived from the mythical Malecite bird (either a 
giant eagle or osprey) which could seize and carry away pigs, 
lambs, or infants. The Micmac had a similar roc-like bird, 
Kidloo-ok, which has traces in Malecite legends surviving in 
Washington County, Maine. Also Gallawass. 

Ganawes Wood Creek, Rutland County, Vt. Mohawk, "the river." 

Ganonwarohare Isle aux T^tes, north of Franklin County, Vt. 
Mohawk, "head is hoisted up." See Wdepsek. 

Gansett Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanaog, "at the drinking 
place," or "at the well." 

Gashee Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "warm 
pond." Also Gushee. 

Gashekwaneh Lake Champlain near West Haven, in Rutland 
County, Vt. Mohawk, "big fish spear." Also Kohshahquahna. 

Gassabias Lake, Hancock County, Me. Ahnaki, "small clear- 
water lake." 

Gawaysik see Pokey. 

Gawenidakhe Isle la Motte, Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, 
"island alongside" (another island). 

Gawenio Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, "the large or beautiful 
island." 

Gaywaysick Crawford Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 
"large body of water." 

5* 67 



Gebeag Islands, Casco Bay, Cumberland County, Me. See Che- 
beague. 

Geeyahoo wudchi oose taughannick New London County, Conn. 
Mohegan, "we come from beyond the distant (western) 
mountains." Said to be the origin of Taconic, q. v. 

Genesag arumsis Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite or 
Ahnaki, Said to be from gan "bone" and ammsis (modern 
Ahnaki, cdamoos) "little dog;" hence "bones for the little 
dog"? Probably this is an Indian guide's joke; other roots 
give ''clay as white as bleached bones." 

Genesee Brook, Washington County, R. I. Onondaga, "beautiful 
valley," or Seneca, "there it has fine banks." 

Gesquoquasset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "sturgeon 
stream," or possibly, "at the wide rocks." 

Godmorrocke Marsh, York County, Me. Probably an English 
word; but if Indian, possibly Natick, kuhpoke munnohke, 
"protected landing place" at island? or kuhpoke munnocks, 
"haven of the brant goose" ? 

Gonic Strafford County, N. H. Ahnaki, "salmon spearing place." 

Gotomska Bristol County, Mass. Mohegan, "big rocks" or "top of 

rocky cliff." 
Grand Manan Channel, Washington County, Me. A composite 

French and Micmac term, "Big Island" Channel. 

Greylock Mountain, Berkshire County, Mass. Greylock was the 
Waranoke chief of the Missisquoi refugees from Massachus- 
setts and Connecticut, plus a few from New York, circa 1723. 
Possibly his Indian name was Wahantep, meaning "White 
Head." 

Guagas Stream, Hancock County, Me. Micmac, "rough stream" 
or "low flooded ground." 

Guna Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. If Indian, perhaps a 

corrupted form of a Mahican word, gunnunk, "a tall standing 

tree." 
Gunasquamecook ancient name for Indian village at Passama- 

quoddy, Washington County, Me. Probably Malecite, "long 

point harbor or beach." 
Giingy Wamps an elevation near Groton, New London County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "high rocks." 

68 



Guonitogou Connecticut River. Pennacook? Ahnaki? "the Long 

River." 
Gyobscot Point, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, ''standing-up 

rocks place.'' 

-H- 

Hahkik Watpuk Seal Head, Fox Islands, Washington County, 
Me. Malecite, "seal's head." 

Hakewamepinke Washington County, R. I. Narragansett "end of 
the dry field" ? or "edge of the bank" ? 

Hammonassett Beach, Point and River, New Haven County, 
Conn. Hammonassett, "at the place of small islands or sand- 
bars." Some say, "where we dig holes in the ground" for 
planting or for water. Variants, Hamonascitt, Homonasuk, 
Ammonassuk, etc. 

Hanoi menahanol Five Island Rapids, Penobscot County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "five islands." See Nanenol Mehanol. 

Haquessiik Kuppamuke Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"enclosure with stones around it" or "place of refuge at 
boundary brook" or "thicket at boundary stream." 

Harco monco Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "hook 
shaped fishing place" ? 

Harraseeket River, Cumberland County, Me. No satisfactory 
explanation available; perhaps not Indian. If Ahnaki, per- 
haps "full of obstacles, small islands." 

Hash kinnet Chaopket Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the great long cove" or "stone field hill summit place" ? 

Hasnebumskeag see Asnebumsket. 

Hassacky Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "swamp, meadow." 
Variants, Hessekee, Hossockie, etc. 

Hassamanisco Location unknown. Possibly Hartford County, 
Conn. TunxisP "gravelly place" or "place of small stones." 

Hassanamesit Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place where 
there is (much) gravel" or "at the place of small stones." 

Hassawassuck Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "between two 
brooks." See Assawassuc. 

Road Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, ^'rock 
ledge," or "overhanging rocks." 

69 



Hassunek Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, ''at the stony 

place" (Perhaps a ledge; a rock-shelter in an overhang; a 

cave?) Eliot gives "a ledge of rocks." 
Heagan Mountain, Waldo County, Me. PennacookP "a dwelling." 

Possibly named for chief Sampson Hegan, 1698. 
Hesseke Meadow New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "meadow 

place" or "swampy land." 
Hiawatha Lake, Norfolk County, Mass. Onondaga or Mohawk, 

"maker of rivers," circa 1550. 
Higganum Village and Reservoir, Middlesex County, Conn. 

Mohegan ; this is the middle part of Tom heganom psk "quarry 

where we get stone for axes (tomahawks)." 
Higganum ompos or Higgan ompsk Middlesex County, Conn. 

Mohegan? "tomahawk rocks." See Higganmn. 
Hinkum Pond, Rutland County, Vt. If Indian, possibly from 

Wampanoag or Narragansett, honck, "gray goose," the 

Canada goose. 
Hoanantum Hill. See Nonantum. 
Hobbomoc Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "evil spirit." 

Named for a Wampanoag sagamore who helped the Pilgrims 

in 1620. Other spellings Hobomoco, Hobbamocke, Hoboomook. 

Hobbomocka Hockomock Point, Arrowsic Island, Sagadahoc 
County, Me. Ahnaki, "hellish place" or "hell gate." 

Hoccanum Hampshire County, Mass. Mohican, "shaped like a 
hook" See Hockanum. 

Hochelaga Camp, Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, "at the 
beaver dam." This is the ancient name of Montreal, Province 
of Quebec, Canada. 

Hockamock Swamp, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "hook- 
shaped place" or "land formation like a hook." 

Hockananimi Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "place very 
much hook-shaped." 

Hockanum Hill, Franklin County, Mass. Natick, "hook-shaped." 

Hockanum River, Tolland County, Conn. Podunk, "a hook." 
Other spellings Hoccanum, Hoccanam, etc. 

Hockanum Village, Hartford County, Conn. Podunk, "a hook." 
Other places and streams of same name in Fairfield and 
New Haven Counties. 

70 



Hocquan Barnstable and Hampshire Counties, Mass. Natick, 
"a hook." 

Hogamockock Point, Lincoln County, Me. No satisfactory trans- 
lation of this old name. Perhaps Ahnaki, "place of the palisade 
made of sharpened logs driven into the ground." 

Homoganset Shore, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, ''at 
the fishing place." (This word may be the remainder of a 
phrase meaning in addition, "at low tide there are fresh 
water springs.") Also translated as "hunting grounds." 

Honkamonk Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, "hook- 
shaped lake" or possibly "wild goose place" (?) See also, 
Oushankamaug "eel fishing place." 

Hooksett Merrimack County, N. H. See Annahooksett and Onna- 
hooksett. 

Hoosac Tunnel, Berkshire County, Mass. Mohican, "rock place" ? 
or "mountain rock" ? 

Hoosac Hill, Rockingham County, N. H. Mohican? "stone place" ? 

Hoosac Mountains, Bennington County, Vt. Mahicon, "rim of the 
earthen kettle," or "stone place"[?]. Or perhaps Natick, 
abbreviated from nohoosic, "a pinnacle." 

Hoosic River, Bennington County, Vt. Mohican, "rim of the 
kettle," or from the Natick name wussockhosick, "writing- 
house."[?] 

Hoosichisic Lake, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "place of the 
writings." Given also as Hoosic whisic. 

Hoosicwhisic Pond, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the place 

of the small kettle" ? or "kettle runs almost dry" ? or "place 

of the writings" ? 
Hosokey Meadow, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "marsh 

land" Spelled also Hosokie. 
Housatonic River and Village, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahicon, 

"beyond the mountain" Other spellings Hoestunnuc, House- 

tunnack, House of Tunnick, etc. 

Housatonic River, Litchfield and New Haven Counties, Conn, 
and Berkshire County, Mass. Mahicon, "at the place beyond 
the mountain." 

Humarock Plymouth County, Mass. ? Wompanoag? "shell place" ? 
or "rock carving" ? 

71 



Humhaw Brook, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "filled up, 

brimming." 
Hummock Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. From the name of a 

Nantucket chief. Nana Humacke. 
Humolatski hegon Roque Bluffs, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 

"many carvings on rocks." 
Huson Tract, Strafford County, N. H. Modified Natick, "a stone." 

Also Husow, Whisow, Hussun and Husone. 
Hyamiis Village, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, from 

Anayanough's Place. Anayanough (or lyanogh, "He who 

wages war") was a chief who lived here in the early i6oo's. 
Hyponeco Brook, Cheshire County, N. H. Pocumtuck[7] "on 

both sides of the falls." 

-I- 

lagoo Pond, Washington County, R. I. Chippewa, "boaster, or 
story teller." A corruption by way of Longfellow's Hiawatha. 
lannough's see Hyamiis, "The Warrior." 
Igowam see Agawam. 
Indian Joe see Sozap Nebees. 
Indian Molly see Mali Bowk. 

Irocoisia on ancient maps this name was affixed to the Champlain 
Valley, embracing the western parts of Rutland, Addison, 
Chittenden, Franklin Counties and all of Grand Isle County, 
Vermont. See Iroquois. 

Iroquois Lake, Chittenden County, Vt. Algonquin, from Iriakhoiw, 
plus French suffix -ois, "real adders." This term of hatred 
was applied by the Algonquians to the Iroquois people. 

-J- 

Jabish River, Hampshire County, Mass. If Indian, perhaps from 
Mahican, "swarms of flies." Also given as "boundary place," 
or "separated hill," cheppi-ach. 
Jamaica Plain and Pond, Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "beaver." 
Jamaica Windham County, Vt. Natick, "beaver." 
Jebucto Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki[?] from the name of an 
Indian who lived at Chebeague in 1680. 

72 



Jeebege Island. See Chebeague. 

JigwaUick Marsh along Lewis Creek, Addison County, Vt. Modi- 
fied Ahnaki, "frogs." See Chickwolnepy. 

Jimskitikuk Stillwater Branch, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
*''big, still water." 

Jossawilock see Ashuelot. 

-K- 

Kabaumkeag Washington County, Me. Malecite or Ahnaki? 

"stopped up by sandbars." 
Kachewalunk Pond. See Uncache walunk, "acorn place." 
Kachkesset Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where grass 

is cut or mowed" or "green place." 
Kadesquitt see Kenduskeag and Condeskeag. 
Kaghsk-i-binday a camp ground near Brewer, Penobscot County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "cedars." 
Kahgognamock (Black River, West tributary of the Penobscot) 

Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "big bony fish place." 
Kahkoguamook Lake. Same as Caucomgomoc Lake. 
Kahnonahjik White Squaw Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "long island." 
Kahus weskeete heenouk Washington County? or Aroostook 

County? Me. Micmac, "muskrat eaters," or "muskrat 

people," a term of derison applied to the Malecite. 
Kahwehniyo same as Gawenio, q. v. 
Kahyonhes the Otter Creek, Rutland and Addison Counties, Vt. 

Mohawk, "long stream." 
Kamankeag Pond, Franklin County, Me. Ahnaki? or Malecite? 

"near the weir," or perhaps "near the submerged weir." 
Kamesset Point, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place 

of great fish;" also given as "pine place." 
Kamouraska County, Province of Quebec, Canada. This name 

is applied to several places in northern New England, notably 

Windham County, Vt. Ahnaki, "birch bark here." 
Kanakolus Bay, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "long flame"? 
Kananghetne a point near Damariscotta, Lincoln County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "a sharp turn." 

73 



Kancamagus Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Named for a 

Pennacook chief, alias John Hodgkins, 1648. Possible meaning, 

"plenty of small fish." 
Kangatsigwi Kearsarge Mountain, Merrimack County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "very steep." 
Kanionra Chimney Point, Addison County, Vt. Mohawk, "smoke- 
hole at the top" or "chimney-hole." 
Kanondoro The Narrows at Thompson's Point, Chittenden 

County, Vt. Mohawk, "narrow portal." 
Kansas Village, Bennington County, Vt. Kaw, "the wind," or 

"the south wind." 
Kanyagwaronton ridges of hard rock, Franklin County, Vt. 

Mohawk, "flint mounds." 
Kanyatatakwaronte Lake Champlain (north of the narrows), 

Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, "the bulge in the waterway." 

Variant, Ganyadaragwa-ronde. 
Kaoosi Menahan Cow Island, Penobscot County, Me. English- 

Ahnaki, "cow's island." 
Kaouasaki Grand Lake, Schoodic System, Washington County, 

Me. Penobscot- Ahnaki, "place of gulls." This name is found 

on Father Aubery's map of 1715. 
Kappowongamick Hampden County, Mass. Mahican, "place shut 

in by the bend in the river." Also Kuppowankomuck. 
Karsaootuk Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "pine river." 
Kaskaashadi an ancient name for the Merrimack River, N. H. 

Pennacook or Old Ahnaki for "deep obstructed, broken 

water." 
Kaskactchawack River, now the Black River, Windsor County, 

Vt. Ahnaki, "at or near the mountains with steep sides." 
Kaskekouke now the Hoosac River, near Pownal, Bennington 

County, Vt. Ahnaki, modified by French, "steep place." 
Kaskoi Menahan Grand Isle County, Vt. Ahnaki, "heron island." 

Kaskoo naguk Mark Island, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "crane 
island." 

Kassanum ganumkeag a "rips" in a stream near Lincoln, Penobs- 
cot County, Me. Ahnaki, "rapid current over coarse gravel." 

Katachinoc Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "big mountain 
place" ? 

74 



Katahdin Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, ''the 
principal mountain." Other spellings include Ktaahden, 
Ktahdin, Taddon, etc. 

Katama Bay and Point, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 
great fishing place," or perhaps "crab place," Katawamacke? 

Katamaug Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the great fishing 
place." 

Katananuck Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "crab fishing 
place" ? 

Katawamkeag the Great Landing Place, Lermond's Cove, Knox 
County, Me. Abnaki, "the great landing place," or "much 
sand exposed when the tide is out." 

Katawamskiway see Katawamkeag and Kawap skitchwak. 

Kathahnis River. See Cathance. 

Katomuckett Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "great 
fish place," or "great spring place." 

Katopskonegan Falls and Deadwater, the West Branch of the 
Penobscot River, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "long por- 
tage around rocks" or "portage around large rocks." 

Kattenanit Suffolk County, Mass. Named in honor of Job Katte- 

nanit, a Natick preacher at Hopkinton circa 1676. Probable 

meaning, "great expanse of sea" or "ocean." 
Kawakussaki Lake, same as Kaouasaki, q. v. 
Kawamasohkakannit Hill, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the field with the pines and the brook." 
Kawap skitchwak West Branch of Machias River, Washington 

County, Me. Abnaki, "rough, rocky rapids and falls," (like 

steps?) 
Kawassentekwa bare, rough places along the Connecticut River, 

Windham County, Vt. Abnaki, "it falls into the river because 

of the high wind." 
K'chenamenahan Grand Isle County, Vt. Abnaki, "the principal 

(or large) island." Also found as Kitchee Menan, Gitshee 

Menan, etc. 

K'chi mugwock i menahan Orson Island, Penobscot County, 

Me. Abnaki, "big bog island." 
K'chi Muskegw Windham County, Vt. Abnaki or Pennacook? 
"great (or principal) meadow." 

75 



K'clii Nay ok same as Chenayok, q. v. 

K'chi penabsq' mananook Treat Island, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, "big sloping ledges at the islands." 

K'chi Pontegok Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, "place of great 
river falls." 

K'chi Ponteguh Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, "great falls in 
the river," the Connecticut River at Walpole, opposite 
Bellows Falls, Vermont. 

K'chi p'saganum the stream connecting Big Lake and Lewey's 
Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "where they split 
boards to make skids for canoes." (so as to protect the 
bottoms from gravel in the streams). 

K'chi punahaquot a brook near Sipp Bay, Washington County, 
Me. Malecite, "principal place where tomcods come to spawn." 

Kearsarge Mountain, Merrimack County, N. H. Abnaki or 
Pennacook, "pointed mountain" [ ?]. This may not be an Indi- 
an name; if it is, translations vary from "proud, selfish," or 
"high place," to ki saage, "land that is harsh, rough, difficult." 

Kearsarge Village, Carroll County, N. H. See Cowissewaschook, 

also Kearsarge, above. 
Kebec the Narrows or Chops on Merrymeeting Bay, Sagadahoc 

County, Me. Abnaki and Micmac, "closed, or plugged." Same 

root-meaning as Quebec, and Capawack, q. v. 
Kebo Mountain, Hancock County, Me. If Indian, perhaps Abnaki, 

from kiba, "I fall"[?]. 
Kebumkewis Second Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"little mud bar lake." 
Kecheachy same as Cocheco, q. v. 
Kedinket Island, Washington County, R. I. If Indian, perhaps 

Narragansett, "a ship," or "on the ship," or "(it resembles) a 

little ship." 
Kedumcook The Hook, Hallowell, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, 

"shallow, gravelly ford." 
Keecamewett Bristol County, Conn. See Kickamuit. 
Keeck Pond Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "kettle 

pond" from ohkuk, "a kettle. "[?] 
Keekamanset Spring, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at 

the great valley." 

76 



Keekamoochaug see Kekamoochaug. 

Keekamuit Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "great 

spring." 
Keekomkwak places along Barton River, Orleans County, Vt. 

Abnaki, "abode of sucker fish." 
Keektawhank Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "rapid stream," 

or "dashing current." 
Keenaht Nassick now Treat Webster Island, or French Island, 

Penobscot County, Me. Penobscot- Abnaki, "steep island." 
Keesaug Brook, Carroll County, N. H. Abnaki, "principal out- 
flow." 
Keesequechan Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "swift water." 

Also Quequechan. 
Keetadoganapskwa Seebis Whetstone Brook, Windham County, 

Vt. Abnaki, "brook where we get whetstone." 
Keetahden Mount Mansfield, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, 

"the principal mountain." 
Keetutenny Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "principal town." 
Keewaydin Trail, Addison County, Vt. Chippewa "north," "people 

of the north," or "north wind." 
Keght Niganish Whiting River, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"the principal fork." 
Keheketooksook Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican? Pan- 

gussett? possibly "outlet of large stream." 
Kehtah Hanit or Kehtuh Hannupog the Atlantic Ocean and 

large bays along the coast. Natick, "principal salt bays." 

Kehtanit or Keihtannit was anciently the title of "The 

Lord God." 
Kehtitanunk perhaps present-day Cuttyhunk, q. v. 
Kejigigilhasis a camp site near Lake Fairlee, Orange County, Vt. 

Abnaki, "a chickadee." 
Kekamoochaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where the 

earth trembled." 
Kekamowadchaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "mountain 

where the earth trembles." 
Ke Kepan Agliesek the ancient name for Arrowsic Island, Saga- 
dahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "(island) which almost closes 

the channel." The French fought the English here in 1723. 

77 



Keketticut see Titicut. Also spelled Keticut. 

Kekuttokunta Hill Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "con- 
ference place," or "parley place." 

Keniboes Kisek ancient name for Dyers Neck, Lincoln County, 
Me. Probably Abnaki, "at the grassy place, near a network 
of streams." 

Kenduskeag Village and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Malecite 
"eel weir place." Before being modified by the English, the 
name was pronounced Katesquit. 

Keneba-eg River. See Kennebec. 

Kenemicut see Conimicut. 

Kennebago Lake and Mountains, Franklin County, Me. Abnaki, 
"long pond," or "large lake." 

Kennebec County, Maine. Abnaki, "long level water without 
rapids," or "long quiet water." Some students have wrongly 
traced this to the Chippewa word kenabeek, "serpent." 

Kennebec River, Maine. This stream anciently was called Aran- 
soack or Orantsoack, "rapids up-river," from Moosehead 
Lake to Norridgewock. Below Skowhegan it was known as 
Canebas or Kenebas, "long water," as far as Merrymeeting 
Bay. From there to the sea, Sagadahoc, "where the river 
flows out." 

Kennebunk Pond, River and Village, York County, Me. If Abnaki, 
perhaps, "long sandbar;" iiMicmac, "long cut (ditch) banks." 

Kenosha Lake, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "pickerel" or 
"pike." 

Kenoza Lake, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "a pike" or "a 
pickerel." 

Kenunck Pacooke Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, 
"where the body of water bends or turns." 

Keoka Lake, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "where they get (red) 
earth for pots" ? or if a transfer from Keuka, N.Y., Iroquoian, 
"canoes pulled out of water." 

Kepamkiak near the Campobello Ferry at Lubec, Washington 
County, Me. Malecite, "stopped-up by a gravel bar." 

Kequassagansett Pond, now Gates Pond, Worcester County, 
Mass. Natick, "at the place of the principal wells," or "open 
fields place." 

78 



Kermes Plymouth County, Mass. See Alkarmus. 

Kescayogansett Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"return to fishing place" ? or "high, rough place" ? 

Kesebem Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "chief, or 
principal, lake." 

Kesickamuck Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "stony 
fishing place" or "stone we stand on when fishing." Variant 
Kesikomuck, possibly "wide beach." 

Kesiog Pond, Hampden County, Mass. If Nipmuck, "place of 
briars or thorns." If Pennacook, "difficult place." See Kear- 
sarge. Also commonly Siog Pond. 

Kessalogesso Modik Five Island Rapids, Penobscot County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "where there is a swift water current." 

Kestaubeunk Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, modified by 
Dutch, "principal camping place." (Probably the same as 
Kestaubauck in Westchester County, N. Y.). 

Kestokas Field, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
great tidal creek." 

Keta Kouan the great portage at Waterville, Kennebec County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "principal crossing." 
Ketaumet see Cataumet. 
Ket h'nik Denny's River, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"principal fork." 
Keticut Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "on the great 

river." 
Ketsi M'weskw several places in Maine. Old Ahnaki, "Great Good 

Spirit; God." Modern Ahnaki, K'chi Niwaskw. 

Ket takone adchu Berkshire County, Mass., and Bennington 
County, Vt. Mahican, "great woody mountains," the Taconic 
range. 

Kettigwewick West Branch of Penobscot River, Penobscot County, 
Me. Ahnaki, "place of the great stream." 

Ketumscut off New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of 
the great rocks." See Catumb. 

Kewaydin Lake, Oxford County, Me. Chippewa, "north" or "north- 
people." 

Kewoutaquak see Cowwautatuck, "land of pine woods.'' 

79 



Kiasobeak now Nicatowis Lake, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"clear water lake/' 
Kickamuit River, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the large 

spring." (This is the most common of sixteen listed spellings). 

Kickemus Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Pennacook? "great 
moose." From an Indian's name; the father of Mamooson. 

Kikon a locality north of Bradford, Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"a field." 

Kinabsk atnek now Mount Waldo, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, 
"steep rocky mountain." 

Kineo Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "sharp peak." 
(This mountain is said by Indians to be Moose Rock, the 
petrified body of a moose slain by Glooskap, a wonder- 
worker). There is another Kineo in Grafton County, N.H. 

King Philip Mountain, Hartford County, Conn. King Philip was 
the English name for Metacom, Metacomet, or Pometacom, 
son of the great Massasoit. Metacom led an Indian in- 
surrection in New England, 1674 — 1676. 

King Philip's House; see Pometacomet. 

King Philip's Rock, Norfolk County, Mass.; see Metacomet. 

Kinkajou on the AUagash River, Aroostook County, Me. Micmac, 
"wolverine." from gigwadju (literally, "beast of the moun- 
tain.") This animal was believed to have supernatural 
powers. See Lunksoos. 

Kinnicum Pond, Rockingham County, N. H. Pennacook, "the 
long one," ? or Natick, "a mixture" ? Various plant leaves, 
plus red osier bark, mixed with tobacco, for smoking. 

Kishkituckock Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place or land 

near the bank of the stream," or "by the river side." Variants, 

Keshkiscotuk and Kiskotock. 
Kisnop Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "principal 

outlet" ? or "big rock" ? See Sconnoups. 
Kissacook Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Pennacook, "stony 

place," ? or "principal stream" ? 
Kissenaug New Haven County, Conn. Paugussett, "place of big 

stones." 
Kitachanniqut Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "principal long 

place," or "principal long beach." 

80 



Kitamuckqut Washington County, R. I. Narragansett "on the 
mainland opposite." Variants Kitacka muck nut, Kittack 
quamuck opelle, Kittacka mucket, Kittack quam uck quiet. 

Kitchee Ponteguh rapids on the Connecticut River, Windham 
County, Yt. Abnaki, "the principal rapids (or falls) in the river." 

Kitemaug west bank of Thames River, New London County, 
Conn. Mohegan, "the principal fishing place." Also Kittemaug. 

Kittansett Point, Plymouth County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "the 

great expanse of water; the ocean," also, "at the great point 

in the sea." 
Kitteaumut Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "principal 

fishing place" ? or "large spring" ? 
Kittituck Stream, now Blackstone River, Worcester County, 

Mass. Nipmuck, "at the large (or principal) tidal river." 
Klaganissecook Falls, Mattawamkeag River, Penobscot County, 

Me. Old Abnaki, "place of the noisy little stream." Other 

roots indicate, "little opening, like a door." 
Klondike Essex County, Mass., and Brook, Aroostook County, Me. 

Athapaskan, "hammer-water," referring to driving stakes 

into river bed so as to make a salmon trap. 
K'mokadich Moosabek Reach, Washington County, Me. Malecite? 

Abnaki? "plenty of vile insects." Porpoises were tried out 

here for their oil; perhaps the stench and the decaying flesh 

attracted flies. 
K'noonaghek Argyle Boom Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"long island." 
Koaktekauk Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, "river at the place of the 

pine trees." See Coaticook. 
Koategw Carroll County, N. H. Abnaki (literally), "Pine River." 
Kobossee Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "a sturgeon." 

Kobpakommocket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "refuge 
place, or hiding place." Probably in a swamp. Also Kow- 
bissowonket. 

Kochekok River, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "place of the 
rapid current," "big eddies," or "great kettle." 

Kochisuk exact locality unknown; probably several such along 
Passadumkeag Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki,^ 
"eel-weir place." 

6 8i 



Kodaak Wadjo Mount Washington, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"summit of the highest mountain." 
Kodttukoet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

summit of a hill." 
Koessek now Vernon, Windham County, Vt. Pennacook, "at the 

place of the pine trees." White captives from Massachusetts 

were brought here by Indians in King Philip's War,i675-i676. 

{Koessek was part of Squakheag). See also Coassit. 

Koessinock Essex County, Vt. Pennacook, "place of the pines." 

Koghserage northern Vermont and New York. Mohawk, "it is 
winter" (An old Choreographic Map of this country is marked 
"Koghserage Ancient Beaver Hunting Grounds of Six 
Nations.") Variant, Cochserage. 

Kogwees a camp site on Lake Fairlee, Orange County, Vt. Ab- 
naki, "a little porcupine." 

Kohanza Lakes, Fairfield County, Conn. If Indian, perhaps the 
name is garbled Mahican, "pike fish." 

Kohshahquahna see Gashekwaneh. 

Kok adjeweem gwasebem Roach Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Abnaki, "kettle (shaped) mountain lake." 

Kok adjeweem gwasebemsis Spencer Pond, Piscataquis County, 
Me. Abnaki, "little kettle-shaped mountain lake." 

Kokadjo Mountain and Village, Little Spencer Mountain, Pis- 
cataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "kettle mountain." At Moose- 
head Lake, Glooscap killed a large moose, which became 
Mount Kineo, then pursued a calf. To lighten his burden he 
threw down his kettle, which became Kettle Mountain. 

Kokohas wantepek a promontory at the western entrance to 
Penobscot Bay, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "at the owFs 
head;" hence the English name Owl's Head. 

Kolelemook Lake, Sullivan County, N. H. Abnaki, "shining 
pond." 

Kollegewidgewock Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "mixed salt and 
fresh water rapids." See Kuladam itchwan. 

Konesanouskek St. George Peninsula, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, 
"at the long rocky place." 

Kongscut Mountain, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "at the 
high place" or "high, rocky place." 

82 



Konikey Cliff, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long rock" 
or "high rock." But see Kodttukoet. 

Konkapot River, Litchfield County, Conn. Named for a Stock- 
bridge Mohican chief; possibly his name meant "long spout." 

Konkapot Village, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, from the 
name of a Stockbridge chief, Capt. John Konkapot, 1775. 

Konomoc Lake, New London County, Conn. Perhaps Pequot, 
"(plenty of) lamprey-eels (long fish) here." See Taubak- 
onommok. 

Koomasabunkawitt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "great 
or principal herring, alewive, or mossbunkers fishing-place." 
(Mossbunkers are menhaden, used for fertilizer). 

Kotget Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag? "a piece of land" ? 
or ''a heap" ? An old name for Muskeget Island. 

Kowawesuck-pumotaash Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"long line, or field of small pines." 

Kozoapskwa Thompson's Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"long stony place." 

K'seusk-i-naghassik Little Hemlock Island, Penobscot County, 
Me. Abnaki, "black growth on small island." Lumbermen 
call hemlocks and another evergreens "black growth." 

K't-ahguantek the Grand Landing Place, Knox County, Me. 
Abnaki, "the principal landing place." 

K'tchi-peskwahonda Fort Knox, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, 
"big guns." 

K'tolbeh-i-ahmikenaqu-naghek Namokanok Island, Lincoln Coun- 
ty, Me. Abnaki, "snapping turtle shell (shaped) island." 

K'tolbewik Fourth Lake Machias, Washington County, Me. 
Abnaki, "snapping turtle lake." 

Kubtuliquetiiet Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the great 
place on the island." 

Kuladam-itchwan Blue Hill Tide Falls, Hancock County, Me. 
Abnaki, "mixed salt-and-fresh water rapids." When the tide 
is running out, the stream is less salt than the ocean; as 
the tide rises, the stream becomes almost as salty as the 
Atlantic. 

Kuncanowet Hills, Merrimack County, N. H. Natick, "near the 
long sharp places (ridge of hills)." 

6* 83 



Kunckiunkqualluck Hampshire County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "roll- 
ing hills land," or "high round hills place."; 
Kiinckquachu now Mount Toby, Hampshire"^ County, Mass. 

Mohican, "very high mountain." 
Kuppi komuk Swamp, New London County, Conn. Mohegan- 

Peqiiot, "closed place; enclosure; place of refuge." 
Kuppowonkunok Hampshire County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "at the 

enclosed place near the bend." 
Kushequa see Gashekwaneh. 
Kuskaidzowak the Black River, Windsor County, Vt. Ahnaki, 

"broad current." 
Kussompskauk New London County, Conn. Mohegan? or Narra- 

gansett? "place of hot stones." Possibly a clam-baking or 

oyster-roasting site. See Pissepimk. 
Kussus Kook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "stony 

faUs" ? 
Kusumpe Pond; see Cusumpe, and Kussompskauk. 
Kutshamakin Hill, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "big plume, 

"or great feather." Also Kuttis-amequin, "cormorant's plume." 

Named for the sachem of Dorchester, 1643. 
Kuttanoo New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "the sea." 

Long Island Sound. 
Kuttis-amequin see Kutshamakin. 

Kuttisog New London County, Conn. Narragansett? "cormorants." 
Kuttoowaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "speaking 

place." If Kuttoowaug, "bend in the sea; a bay"[?] 
Kuttutuck the Blackstone River, Windham River, Conn. Nip- 

muck, "the principal river," or "the great river." Also 

Kuttatuck, Kittituck, Kuttuck, Quttuc, etc. 
Kwagustchusk see Quagachusque. 
Kwanok sagamik Loon Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"lake that comes to a point." 
Kwaykway-nahmak Long Reach, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"big long fish place," possibly "sucker fish place." 
Kwedawi-manwik Hermon Pond Inlet, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "downstream, rivers not far apart." 
Kwel-bedjwanosik on Stillwater Branch, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "where currents turn as they meet." 

84 



Kwenosakek mouth of Lamoille River, Chittenden County, Vt. 

Abnaki, **at the place of pike-fish." 
Kwesahkamegus see Quisquamego. 
Kwetahwamkitik near Pea Cove, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"long stream, sandy bottom." 
Kweu-euk tonoonk began the Moose River, Aroostook County, 

Me. Abnaki, "snowshoes." 
Kwikwimes-witicook Marsh River, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, 

"black duck stream." 
Kwini teguh the Connecticut River. Abnaki, "the long river." 

-L- 

Lacasse come cook Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "place of 

bark cabin." Same place as Allagask-wigamook, Allagash, etc. 
Lakeutta Nantucket County, Mass. Lenape? "sandy place," from 

lekati, "sand," and modified locative tit. 
Lampopeag Branch, Aroostook River, Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "(crooked) like-a-rope stream." 
Lapomique Branch (of Aroostook River), Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "crooked, like a rope." 
Lashaway River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "between." 

See Nashua. 
Liswoosuckit Nipmuck modification of Niswosaket, now Woon- 

socket? 
Loshtock the Long River, St. John's River, Aroostook County, 

Me. Abnaki? Malecite? "wide, shallow, shining." 
Louisquisset Pike, Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck, "at the 

meeting place." Other spellings (more than 20) include 

Locasquisset, Loquassuck, Loquasquocit, etc. 
Lunksoos Mountain, Pond and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "a catamount." 

-M- 

Ma-adameg Falls, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "alewives place." 
Ma-ada-ouamkeag same as Mattawamkeag, q. v. 

Ma-adom-cog Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "alewives 
place," or perhaps "shad place"[?] 

85 



Maanepes Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "sluggish 
stream," or "slow water." 

Maanexit Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "path," or "gath- 
ering;" also "place of meekness." Also a river in Worcester 
County, Mass. 

Maasbaak Mossback Meadow, Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, "much 

water place," or "overflowed." 
Mabautuantucksuck Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, 

"outlet of rushing river" ? or "waters rushing past wooded 

hill" ? 
Machaquamaganset Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? 

or Narragansett? "place of big beach wells," i. e., hollow logs 

sunk in sand so that they fill up with fresh water at low tide. 

Machegony ancient name for Portland, Cumberland County, Me. 
Micmac, "shaped like a large knee." Also Machigonne. 

Machemoodus East Haddam, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, 
"there is a bad noise." Variants Machamadoset, Machma- 
donset, and Machamoodus. 

Machemux Fairfield County, Conn. PaugussettP possibly a 
corruption of machequox, "a belt of wampum," or perhaps 
from the name of Mahackemo, Sachem of Norwalk ? 

Machepaconapunsuck Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? 

"Big enclosure near falls in the brook" ? or "big bank near 

brook falls" ? 
Machewisis Falls, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "bad little 

falls." 
Machias several place names in Maine, particularly the Lake 

System in Aroostook County, are known by this name, 

from Abnaki, meaning "bad little falls." 

Machimucket Brook, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "bad 

fish here," or Narragansett, "it stinks" or perhaps "great 

fishing place" ? See Mashamoquet. 
Machipiscat New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "stony 

path" or "rocky trail." 
Machipscat Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a stony path" or 

"rough place." 
Machlich-Nagook Hardwood Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "growth of hardwoods on this island." 

86 



Machuset Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

hill." 
Mackinackock a small cove near Thompson's Point, Chittenden 

County, Vt. Abnaki, "the abode of (small) turtles." 
Macomet Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the meeting 

place," or "at the little house." 
Maconessett Neck, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "barren 

place." 
Macwahoc Lake, Stream and Village, Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "wet ground, bog." Also Macwakook. 
Macwahock Brook, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "wet ground, 

bog." 
Madagam Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "(soon at) the 

end of the lake." But see Madagamus. 
Madagamus Hill, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "snowshoe tracks" 

left by Glooskap when he jumped across Penobscot Bay, in 

pursuit of a moose calf. 
Madagascal Pond and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"meadows at mouth." But see Madagascar. 
Madagascar the Brushwood section of Bradford, Orange County, 

Vt. Abnaki, "poor game, bad meat," that is, rabbits in 

summer. But see Madagascal. 
Madahondo apskwa Devil's Den, Wright's Mountain, Orange 

County, Vt. Abnaki, "the devil's rocks." 

Madahumuck Bay, Falls and Point, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, 

"alewives caught around here." 
Mada-Kamigosek modern Indian name for Camden, Knox 

County, Me. Penobscot- Abnaki, "big ridge place." 
Madaket Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end of 

the land," or Narragansett, "cloudy, overcast." Also Mada quel. 
Madamascontee modern Indian name for Damariscotta, Lincoln 

County, Me. Abnaki, "abundance of alewives." 
Madamaswok Cold Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"alewives." 
Madam Bettox Mountain, Knox County, Me. Abnaki? perhaps 

"alewives' pond," name transferred to nearby hill? The pond 

is now known as Chickawaukee. Other spellings Medambettox, 

Medambetek, etc. 

87 



Madamiscomtis River, Blackman Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "plenty of alewives." 
Mada-waniganook Carry, French Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "(where we put our canoes into the water) at the 

end of the portage." 
Madawaska Lake, River and Village, Aroostook County, Me. 

Micmac, "where one river runs into another," or Abnaki, 

"where there is much hay" ? 
Maddequecham Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"foothill place." 
Madi tegou now the White River, Windsor and Orange Counties, 

Vt. Abnaki, "bad useless river," as on Father Aubery's map, 

1715. The name survives in Mad River (Washington County, 

Vt.), reached by portage from the White River. 

Madnagiik Island, Lincoln County, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "big island." 
Madombedeag Bay, same as Medomac, q. v. 
Mad River see Madi tegou. 
Madunke-himk Webster Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"far away, at the height of land, stream." 
Magaenak Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "where the Mohawks 

came," or "wolf-place." An ancient village site. 
Magallo River, Rockingham County, N. H. Malecite, "caribou," 

"the shoveler," see below. 
Magallo way, Mountain in Coos County, N. H. and river in Oxford 

County, Me. Malecite, "the shoveler," i. e., the caribou, 

which gets its food by shoveling snow to one side with its 

hoofs. 
Magasewanussuek Falls, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "great 

fresh water falls." 
Magawok Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "a bog swamp, 

or lowland." Also Magwaak. 
Magegunuck Neck, Cumberland County, Me. Micmac? "a big 

knee or elbow;" that is, shaped like a bending joint. See 

Machegony. 

Magesemanussiek Falls, York County, Me. Abnaki, "great fresh 

water faUs." 
Magnus see Quaiapen. 

88 



Magomiscock Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place 
of the large rock," or possibly "place of waste land." 

Magonck Great Neck, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"grove of large trees." Also Magunk. 
Maguaguavic the Little St. Croix River, Aroostook County, Me. 

Malecite, "abode of big eels." Also Mekkatewek. 

Magumkaquog Middlesex County, Conn. Natick, "place of the 

gift or offering" ? or "place of great trees" ? 
Maguncaquog Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "place of the 

gift." 

Magunco Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "gift or grant." 

Magunhukquok Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "place of the 

offering." 
Magunk see Magonck. 
Magunkahquog Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the place 

of the gift or grant." 
Magunkook Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "place of large 

trees." 
Magunquaquog Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "place of the 

gift or grant;" but some sources give "place of great trees." 
Magunticoog same as Medumcook, q. v. 
Magurrewock Lakes, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "at the 

place of the shoveler;" i. e., the caribou. 

Magus Hill, Norfolk County, Mass. Nipmuck, for John Magus, a 
Nipmuck chief, who deeded Hardwick land in 1686. 

Magwak see Mohawk. 

Magwin tegwak Lincolnville Beach, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, 
"choppy seas." 

Magwonkkomuk Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the en- 
closed place of the grant," or "gift of a plantation." 

Mahackemo Fairfield County ,^Conn. Paugussett, "fire consumes 

him" ? Named for a Sachem of Norwalk. 
Mahantic a swamp near Newton, Fairfield County, Conn. Pau- 

giissett, "cedar or spruce trees." 
Maharnes Hill, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "the one who 

gathers them together." Possibly the same as Mianus, 

Mayannoes, etc. 

89 



Mahican Indians, often confused with the Mohegan, q. v. Their 
home extended from the upper Hudson Valley in New York 
into Vermont and sections of Connecticut. Their descendants 
are known as Stockbridge Indians, a group with whom they 
allied in 1736. Their name means "wolf;" they figure promi- 
nently in The Last of the Mohicans, by Cooper, 

Mahkahkahssen Cliff, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican? Dela- 
ware? ''the (very) large rock." 

Mahkeenac Lake, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican (Stock- 
bridge), "the abode of the Mahicans." Also Maheekanac. 

Mahkonlahgok "The Gulf," near Katahdin, Piscataquis County, 
Me. Abnaki, "gap in the stream," or "hole in the river." 

Mahmansuck at Billings Lake, New London County, Conn. 
Mohegan, "the brook connecting the ponds." 

Mahmimsqueag Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "gravelly 
place." 

Mahnagwanegwa Sebem Rainbow Lake, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki? translation of the English name, "Rainbow Lake" ? 
[manawakon, "small rainbow"). 

Mahnekebahntic Caribou Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"big cedar swamp near the falls in the river" ? or, "where 
they got cedar bark for packs." 

Mahoosuc Range, Coos County, N. H., and Oxford County, Me. 
Abnaki, "abode of hungry animals," possibly bears or wolves 
(or both). But a Natick word nahoosic means "a pinnacle," 
i. e., mountain peak. It has been suggested that the Abnaki 
term possibly refers to Mohegan-Pequot refugees who fled 
from Connecticut to Maine following the Pequot War of 1637. 

Mahsimquammasec the Waits River, Orange County, Vermont. 

Abnaki, "big river at outlet," an apt description of the Waits 

as it flows into the Connecticut. 
Mahtawesweskeetehenoouk A name given to the Micmac of 

Nova Scotia, who briefly conquered and occupied the coast 

of Maine. Malecite, "porcupine eaters." 
Mahutchet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "on the path 

or trail." 
Mais Tchuseag The Piedmont, probably in Essex County, Mass. 

Natick? Pennacook? "large mountains place." Pownall 

90 



suggests ''country on this side of the hills." See also Massa- 
chusetts. 

Majabigwaduce The Bagaduce River, Hancock County, Me. 
Abnaki, "big tideway river." 

Maji Neowaska was a demon, supposed to dwell on the highest 
peak of Mount Washington, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, 
"Bad Spirit." See Ketsi M'weskw. 

Majomansuck Pond, see Mayomansuck. 

Majum-quassebem Pond, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "worthless 
(or bad) pond." 

Makamacheckamucks Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
from the Catacoonamaug chief Mahmachekomock. The 
name may mean "where we get small bait fish," mamachoog; 
or "big mountain strewn with rocks," or "big, useless plan- 
tation." 

Makewaumaqueset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the end of the worthless field," or "barren meadow ending 
place." 

Maklic-ongomoc Pleasant Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, 
"a lake (surrounded by) hardwoods." 

Makoron Swamp, Fairfield County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "a gift," 
"waste land," or perhaps "turtles. "[?] 

Maktepos see Mashpee. 

Makwamcusk Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? "red 
beach." 

Malamake River, same as Merrimac, q. v. 

Malecite an Algonquian tribe, part of whom live at Passama- 
quoddy, Maine. Their name comes from Micmac, "poor 
garbled, barely understandable speech," applied in derison. 
Actually, both languages are mutually understandable. See 
Mahtawesweskeeteheenonk. 

Mali bowk Washington County, Vt. Abnaki, literally, "Molly's 
Pond." Indian Molly was the wife of Indian Joe, of Rev- 
olutionary War fame. 

Mali panjahlak Washington County, Vt. Abnaki, "Molly's Falls." 
Maliseet an old-fashioned spelling of Malecite, q. v. 
Mallego Brook, Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, "deep, ravine- 
like." 

91 



Mallicooniganus Pocumpus Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Malecite, "short, quick carry." This is a short portage where 
it is not necessary to unload canoes for the carry; a "lazy 
portage." 

Malmanick New Haven County, Conn. Possibly a corruption of 
manantick, "cedar swamp" ? or "island creek" ? 

Mamachimins possibly Chimon Island, Fairfield County, Conn. 
Paugussett, possibly "Mamechon's little island" or "barren, 
unoccupied little island." Another spelling, Mamachimons. 

Mamachoag Brook, New London, New London County, Conn. 
A^arr^gans^^^, "where mummies, small fish, abound" (Another 
Mamachoag Brook is in Lyme, Conn.) 

Mamacock Fort Trumbull Point, New London County, Conn. 
Western Niantic or Mohegan, "the great hook." (There is a 
Mamacock Creek in East Lyme.) 

Mamanasco Lake, Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "united 

outlets," or "two sharing same outlet." Another spelling, 

Mammasco. 
Mamaniskak Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "near the 

joined rocks." 
Mamantapett River, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

island camp." Also given as "wading river," or "ford." 

Mamantapit Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "customarily 
he walks in the water" (here) ; or "wading-place." 

Mama quag Brook, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"small fish," called even now by children, "mmnmies." 
Variants, Mammaquog, Mummaquog, etc. ("Smelt" are 
moamitteaug.) 

Mamaquog part of Natchaug River, Windham County, Conn. 
Mohegan, "small bait fish abound here." 

Mamasack New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "thistles," or 
"big nettles" ? 

Mamasmiquobscook River, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"stream with rough stones," hence, poor traveling by 
canoe. 

Mamattaquesset Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "where they 
cross the brook," or "at the wading place." These were 
stepping-stones, "grouped-together-rocks place." 

92 



Mameeg an early name for New London, New London County, 
Conn. Probably a corruption of Nameeg, "fishing place." 

Maminketesuck Fairfield County, Conn. Wap finger, "swift, 
strong flowing brook, where there are ale wives." Variant, 
Manuliketsuck. 

Mamooson Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick, "smooth 
stone," or "bare rocks." Mamooson was a son of Kickemus. 

Mamusqunke land on east side of Naugatuck River, New Haven 
County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "gravelly place," ? or "place of 
smooth stones" ? 

Mamwhauge Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place of the 
ravine;" also, "moving ground." 

Manahnekook the Penobscot River. Ahnaki, "river full of is- 
lands." 

Manahnook Grand Manan Island, Washington County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "the island." 

Manakaway Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "the great mea- 
dows" ? 

Manamoaskeagug Plymouth County, Mass. Natick, "place 
abounding in beaver." 

Manamoiett see Monomoy, and Manamoyik. 

Manamookeagin Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "many 

beavers." ? 
Manamo quack Bay, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the place of many fish." (Or "many clams" ?) 

Manamoyik Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "carrying 
place" or "burden-place," a portage. Also Maimamoitt. 

Manan Islands, off Falmouth, in Casco Bay, Cumberland County, 
Me. Ahnaki, "island." See Menanouze. 

Mananduk Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "lookout place." 

Also given as "cedar swamp." 
Mananexit see Mayanexit, or Maanexit. 

Mananis the small island which guards the harbor at Monhegan, 
Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "little island." 

Mananosick Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "the high peak." 

Mananscussett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 
the lookout hill." 

93 



Mananticut River, Norfolk County, Mslss. Natick, "at the lookout 
place," or "at the island in the river." Variants, Manatacat, 
Manatiquot. 

Manaskek Arrowsic Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, 
"island with grassy covering." 

Manaskoos Green Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "green, 
grassy." 

Manatohqua Essex County, Mass. Naiick, after a chief also 
known as Black William. Ruler of an ancient Sachemdom 
comprising Nahant and Swampscott; "wooded island"? 

Manatuck Mountain, New London County, Conn. Eastern Ni- 
antic, "at the lookout place." 

Manatuck Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Massacoe, (a Wappinger 
sub-group), "look-out place." 

Manaumet Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "lookout place." 

Manchage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "ye shall be 
strengthened." 

Manchage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmitck? Natick? "place 
of departure," "place of marveling."? 

Manchaug Pond and Village, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"island of rushes," or "island where flags grow." 

Manchuk River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "look- 
out hill." But see Manchaug, Mass. 

Mandawessoe Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "a por- 
cupine" (not "hedgehog"). 

Maneikshan Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "appearance 
of blackness," or "dark earth." Also "brant goose." Variant, 
Monechkan. 

Manesaydik an Indian name for Bar Harbor, Hancock County, 
Me. Abnaki, "place of collecting clams." 

Manet Beach, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "near the island." 

Manetic Reservoir, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "the high 
place," or "observation place." 

Manexit River, Worcester County, Mass., and Windham County, 
Conn. Nipmuck, "near the path," or "he gathers them to- 
gether." See Mayanexit River and Maanexit. 

Mangunk akuk on Thames River, near Mohegan Village, New 
London County, Conn. Probably Mohegan- Pequot, "at the 

94 



grove of large trees," but possibly, ''where we made big 

wooden pots." 
Manhan New Haven County, Conn. Qidnnipiac, "an island." 

Also Muiilian. 
Manhan River, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "island." 
Manhannock Wright's Island, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, 

"at the place of the island," or possibly, "sheltered island." 

Manhanock Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 
place of the island," possibly also "shelter island," a canoe 
harbor. 

Manheigin Island, mouth of Penobscot River, Hancock County, 
Me. Ahnaki? Micmac? "a passage"? or "the island"? See 
Monhegan, Moratiggon. 

Manhumsqueeg Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "whetstone 
place." Also Mahmunsqueag and Munhunsqueeg. 

Manickmung Mountain, Windham County, Vt. Possibly Mahican, 
from nionachmmg, "place where the mountain heaps up," as 
in a monadnock. In other contexts, monachniing means "place 
on an island." 

Manigana-tica-uoit name used by Champlain on his 1629 map 
for the Connecticut River. Probably Ahnaki, modified by 
French, "Mahican's river place," or "river of the Mahicans." 

Manipsconasset Rock, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"place of the split rock island." 
Manisses Block Island, Newport County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"little island." Also given as Narragansett, "little god." See 

also Montowese. 
Manitoese Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Paugussett, "Little 

God."Manitoese was Sowheag's nephew. See also Montowese. 
Manitoo assenihah Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 

Great Spirit's rocks." 
Manitoo-auke a term used by some southw^estem New England 

Indians for "God's Country," i.e., "Heaven." (But on Long 

Island, Mantowacks meant "place of the periwinkle shell.") 
Manitook Lake, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, probably 

"observation place," but possibly "cornfields, we guard 

them." Some suggest this means "Place of the Gods," or 

"God's Land."[?] See Manitoo-auke. 

95 



Manitwa tootan Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "God's 

town." A Christian Indian village on Martha's Vineyard. 
Mankantosit River, Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, 

same as Menenketesuck, q. v. 
Mannahanose see Massaco. 
Mannamoiset Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "point place,'* 

"place at end of portage," or "resting place," etc. 
Mannanpenokean Brook, Berkshire County, Mass. Mohican, 

"heaps of fallen rocks." 
Mannapensecon Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "heap of 

fallen rocks." 
Manomet Beach, Bluffs, Reef and Village, Plymouth County, 

Mass. Wampanoag, "where they carry burdens on their 

backs," hence, "a portage." 
Manonscusset Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "lookout hill 

place." 
Manoonckasuck see Menimketesuck. 
Manoosnock Essex County, Mass. Natick, "at the summit," or, 

"at the lookout place." 
Manset Hancock County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the island." 
Manshacket Cove, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

sheltering island." 
Manshuck see Manchuck. 

Manskussehoank Mountain, now Rattlesnake Mountain, Berk- 
shire County, Mass. Mahican, "lookout summit place," or 

"nest at summit brook" ? See Manskussichank, 
Manskussichank now Rattlesnake Mountain, Berkshire County, 

Mass. Mahican, "stream emerging from and flowing through 

rock heaps." 
Mantawassuk Johnson Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"at the mouth of," or "inlet." 
Manimkateset Brook, New London County, Conn. Western 

Niantic, "place of ale wives, or menhaden." Also Manun- 

ketesuck, Manuncketesseck, and Manaquatesset. 
Manunkatuck New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "place of 

alewives," or alewive's tidal stream." 
Manunketesuck Stream, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, 

"strong, flowing brook." 

96 



Manunkquag Point, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
''end of the land." 

Manwhage Swamp, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 
refuge or shelter place." 

Maquam Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a bea- 
ver." Also a village and beach in Franklin County, Vt. 

Maquan Lake, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a beaver." 

Maquoit Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "a wet place." 

Maranacook Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "plugged-up 
lake," "deep lake" or "black bass here"[?] Also Marancook. 

Marandus Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. If Indian, possibly 
Natick, "cedar swamp," from mananduk. 

Maranocook see Maranacook. 

Maraspin Creek, Barnstable County, Mass. Probably a Dutch 
modification of the Wampanoag term Massapeague, "the 
land at the great cove." 

Marchin Bay, now Casco Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Old 
Abnaki, "a wolf." Indicated as Baie de Marchen on Cham- 
plain's map, 1607 ; this was as close as the French could get 
to manrhesem, "bad animal," or wolf. 

Mardad poquehy Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"bare place, shallow, clear." 

Margalloway see Magalloway. 

Maromas Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "bare." 

Maroonscook Pond, now Lake Cobbosecontee, Kennebec County, 
Me. Abnaki, "plugged-up pond" ? or "black bass pond" ? 

Marshpee Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big still 

water;" great pool," or "large pond." 
Maruscopag New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "at the 

narrows." See also Achetaqupag and Warunscopage. 

Masacksicke Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "big meadow." 

Masardis Village, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "place of white 
clay." 

Mascachaug Brook and Cove, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "place of rushes." 

Mascachusett Location uncertain, probably near Greenwich, Kent 
County, R. I. Narragansett, "near place of flags or rushes." 

7 97 



Mascakonage Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"place of long rushes" (cat tails?). Other spellings, Mas- 
cacowage, Mascachowage, etc. 

Mascamp York County, Me. Natick? Pennacook? "big rock." 
Variant, Maskomp. 

Mascanomo Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "big eel," "great 
long fish." If Natick, perhaps "big plantation." See below. 
Variant, Masconomet. 

Mascoma Lake, Pond, River and Village, Grafton County, N. H. 
If Abnaki, "salmon fishing," "much grass," or "red rocks." 
li Natick, perhaps "big plantation," "big beach," or "grassy 
swamp." 

Masconks York County, Me. Abnaki, "big goose" or "big 

rocks." 
Mascopic Lake, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "at the place of the 

large rocks." Also given as "a large, enclosed place, a large 

cove," and "cedar." 

Masenunckquock location unknown, probably New London 
County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of nettles," massonog-ock? 
or "place of lobsters," muschundaug? 

Mashacket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the great 
palisaded house," or "at the castle." 

Mashakamockett Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

of the big springs." 
Mashamee River, Grafton County, N. H. Abnaki? Pennacook? 

perhaps remnants of words meaning, "big fish," or "place 

between" ? 

Mashamoquet Brook and State Park, Windham County, Conn. 
Nifmuck, "at the important fishing place." Also Mashamugget, 
Mashamugket and Massamugget. 

Mashamugget Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "spring 
of water," or "great water spring." Translated also as "great 
fishing place." 

Mashamugget Meadow, Worcester County, MslSS. Nipmuck, "great 
meadow-grass country." But see Mashamugget Hill and 
Mashamoquet, Conn. [Narragansett, "big stink" ?] 

Mashantackack an ancient village site near Montville, New 
London County, Conn. Mohegan, "this place is well forested." 

98 



Mashanticut Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "small 

river or brook running through grove of trees." 
Mashantucket New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of big 

trees." ~ 
Mashantuxet Brook, New London County, Conn. Pequot, "at the 

little forest," or "place of small trees" ? See Mushantuxet. 
Mashapaug Pond and Village, Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"a large pond." See also Massapaug and Mashipaug. 
Mashapaug Pond, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a large 

pond or cove." Also Maushapog, Mashepok, etc. 
Mashapauge Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "large pond" 

or possibly "worthless pond." (Swampy land, unfit for 

planting?) 
Mashapequottuck River, the Thames River, New London County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "great Pequot River," or "river of the great 

destroyers of men." 
Mashaquamaganset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

where there are big rocks in the pool." 
Mashashinnet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

place of large stones," or perhaps "place of great springs." 
Mashatatack Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "well 

forested place," or "place of big trees." Also Mashantatuck, 

Mishauntatuk, etc. 
Mashattaneeseck Hill, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"brook near great hill," or "great hill near brook." 

Mashawmut Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the great canoe 

landing," or "at the great neck of land." 
Mashawshimet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "Big 

spring place." Variant, Mashinock. 
Masheet Island, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "bad 

place." 
Mashentuck Brook and Mountain, Windham County, Conn. 

Mohegan, "many trees." Also a town in Providence County, 

R. L 
Mashenups Pond, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "big rock." 

See also Moshenupsuck. 
Mashepagocke Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "land near the 

great pond." See also Mashepagonoke. 

7* 99 



Mashepagonoke Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the 
place of the wicked destroyer," or "place of bad pestilence/' 
Also translated, "place of big bank." 

Masheshattuck Hill Hillsboro County, N. H. Natick? "big wooded 
mountain." 

Mashipaug Alexander's Lake, Windham County, Conn., and 
Gardiner's Lake, New London County, Conn. See Mashapaug. 

Mashipawog see Mashpaug. 

Mashnee Island, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big 
house." 

Mashomuck perhaps two places by this name in Windham 
County, Conn., and Worcester County, Mass. If as spelled, the 
term is Nipmuck, "where they go by boat or canoe." How- 
ever, if Massomuck, q. v., is meant, the term is Nipmuck, 
"great fishing place." 

Mashonaug Island, Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, 
"nettles" ? or "dug-out canoe place" ? or "place reached by 
boat" ? 

Mashoquen mentioned by Captain John Smith, is somewhere 
along the coast of Cumberland (or York) County, Me. Per- 
haps it is Ahnaki, "big hook," or Micmac, "big knee." 

Mashpaug Ponds, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"great ponds." 

Mashpeag New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "land at great 
cove." 

Mashpee Pond and Village, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"land near the great cove or pond." 

Mashpoag Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "a great pond." 

Mashquaponitib Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where 
the big nets are spread." 

Mashquomuoh or Massquamack Plymouth County, Mass. Wam- 
panoag, "marshy, grassy haven or hiding-place." 

Mashucket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "grass land," 
or, "grassy place near large outlet." 

Maskataquatt Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 
rushes," or "grassy place." 

Maskechusett Brook and Hill, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"at the grassy place," or "place of flags." 

100 



Maskeekohwogam near Lake Bomoseen, Rutland County, Vt. 

Abnaki, "much grass, hay curing." 
Maskerchugg River, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, ''rushes 

here/' Also Maskachuag, Masquachug, Musquechuge. 
Maskituash Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "hay-marsh" 

or "grassy place." 
Maskwenozakek mouth of the Missisquoi River, Franklin County, 

Vt. Abnaki, "where muskellunge abound." 
Masocksicke Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "big meadow." 
Maspenock Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "overflowed 

land," or "boggy place"; also given as "choice fishing place" 

and "great narrow path." 
Masquabamisk Meadow, Franklin County, Mass. Mohican, "at the 

place of the red rocks." Possibly "wet rocks," a boundary place. 
Masquachowawaug Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"place where rushes grow" ? or "red fish (salmon) fishing 

place" ? See Misquamicut. 

Masquaseecook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "birch 

stream." 
Masquetuck Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "river of reeds," 

"fish weir river," or "wide river." 
Masquomcussick Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "grassy 

enclosed place," or "grassy haven." Or perhaps "big sharp 

stones place" ? 
Masquomoh Swamp, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "grassy 

place." 
Masquomp Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red rock." 
Masquopeck Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "land near 

the reedy cove" or "wide pond." 
Massabequash Essex County, Mass. Natick, "lands near great 

body of water." (But another source gives "rats".) 
Massabeseck York County, Me. Abnaki, "large pond." 
Massabeset see Mattabesic. 

Massabesic Lake, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki, "near the 

great brook." 
Massachaug Pond, Watch Hill, Westerly, R. I. ? Eastern Niantic, 

"land near the great hill." Given also as "land where rushes 

grow." 

lOT 



Massachuset an ancient Indian Village; exact location not known, 
region of Blue Hills, Mass. ? Natick, "at the great hills" or 
"at the range of hills," i. e., the Milton hills. This tribe, for 
whom the state was named, occupied lands from Salem, Essex 
County, southward to Brockton, in Plymouth County, Mass. 
Also Natick. 

Massachusetts Bog and Gore, Oxford County, Me. Natick, "at 
the place of the large mountain." 

Massachusetts State, Anglicized Natick, "at the place of large 
hills;" also Messatsoosec, "hill in the form of an arrowhead." ? 

Massacksic Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the great 
marsh." Also Massaksicke. 

Massaco Territory, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "great 
lowland or outlet." Mannahannose was "Grand Massaco," 
sachem of Simsbury, Granby and Barkhamstead in 1656. 
Variants, Massaqua, Mussawco, Mossocowe, Mushko. 

Massagika York County, Me. ? Ahnaki, "big outlet." 

Massamoskeht Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place of 
much grass" or "great hay country." 

Massanagtakwonah Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "dry 
trees hill" or "canoe wood hill" ? Also translated as "flax 
fields along the river" ? 

Massanegtocaneh Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck? "place 
of source of the great stream" ? or "union of great streams." ? 
But see Massanagtakwonah, above. 

Massapanoch Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "great miry 
place," or "large swamp." 

Massapaug Rockingham County, N. H. Ahnaki, literally "great 
pond." See Mashpaug. 

Massapeag Village, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place 
at the large cove." 

Massapee same as Marshpee, 

Massapoag Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "large pond." 
Ponds of this name also in Norfolk and Plymouth Counties, 
Variant, Mashapoog. 

Massaquockumnie Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"big shaking meadow." 

102 



Massasaugatukut Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''at the 

mouth of the large tidal stream." An old name for Marshfield. 
Massasecum-Lake, Hillsboro County, N. H. Named for a Penna- 

cook warrior; possibly "tall, slender, erect." 
Massasoit Avenue, Bristol County, R. I. Also a road in Barnstable 

County, Mass. Wampanoag, "great commander." This chief 

befriended English colonists at Plymouth, 1620. See Osame- 

quin. 
Massassomineuk Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where 

big sour berries abound," i. e., large cranberries, or grapes. 
Massatucksett see Mastuxet. 
Massaucunnock New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "place 

of the great (longtails) fish hawks," probably ospreys. 
Massaugatucket Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

great outlet of the tidal river." 
Massaukatucket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

outlet of the large tidal stream." 
Massawamsog Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "place of the 

great declivity." Sometimes as Meshomasic. 
Massawipi now Holland Pond, Orleans County, Vt. Ahnaki, "much 

good clear water." 
Massekump Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? Wangunk? 

"Big Boulder." Massekump was a landholder Indian and 

witness to several deeds. 
Masshapauge Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "big 

pond." 
Masshattaneesec Hill, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"brook at the great hill." 
Massiby Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big water." 
Massick Island, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "large brook," 

or "large outlet." 
Massomuck Stream, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "great 

fishing place." But see Mashomuck. 
Massomuck Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "great fishing 

place." This was in the neighborhood of Wabaquasset Village, 

1700. But see Mashomuck. 
Masstucksett Brook, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

place of the large brook." 

103 



Mastomquoog Island, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "the place of 

big rocks" ? 
Mastuxet Brook and Cove, Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, 

"at the big brook." Also Massatucksett. 
Maswachi Berkshire County, Mass. Mohican, "great mountain." 
Maswasehi Mountain, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "bird's 

nest standing up," or "big bird's nest" ? 
Matachuest Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the place 

without hiUs." 
Matacomacok Swamp, Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "bad 

plantation" or "bad going, where paths or trails are difficult" 

or "ineffective refuge." 
Matacompemiscok Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"place (far away) up country." 
Matagamon Village, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "far on the 

' other side." 
Matagamook Grand Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "old, 

exhausted lake," fished out, grown up with weeds; or "far 

away lake." 
Matagamooksis Second Lake, Penobscot County, Abnaki, "little 

far away lake," etc., diminutive of Matagamook. 

Matagoodus Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "bad land- 
ing place (for canoes)." 
Matagwadis Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "landing place 
at the confluence, usually overflowing, or covered with 
water." 
Matanawcook Islands, Lake and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 
While these now bear the same name, their old names are 
dissimilar, and have different meanings. Their original names 
and meanings follow: 
Matanawcook Islands, originally Metinahguk. Abnaki, "small, 

broken water." 
Matanawcook Lake, originally Madagamok. Modern Abnaki, 

"lake that ends almost at the river." 
Matanawcook Stream, originally Matanaghe-seebo. Abnaki, 
"at the end of an island." 
Matatucket River, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"poorly forested," or possibly "at the worthless river." ? 

104 



Mataubaim Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "it is day," or, 
"dawn has come." 

Matchapoxet Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "near 
the useless little pond." Possibly, "bad swamp place." ? 

Matchapquake Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

the bad bog." 
Matchecompomiskok Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place 

of the bad little rocks." ? See Matacompemiscok. 

Matchepukgunnupponset Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the impassable falls." 
Matchuk Meadows, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "bad, or 

useless land." 
Mateguasaden Mount Philo, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, 

"rabbit mountain." See Madagascar. 
Matetacoke see Mattatuck. 
Matianock see Mattaneaug and Matianuck. 
Matianuck Hartford County, Conn. Pocasset, "the lookout place." 

Matincook Mountain, Essex County, Vt. Natick, "the high land 
observation place," or "he searches from there." 

Matinicus Island and Rock, Knox County, Me. The largest of a 
group of islands well out to sea. Abnaki, "far-out island." 

Matitacooke see Mattatuck. 

Matomy Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "a lookout 
place," or "observation height." 

Matowepesack see Mattapoisett. 

Mattabaget Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the edge of the 
pond," or "at the far distant pond." 

Mattabeesick Pond, Rockingham County, N. H. Natick, "place 
of the great body of still water." But see Mattabesec. 

Mattabesec near Middletown, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, 
"a resting place." See also Mattapoisett, Mass. (Some sources 
give translation as "place of large body of water," or "place 
of large brook.") Other spellings, Mattabesic, Mattabezeke, 
Mattapeaset, Matowepesack, etc. 

Mattabesett Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "(at the end of 
carrying place or portage), a resting place." See also Matta- 
poisett. 

105 



Mattacheese Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "old fields." 
Mattacomacok Hartford County, Conn. Poquonock, "at the 

furthest enclosure." 
Mattagodus Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "bad 

sliding;" that is, rocky bottom, bad for canoe landings. 

Mattakeesee Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big mea- 
dow." Possibly "little trees," such as beach plum bushes. 

Mattakesett Creek, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
place of black mud." (If the mud was thin and deep, the 
sense of bad mud, quicksand-like mud is carried.) 

Mattakeunk Pond and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"at end of swift stream." 

Mattamiscontis Lake and Mountain, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "plenty of alewives." 
Mattanawcook Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 

end of the gravel bar." 

Mattaneaug Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "abandoned fields," 
or "remains of encampment," or "furthest country" ? 

Mattaoolanic Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmiick, "where waters 

meet and mingle." 
Mattapan Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "he sits down," hence 

"a resting place," or "end of portage," also "edge of bank." 

Mattapoisett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a resting 
place," or "edge of the cove," also "resting place on portage." 

Mattapoysett River, Bristol County, R. I. Pocasset, "resting 
place." See Mattapoiset. 

Mattaquitcham Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"edge of the rocks." 
Mattaseunk Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "furthest 

rapid stream." 
Mattatig New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac or Patigusset, 

"bad tree," or "poorly wooded." Variant Mattatuck. 

Mattato Hill, Providence County, R.I. NipmuckP "bad hill"? 
Probably an abbreviation, with some syllables lost. 

Mattatuck State Forest and Trail, Litchfield County, and River, 
New Haven County, Conn. Paugussett, "without trees," or 
"badly wooded." 

io6 



Mattatuxot River, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Ni antic? 

NarragansettP "at the worthless little river" ? or "poorly 

wooded place" ? 
Mattawa Lake, Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "bad place," 

or "bad going." 
Mattawamkeag Lake, Penobscot County, Me. If Abnaki, "fishing 

place beyond gravel bar." If Malecite, "rapids at mouth;" 

if Micmac, "on a sand bar." 
Mattawehausk Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk? "bad 

rocks" ? or "black rocks" ? or "furthest rocks" ? Matta- 
wehausk was Sowheag's granddaughter. 
Mattetakonitt Meadows, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"at the great spring," or "distant spring." 
Mattimockamus Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "far-off 

small lake." 
Mattonkeeset Bay, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

place of black mud." 
Mattoonuc Neck, now Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. 

Eastern Niantic, "place of the lookout hill." 
Mattuckhott New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "in the 

woods," or "at the tree." ? See Mattatuck. 
Matumpseck Island, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "place of 

the bad rock," or "bad ledges." 
Matunuck Village, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "high 

place" or "observation place." 
Matush Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck? "leggings" ? 
Mauchetan Middlesex County, Conn. ? Hammonassett? "ebb tide." 
Maumansuck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck? "where two 

streams meet" ? See Mahmansuck. 
Maumsuck Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "stream 

connects two ponds," or "two streams meet." 
Maunamushog Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "deep 

fishing place" ? 
Maunipensing Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"gently descending brook," or "gently sloping field." Also 

Maunpenseconet. 

Mauntimsq West Rock, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 
"difficult rock" (to climb). 

107 



Maushantuxet now Ledyard, New London County, Conn. Mohe- 
gan, "at the great woods." 

Maushapogue Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "land at 
the great cove," the ancient name for Cranston. Also Masha- 
paug, Maushapoque, etc. 

Mausup see Moosup and Pessicus. 

Mauswaseekhi Monument Mountain, Berkshire County, Mass. 
Mahican, "at the smooth, bare mountain shaped like a 
bird's nest." Sometimes translated as "fisher's nest," or 
"osprey's nest." 

Mauwee Brook, Lake and Peak, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahi- 
can, "hungry animal," perhaps a bear. 
Mawiagwaug see Mamaquog. 

Mawnantuck Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Shortened form of 
Wangunk, mabautau antucksuck, "hill near swift running 
brook." 

Maximus see Machemux. 

Mayanexit Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "where the road 
lies," and "where we gather." 

Mayannoes Neck and Creek, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, 
from the name of Chief Mayano, who was killed in 1683. Also, 
Mehawnoes, Mianus, Maharnes, etc. 

Mayawaug Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "at the meeting- 
place," or "at the junction of routes and paths." Also seen 
as Mayyoawang, Mayowack, etc. 

Mayomansuck Pond, New London County, Conn. Pequot? 

MoheganP "common outlet of two ponds," or "meeting of 

two outlets." 
Medambetek or Medambetox see Madam Bettox. 

Meddybemps Lake and Village, Washington County, Me. Pas- 
samaquoddy-Ahnaki, "plenty of alewives." 

Medomac Bay, River, Point and Village, Lincoln County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "place of many alewives." 

Medumcook River, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, "blocked by 
sandbars." 

Medum Keunk Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "blocked 
up by sand." Also Maddimkeunk, Medunkeunk, etc. 

108 



Meduxnekeag Lake and River, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, 

"falls or rapids at the mouth." 
Meeseecontee Farmington Falls, Franklin County, Me. Abnaki, 

"plenty of alewives," or other migratory fish? 

Meeshawn Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a, landing 
place/' or "ferry," or "great neck of land." 

Meesocdowhok Burnt Land Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "big outlet," or "big confluence." 
Megansett Harbor, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the fish weir." 
Megantic Lake, Franklin County, Mass. Abnaki, "lake trout 

place," derived from Old Abnaki expression, namagwottik. See 

Damisokantic. 
Megantig Pond, Franklin County, Mass. Poctimtuck? Pennacook? 

"a pipe stem." But see Megantic, above. 
Megkwahlagas Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "red pool" ? or 

"red rock pool" ? 
Megkwakangamosis Harrow Pond, Aroostook County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "little marshy (or muddy) lake." 
Megunhuttake New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac "place 

of the gift, or grant." Spelled also Mequeniiuttocke. 

Megunticook Lake, Knox County, Me. Micmac or Malecite, "big 

mountain harbor." 
Megurrewock Lakes, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "the 

shoveler," the caribou which paws or shovels snow away so 

that it can reach its food. 
Megwak-angamik Mud Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"wet ground, bogs around lake." 
Mehtukquaaumsett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"fishing place near trees," or "fish trap made of saplings" 

or "place marked out by line of trees." 
Mekwamkesk a beach near Robbinston, Washington County, 

Me. Micmac, "at the red rocks" or Abnaki, "at the small red 

beach." 
Melanpswangamoc or Melaxswangarmo Joe-Mary Lakes, Pe- 
nobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "many rocks at the portages 

near this lake;" or Micmac, "abounding in rocks of all shapes 

and sizes." 

109 



Memachogue Hampden County, Mass. Natick, "fish sprats," or 
"mummies," from mummichoog. 

Memada-Kamioguk said to be an old name for Princeton, Wash- 
ington County, Me. Penobscot- Abnaki, "a point of land." 

Memeeneesitt Creek, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "little is- 
lands everywhere." 

Memkeeswe Stream, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "good 
landing places." ? 

Memphremagog Lake, Orleans County, Vt. Abnaki, "where 
there is a great expanse of water." Variants Mamlawbagak, 
Memeraoubeke, Memeranbegak, Memsahabegeck. 

Mempticook Stream, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "over- 
flowing river." 

Menada Beach, Dukes County, Mass. If Indian, perhaps from the 
Wampanoag word munnawhateaug, "fertilizer fish," or 
"menhaden." Possibly also "out-of-the-way place." 

Menameset Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place 
where fish abound." 

Menanbawk Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, literally "island pond." 

Menanhant Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "on the is- 
land." 

Menannah Bay and Island, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "the 
island, out at sea." 

Menanouze Island, Petit Manan, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 
"small island," far out at sea. 

Menasquassicook Matinicus Island, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, 
"at the grassy islands." 

Menauhant Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "deep water 
at point." 

Menchoiset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "much food 
here"? 

Menehanis-cook Boom Islands, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"at the very small islands." 

Menemesseck Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the great 
fish-weir," or "at the important fishing-place." 

Menemsha Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "middle 
island," or "lookout cliff." Also suggested as "sour berries," 
i. e., cranberries. 

no 



Menes-saganaganis Big Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 
(free translation) "collected boards split and fastened to 
bottom of canoes" for protection while being dragged through 
low water. 

Menhaneekek Ragged Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
"small islands at this place." 

Meniekec St. George Island, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "at the 
place of the sheltering island." Such islands as these afforded 
ample windbreaks or shelter for canoes. Also Meniquet. 

Menikoe Point, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "shelter is- 
lands." 

Menikpodik Pokomoonshine Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Abnaki, "collecting tying-bark." At this place Indians 
obtained cedar or basswood fiber to make string, twine, 
braid, etc. 

Menikuk Cape Harbor, Lincoln County, Me. Malecite-Micmac, 
"at the island," "or shelter for canoes." 

Menomee Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "seed 
corn" or "grain for seeding." 

Menotonomy Rocks, Park, Middlesex County, Mass. Narra- 
gansett, from the name of the sachem Wannamenotonomy, 
or Waimamatanemet. 

Mensecommook River, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, "come 

and fetch." Probably a specific place on the stream where 

provisions were stored. 
Menucketuck Reservoir, New Haven County, Conn. Western 

Niantic, "strong-flowing stream." Name transplanted from 

Menunketesuck River. Also Menunketuck, and Menunqua- 

tucke. 
Menuhkikook Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place where 

(you shall be) strengthened." 
Menunketesuck Island and River, Middlesex County, Conn. 

Western Niantic, "strong-flowing stream." 

Menunquatucke Gilford, Belknap County, N. H. Probably 
Western Niantic transplanted from Guilford, Conn., "strong 
flowing stream." This name and the tw^o preceeding are often 
given as "place of menhaden," which would be munnoquo- 
teauauke; or "menhaden river," munnahtotook. 

Ill 



Merriconeag Peninsula, near Harpswell, Cumberland County, Me. 
Ahnaki? Malecite? "a lazy carry," where canoes could be 
dragged or lifted over, without unloading. 

Merriconeag Sound, Cumberland County, Me. Malecite, "IdiZy 

portage." 
Merrimac River and Port, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, 

"deep place." One authority translates this as "noise of the 

falls." Also Merrimaege. 
Merrimack County, Town and River, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the deep 

place." Also a Village in Hillsboro County, N. H. Variant, 

Merramacke. 

Mesacket Cove, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place 

of two brooks." 
Mesakketesagewick Socatean Stream, Aroostook County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "stream separating burned timber and burned fields" ? 

Mesebigou Sebec Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "the 

big lake." This name appears on Father Aubery's 1715 

maps. 
Meselipemapskek near Pemaquid Point, Lincoln County, Me. 

Penohscot- Ahnaki, "very extended ledges." 
Meshantic Brook, Providence County, R. L Narragansett, "woody 

place," or "canoe-tree" ? 
Meshanticut City, Brook and State Park, Providence County, 

R. L Mohegan, "at the place of (many) big trees," or "well 

forested." Also Meshantacuck, Meshantituck, etc. 
Meshapock Brook ; see Mashapaug. 
Meshenups Pond; see Moshenupsuck and Snipsic. 
Meshmusketucktecutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"the great meadow at the tidal creek." 
Meshomasic Mountain, State Forest and Park, Middlesex County, 

Conn. Wangunk, "at the place of great springs," "great 

declivity." Also Meshomassuc, Mesomussuck, Mesomersic. 
Meskaskeeseehunk Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "little 

spruce brook." 
Meskeekwagamasic Black Pond, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"grassy pond," or "pond with grassy banks." 
Messalonskee Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "white clay 

here." 

113 



Messatoocus Smith Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "big 
brook." 

Messatsoosec Hill, Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "great hills at 
the mouth" of the Charles River; or "dry trees place;" or "hill 
in form of an arrowhead." See Massachusetts; Massachuset. 

Messenegtaquaneh Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

place of the dry tree hill." 
Messubisuk see Massabeseck. 

Metacom Avenue, Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, the name 
of King Philip, son of Massasoit. Meaning is unclear, possibly 
"at a faraway place." See Pometacomet. 

Metacomet Lake, Hampshire County, Mass., and Metacomet 
Trail, Hartford County, Conn. A variant of Metacom, above. 

Metallak Brook and Mountain, Coos County, N. H. Also a Pond 
in Oxford County, Me. Pennacook. This was the name of the 
last Coosuck man, who died at Stewartstown, Coos County, 
around 1850. His name possibly meant "The Last Man." 

Metatoxet River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "well 
wooded stream place." Another spelling, Metatuxet. 

Metaubscot an ancient Indian village site on Coweset shore, 
Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of black rocks" or 
"black cliff place." Variant, Mettobscot. 

Metecompemiscock see Matacompemiscok. 

Metewemesick Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place 
of dark earth." 

Metichawon Falls, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "because 
of big rapids or the swift current" here the shad stopped in 
their migration. 

Metinic Island, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "far out island." 
Variant, Metineag. 

Mettawee River and Valley, Rutland County, Vt. Origin doubt- 
ful; possibly Narragansett, "black earth," or Natick, "poplar 
trees." 

Mettuckquashapock New London County, Conn. Narragansett? 
Eastern Niantic? "place of the eel traps." 

Metukpogkottomis Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "grove 
of white oak trees." 

8 113 



Miacomet Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, probably 
"where we meet to fish," or "enclosure where we meet." 
Also suggested as "dry field." Variant, Myacomet, 

Miamogue west side of Bridgeport Harbor, Fairfield County, 
Conn. Paugusset, "where we come together to fish." 

Miantanomi Hill and Avenue, Newport County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "he wages war"[?]. From the name of a chief mur- 
dered (or executed?) by a brother of Uncas in 1643. 

Miantonomo New London County, Conn. See Miantanomi. 

Mianus River, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "Mayanno's 
River." Mayanno was a chief who was killed in 1683; his 
name means "he who gathers together." He was also called 
Pessicus, "a sturgeon." See Mayanno's, Mayannoes. 

Michigan Camp, Windsor County, Vt. Chippewa, "big lake." 

Michiscouy see 3Iissisquoi. 

Micmac Indians, although primarily a Canadian tribe, invaded the 
Maine coast in the late 1500's. Their name means "allies." 
They were closely related to the Malecite and Abnaki. These 
may have been the first Indians encountered by whites, when 
the Vikings sailed into their territory circa 1000 A. D. 

Mikumwessak "woods fairies." These "wee people" had very 
narrow Indian faces. They were reticent and rather solitary, 
but very friendly to Indians. They wore red caps w4th pointed 
earpieces, like those the Indians wore in winter. It is said 
that a certain Mikumwes warned the Abnaki of approaching 
Mohawk war parties. The Mikumwessak dwelt in the woods; 
they were larger than the rock fairies, W anagameweswak. 

Millimagassett Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "where 
duckhawks abound." 

Millinocket Lakes and Village, Penobscot County, Me. Authorities 
disagree on this name. Preferred is Abnaki, "this place is 
admirable." Other interpretations: Abnaki, "many coves;" 
and Malecite, "broken by outjutting rocks and islands." 

Minacomuc Island, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"field in low lands," "berry farm," or "enclosed plantation 
in a deep place." Or possibly Narragansett, "berry fields." 
Variant, Minnacommuck, Munnacommuck. 

Minamok River, Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "islands 
place," or perhaps "berries place." 

114 



Mincomonk Meadow, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmttck, "over- 
across place," possibly "land across the brook." Also Min- 
commuck. 

Mingo Beach, Essex County, Mass., and Mingo Rock in York 
County, Me. Mingwe was a name applied by the Delaware 
to the Iroquois, particularly the Mohawk; Mingo is a cor- 
ruption of this. A term of hatred and fear, it meant "tre- 
acherous, stealthy, or sneaky," and was commonly used 
during the colonial period to refer to those Iroquois who 
had settled in Pennsylvania. 

Minhan Island, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the island." 

Minhannock New London County, Conn. Narragansett, "island 

place," or "at the island." 
Minnabaug Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "berry 

pond," probably cranberries; perhaps also "deep pond." 

One source suggests "island in the pond." Also Minebauge. 
Minnacommuck see Minacomuc. 
Minnechaug Mountain, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, 

"berry mountain." 
Minnechoag Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "berry mountain." 
Minnecopscook Seal Rock, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"plenty of rocks here." 
Minnehonk Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "berries- 
stream," or more likely, "many geese." 
Minnesquam see Winnisquam. 
Minnewokun Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "many bends," also 

Abnaki, "very crooked route." 
Minnie Island, State Park, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"small island." 
Minniwawa River, Cheshire County, N. H. Malecite, "many 

waters." 
Minotoquid River, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, perhaps, 

"lookout place," or possibly "berry island." 
Minusing Island, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "small 

island." 
Mioonkh-tuk now East Haven, New Haven County, Conn. 

Quinnipiac, "where tidal streams come together," or "meeting 

of tidal rivers." 

8* 115 



Mioxe's Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, from the 

name of a Chief Mioxeo, circa 1640. 
Misadene the White Mountains in Coos and Grafton Counties, 

N. H. Ahnaki, "great mountains/' This name appears on 

Father Aubery's map of 1715. 
Miscoe Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, ''great hill." 

But see Misquoc. 
Mishanegitaconnet Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "squirrel 

hunting ground.'' Also translated as, "field of slaughter." 

Mishanneke Hill, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a squirrel." 

Spelled also Mishanoke, Mishannok, etc. 
Mishanups see Moshenupsuck. 

Mishaum Point, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "great 
neck," also "great landing place for canoes" or "big ferry." 
Other places named Mishaum are in Plymouth, Norfolk, 
Middlesex and Suffolk Counties., Mass. 

Mishawamut Neck, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the 
great spring." 

Mishawomut Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "big landing 

place" or "big neck of land." See Shawmut. 
Mishawum Lake and Suburb, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, 

"great landing place," etc. See Mishaum and Shawmut. 

Mishawum Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "great landing place." 
An ancient village at Charlestown. 

Mishimayagat "the great trail" from New York to Boston, along 
the shore, except from Guilford to New Haven, Conn. Quinni- 
piac, "the great trail." 

Mishnepettuut Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place 
where the large stream twists." 

Mishnock Pond, Road and Swamp, Kent County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "they go and come by water, by canoe." Other 
roots suggest "squirrel." Variant, Michnic. 

Mishoasket Pond, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "musk- 
rat place, "or possibly "wide yellow meadow" (cowslips?). 

Miskianza Brook, Washington County, R. I. If Narragansett, 
this name is so modified that any translation is guesswork. 
Possibly, "trout" or "salmon" or "grass"? More likely: in 
Italian, mischianza means "a mixing;" in Colonial times it 

116 



denoted a very elaborate entertainment. A mischianza was 

given by British army officers at Philadelphia on May i8, 

1778, in Jionor of Sir William Howe. 
Miskwa-aubik Redrock Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Chippewa, 

"it is a red rock." 
Mispecky Washington County, Me. Ahnaki? ''overflowed." See 

Maasbaak. 
Misquamicut Hill and Village, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 

gansett, "red salmon at this place." Variants, Mishquo- 

macuk, Mishquamicuk. 

Misquatucket Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the red river." 

Misquiquaungameck now the Clyde River, Orleans County, Vt. 
Ahnaki, "meadows at the end of the lake" or "much grass at 
the end of the lake." Also, "salmon fishing at end of lake." 

Misquitanxit Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at the 
place of the meadows." Also, Misquitanset. 

Misquitucket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the red 

tidal stream," or "red creek" also "wide stream." 
Misquoc Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, possibly part 

of ussunamis-co ("small rock" or "pebble") ? Also Miscoe, 

Misko, etc. 
Missatchawag Windham County, Conn. ? Nipmuck, "place at the 

great hill." Also Miscetchawog. 
Missaugatucket River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the great outlet of the tidal river." 

Missiassick Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "important flint 
place" ? See Missisquoi and Missisiasuk. 

Missisiasuk on Lake Champlain at the mouth of the Missisquoi 
River, Franklin County, Vt. ; this was an important Abnaki 
village, 1700-1758. Ahnaki, "people of the great grassy 
meadows." 

Missisquoi Bay and River, Franklin County, Vt. Ahnaki, trans- 
lations include "big woman," "big rattlesnake," "much 
flint," and "great grassy meadows." The last-named is most 
favored. Also Michiscouy, Petagoubky, q. v. See Greylock. 

Missogkonnog Worcester County, Mass. ? Nipmuck, "plantation 
near big outlet" ? or "big miry tract" ? 

117 



Mistasenee Rock Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, "big 

stone." 
Mistic Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "the great tidal 

river." More commonly Mystic, q. v. 
Mistic or Mystic River New London County, and Suffolk County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "great tidal river." 
Mistick Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "great tidal river." 
Mistuckset Brook, New London County, Conn. Narragansett? 

"Little Mystic" or "Mystic brook place." Also given as 

Mustucksuck. 
Mitaganessuk Falls, Eddington Bend, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "at the end of the high tide." This falls marked the 

place beyond which flood tides from the Atlantic did not go 

upstream. Variant Mitangowessuck. 
Mittaubscot Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 

black rocks." See Metaubscot. 
Mittineag Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "abandoned fields" 

or "remains of encampment." 
M'kaga-ook took the Little Black River, Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "black river." Another spelling, M'kaazaooktook. 
M'kazanikut-menahan Black Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "black growth (hemlock) island." 
M'kazawitego the Black River, Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, 

literally "Black River." Found also as M'kazawi sebo. See 

Kaskactchawack. 

M'kuigen Red Hill, Bennington County, Vt. Abnaki, "it is red." 
M'nadagahimis the Cold Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"migrating fish," possibly shad or alewives. 
Moantukcake Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

tree where they assemble" ? or "at the bend in the river" ? 
Moccasin Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "a shoe." 
Moccasin Hill, Essex Countj^ Vt. Abnaki, "a shoe." 
Moges Islands, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki? "wet"? or 

"black"? 
Mogewetu Tolland County, Conn. PodunkP "large dwelling" or 

"big house." 
Mohanhegumewog New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place 

of the Mohegan people," or "wolf people." 

ii8 



Moharmet's Plantation, Dover County, New Hampshire Ahnaki 
or Pennacook, [manrihi) "lavish, wonderful;" "a soothsayer- 
he whom others distrust." 

Moharmot's Hill, Rockingham, N. H. ; see above. 
Moharnes' River; see Mianus. 

Mohawk this name is found in a variety of topographic appli- 
cations throughout New England. It derives from the name 
of the easternmost Iroquois tribe, applied in derision, fear 
and contempt by the New England Algonquian peoples. 
The term means ''cowards," "cannibals," "hungry animals," 
and "wolves." 

Mohegan Bluffs and Village, Providence County, R. I. Mohegan, 
"a hungry animal; (especially) a wolf." 

Mohegan Village, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "wolf 
people." This was the home of the famous Indian preacher, 
Samson Occum. See Occum; Mohanhegumewog. The Mohe- 
gan tribe is not to be confused with the Mahican, though their 
narae also means "wolf." They lived in the upper Thames 
VaUey, Connecticut. Before 1637 they were a part of the 
Pequot tribe. 

Moheganick New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of the 
wolf people," i. e., the Mohegans. 

Mohican see Mahican. 

Mohootset Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
abode of the owl." 

Moiegans Loups, New London County, Conn. Ahnaki and French, 
"Mohegan Indians," at Mohegan Indian Village. French 
Colonial officials in Canada called all Indians Loups, "wolves." 

Moissehassaky Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "black mire 
bog." 

Molasses Pond, Hancock County, Me. Some Indians have said 
that this came from an Old Ahnaki root, meaning "deep," 
but this is doubtful. Some say it means "a small island," from 
monasses, which is equally questionable. See Molunkes. 

Molechunkemunk Lake, Oxford County, Me. Ahnaki, "stream 
in a deep ravine" ? 

Molligwasset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett? or Nip- 
muck? "valley place." 

119 



Molly's Falls and Molly's Pond. See Mali bowk, Mali panjahlok. 

Mollywooket Brook, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, ''at the deep 

place." 
Molnichwock Brook, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "very deep 

place" or "ravine" ? 
Molockett Mountain, Oxford County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the sheer 

cliffs." But local history says, "place of Mary Agatha, last 

of the Pequaketts" who died in 1816. See Mali bowk. 

Molunkes or Molimkus Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"a ravine," or "high banks on both sides." 
Molynuchgamog Lake, Franklin County, Me? Ahnaki, "steep 

banks lake." 
Momagegwetuck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck? Mohegan? 

"river abounding in small fish." See Mamaquog. 

Momauguin Beach, New Haven County, Conn. Named for a 
chief of the Quinnipiac tribe. Also called Momauquin, per- 
haps "Black Feather," sachem circa 1638. 

Mommock Essex County, Mass. Pennacook? NatickP "place of 
noises" — the falls of the Merrimack. 

Momoronock River, Fairfield County, Conn. ? Siwanoy? Pau- 
gussettP Delaware? from the name of Chief Momoronock, "he 
assembles the people." Variants, Mamarack, Momohanock, 
Moworronoke, Mamaroneck, etc. 

Mona Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "it is deep." Also 
Moona. 

Monadnock Mountains, in Cheshire County, N. H., and Essex 
County, Vt. In Ahnaki, this means, "at the mountain which 
sticks up like an island;" while in Natick, "at the most 
prominent island." The name is applied to peaks of resistant 
rock surrounded by a peneplain. These were used as lookout 
stations. Tooker (1904) says, "at the most prominent moun- 
tain." Also Monadnaeg. 

Monadoc see Monadnock. 

Monahigan "The Grand Isle" of John Smith, 1614? See Mon- 
hegan. 

Monakewego Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett? Siwanoy? per- 
haps "plenty of meat," or "deep at the end," or possibly, 
"deep at the point's end." 

120 



Monamesset Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the deep fishing place," or "lookout place." 
Monamsha Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "cranberries." 

Also Minamsha. 
Monanis Bay, Pemaquid, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "the 

small island." 
Monasses Block Island, R. I. Narragansett, "little island." See 

Manisses. 
Monatiquot Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the deep tidal 

stream," or "lookout place." 
Monchauset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

dark earth." 
Monchusett Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "lookout place." 
Moncouadi Washington County, Me. Malecite or Micmac, modi- 
fied by French. Same place, and same meaning as Passama- 

quoddy, q. v. Variant, Moncouacadie. 
Monhantick New Haven County, Conn. Paugussett, "a spruce 

or cedar swamp." 
Monheage Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "heaped-up place," 

or "place of mounds"? 
Monhegan Island, Knox County, Me. Malecite? Micmac? "out 

to sea island." Variant, Monliagon. 
Monhiggin Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

islands." 
Monhiggon River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

of islands." Also given as "it is deep here"[?] 
Monhimgunuck now Voluntown, New London County, Conn. 

Mohegan, "the Mohegan's place." 
Moniack ancient Natick (and Pennacook?) name for mouth of 

the Merrimack river, "place of the island." 
Moniecook Barter Island, Knox County, Me. Micmac, "at the 

island." 
Monnebassa Pond, Humphrey's Pond, York County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"deep water." 

Monohassett Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

small island." 
Monomonac Lake, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

deep place;" or "deep black mire." 

121 



Monomonock Lake, Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, "at the very 
deep place." (Perhaps Natick, "place where there is grain 
for seed") ? Also as Monomak. 

Monomoy Island and Point, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, probably "lookout or observation place," but possibly 
"deep water." See also Monomoy Marshes, and Manamoyik. 

Monomoy Marshes, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "deep, 
black" (mire). Other spellings Monomout, Monomoiett, 
Monomoy et, etc. 

Mononkatesuck see Menunketesuck. 

Mononowuttock Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, per- 
haps "island dwellers" ? 

Monoosmoc Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "deep, 
miry place," or possibly "deep stream." 

Monoosuck Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "deep brook." 
Monoposhke see Mooapske. 

Monponset Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
deep clear place," or "at the deep inlet." 

Monsapec Village, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "island 

far at sea." 
Monson Hampden County, Mass. If Indian, perhaps Pocumtuck, 

"moose people." But more likely, from an English name. 

Montauk Point, south of Stonington, Conn. Now part of New 
York State, Montauk was before 1625 ^-^^ ^-S late as 1790 a 
favorite fishing place for Eastern Connecticut Indians. 
Montauk, "at the fort," or "fort place high land." 

Montaup Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "sufficiently 
fortified"? or "lookout place"? See Montop. 

Montinicus Island, off Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "little 
island far off, separated from the mainland." See Matinicus. 

Montononesuck Brook, New London County, Conn. Eastern 
Niantic? "wade across the brook to the island" ? 

Montop Hill, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "this island is 
sufficiently fortified." This is the original name for Mount 
Hope. Possibly from M'ontep, "the head." See Montaup. 

Montowese Village, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, a 
chief named, "Little God," who sold land in 1638. 

122 



Montsweag Bay, Brook and Village, Sagadahoc County, Me. 
Modified Abnaki, "narrow, dug-out channel." 

Monuhchogog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "near the 
deep pond" ? or "ye shall be strengthened" ? See also Man- 
chaug and Manchage. 

Monuhchug see Manchaug. 
Mooanum see Wamsutta. 

Mooapske New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "black 
stones." Also Monoposhke, "black, muddy." 

Moodus Reservoir, River and Village, Middlesex County, Conn. 
Wangunk, "bad noise," from mache moodus. The "Moodus 
Noises," probably caused by subterranean shif tings, are still 
a cause for concern. 

Moonassachuet River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"deep backward (reversing?) current." 

Moosabek Reach, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "moosehead 
rock." 

Moosalamoo Mountain, Addison County, Vt. Abnaki, "he trails 
the moose," or "the moose departs." 

Moosamuttuck River, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 
"big springs in the river," or "big rocks in the stream," just 
possibly, "Big Shoulders," the name of a chief? 

Mooscoog Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Pennacook, "meadow 
place," or "grassy place," or "abode of the moose."? This 
is probably the same mountain as Moosilauke. 

Moosehausic Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
great marsh." Variants, Mooshassuck, Mooshawset, Mows- 
hawsuck, Moshosick, etc. 

Mooseleuk Mountain, Aroostook County, Me., and Stream, in 
Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "moose place." 

Mooselookmeguntic Lake, Franklin County, Me. Abnaki, "por- 
tage to the moose feeding place," or "moose feeding among 
big trees" ? 

Moosepayechick an island at Jonesport, Washington County, 
Me. Abnaki, "moose's head." See Moos-i-katchick. 

Moosetookmeguntic Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "moose's river 
(running through or out of) swampy place." 

123 



Moos-i-katchick Cape Rosier, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, 

"a moose's rump." Indians imagined this to be the moose- 
calf killed by Glooscap. 
Moosilauke Brook and Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Abnaki, 

three defensible translations: ''at the place of the ferns," and 

"good moose place" along the brook; also, "at the smooth 

place" on the summit. 
Moosompsquetuh Bennington County, Vt. Natick, "near (or 

upon) smooth (weathered) rocks." 
Moosup Pond, River and Villages in Windham County, Conn., 

and Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, named for 

Chief Mausup, a brother of Miantanomi, q. v. He was also 

called Pessicus, q. v. 
Mootinoo Island, said to be off the Isles of Shoals, Rockingham 

Count}^ N. H. Abnaki, somewhat modified, for "far off 

island." 
Mopang Stream, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "solitary place." 
Moratiggon Island, Knox County, Me. Probably Old Abnaki, 
. "passage, or strait" between the island and the mainland. 

This island, now known as Monhegan, was a domain of Samo- 

set. Variants. Moratiggan, Morratiggin. 
Moscachuck see Musquechuge. 
Moscatage see Musquechuge. 
Mosemadage Castine, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "snow shoe 

marks." Spelled also Mosemadega. 
Moshantatuck Brook; see Mashanticut. 
Moshassuck River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "great 

brook in the marshy meadow." 
Moshenupsuck Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "great brook," 

or "great outlet;" perhaps "great pond." 
Moshowunganuck Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, "at 

the place of the great bend," in the Pawcatuck River. 
Moshtatuck Creek, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "grass 

river." 
Moshwansicutt River and Pond; see Moswansicut. 
Moskituash Creek, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "meadow." 
Moskituauke Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "grassy 

land." Sometimes Mosquito Hawk. 

124 



Moskwaswagamocsis Daggett Pond, Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "little muskrat pond." 
Moskwaswagamok Shallow Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, 

"muskrat lake." 

Mossonachud Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "hill 

covered with dried trees," or perhaps "canoe- wood hill." 
Moswamcut Pond; see Moswansicut. 

Moswansicut Pond and River, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "place of mist and fog," or "red hill," or "at the great 
bend."? 

Mount Hope see Montaup, Montop. 

Mountquies Neck, York County, Me. If Indian, perhaps Abnaki, 
"salt-water (or tidal) ditch." 

Mountsweag Bay, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "dug-out narrows." 

Mousam River, formerly Cape Porpoise River, York County, 
Me. If Indian, perhaps Abnaki, "grandfather," or Old Abnaki, 
"a snare." 

Mouscochuck Creek; see Musquechuge. 

Moxisset Essex County, Mass. Natick, "place of small grasses" ? 

or "small shoes" ? 
Moz Mushkeg Grafton County, N. H. Abnaki, "moose meadow." 

Mozias a locality in Essex County, Vt. May be Abnaki, "moose 
meat," or perhaps from the name of a White man named 
Mozier or Mosier. 

Mozodepowadso Mount Mansfield, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"moose head mountain" from its fancied resemblance to the 
homed animal's head. 

Mozodup Nebes Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ab- 
naki, literally, "moosehead lake." 

M'skootuk Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "trout place." 
(But this root gives trouble; the translation might be "at a 
point of land," or "fireplace.") See M'skutook and Schoodic. 

M'skutook an abbreviation for Pemskudek, Marsh's Farm, Old 
Town Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "extended 
burned-over place," near the river. See M'skootuk. 

M'squamagweseebo Hale Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"salmon river" or "salmon brook." 

125 



M'squam Chumaki Belknap County, N. H. Ahnaki, "salmon 

spawning place." 
M'squam Nebis now Squam Lake, Grafton County, N. H. Ahnaki, 

"salmon lake." This title noted on Aubery's map of 1715. 

M'squamscook now Exeter, Rockingham County, N. H. Ahnaki, 
"at the abode of salmon." 

M'teoulin, Madeluno, and Madewahun, (modern Ahnaki and 
Malecite); Manrigwa in Old Ahnaki; and Magermette or 
Majalmit in Modern Ahnaki all mean "one who drums," 
that is, "soothsayer," "witch or sorcerer," etc. These terms 
figured in unofficial or local names, most of which were 
suppressed after 1630 by White religious authorities. Some 
of these have been re-located or discovered by linguistic 
students, e. g., Kinkajou. 

Muchquachema Swamp, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"red fox." 
Muckcheese Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "small animal," 

such as a kit beaver, or bear cub. 

Muckhaneek probably the same place as Mohegan Village, New 
London County, Conn. Mohegan- Pequot, "wolf people." 

Mucqut Cove; see Kitamuckqut. 

Mugaleep-ahwangan Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Malecite, "the 
caribou trail." 

Mugget Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "beaver"? 
Natick, "grass" ? 

Muggs Holes, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "storage 
bins"? These may be old, dry spring basins; the holes were 
indeed used for storing potatoes, turnips, etc., but see Muky- 
aweesug. (Were these hiding places for "wee people" ?) 

Mugunkwaquog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place of the 

gift." 

Mugurrewock Lakes, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "the 

shoveler," or caribou. 
Muhhekaneew Litchfield County, Conn. etc. Mahican, "people of 

the flowing river." Other sources give "wolf people." These 

were Mahican, not Mohawk, nor Mohegan. 

Mukquata Neck, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"place of rushes." 

126 



Mukyaweesug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "little 
boys" or "little people;" leprechaun-like dwarfs. This name 
has been translated also as "whippoorwills." The Abnakis 
have similar "wee people;" see Wanagamesswak. 

Mulpus Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "little heaps" 
probably muskrat or beaver lodges. But some say this is from 
the name of a French settler, de Mulpuis. 

Mundoo-uscoo took the Eastern River, Kennebec County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "Devil's-rush river." These rushes were probably 

cat-tails, supposed by some Indians to have magical powers. 
Munhan New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "an island." 

Spelled also Manhan. 
Munhumsqueeg see Manimmsqueeg. 
Munnacommuck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "island 

place," or "island plantation," or "berry plantation." See 

Minnacommuck, Mincominuck, etc. 

Munnatawkit Island, either Fisher's Island or Plum Island, south 
of New London and Niantic respectively; politically now 
part of New York, but formerly important to Eastern 
Connecticut Indians. Western Niantic? "menhaden country," 
where (said Roger Williams) the Pequots went to fish and to 
make new fields of corn, fertilized by the menhaden. 

Mun-olammon ungan West Branch of Pleasant River, Piscata- 
quis County, Me. Ahnaki, "heaps of red paint in making." 

Munponset Plymouth County, Mass.? Natick, "at the deep clear 

place." 
Munsungan Lake and River, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"humped-up island." 
Munt Hill, Rockingham County, N. H. Pennacook? or Natick? 

Said to be the name of an Indian who lived near there. 

Sometimes translated as "a basket." 
Murranook Monhegan Island, Knox County, Me. Malecite, "the 

island." See Monhegan. 
Musabek Grafton County, N. H. Ahnaki, "moose head rock." 
Muscatanupus Pond, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook? Na- 
tick? "small red tortoise." 
Muscatuapus Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "the large 

pickerel." 

127 



Muschaug Ponds, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"place of rushes." Variant, Mushaug. 
Muschopaug Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "muskrat 

pond," or ''wide pond." Also Muskopog, Muscopauk, etc. 
Muscongus Island and Sound, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"many rock ledges," or "rock," or "large rock ledges." 
Muscoota Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican? "meadow," or 

"grassy land," or "burned pasture." 
Muselenk an island near Eastport, Washington County, Me. 

Malecite and modified English, "moose island." 
Mushantuxet New London County, Conn. Peqiiot, "well forested," 

or "place of large trees." Also Mushantucksett. See Mash- 

antuxet. 

Mushattchuckapeake Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"pond at the great mountain," or "big hill near the edge or 
bank of the pond." 

Mushawwomuk Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the great 
canoe landing," or "great ferry," depending upon the occa- 
sion; mishoonhomwock means "they go or come by water." 

Mushuagusset Pond, Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, 

"muskrat place." Also Mushuagannie. 
Musicatchick Cape Rosier, Hancock County, Me. Malecite? 

Ahnaki? "moose's rump," the rump of the moose-calf killed 

by Glooscap. 
Muskagwah marshes or meadows along the Connecticut River, 

Essex County, Vt. Ahnaki, "a marsh." 
Muskapasset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "wide cove" ? 

or "grassy, open land." ? 
Muskechuge see Musquechuge. 

Muskeget Channel and Island, Nantucket County, Mass. Wam- 
panoag, "great green place," or "grassy place." 
Muskehtu-auk Plain, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "green 

grass place;" also called Mosquito Hawk Plain. 
Musketaquid Middlesex County, Mass. Massachuset, "place of 

rushes." Sometimes given as "rushy creek," or "rushy island." 

Also Musquetequid. 
Musquacook River, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "muskrat 

place," or "birch bark place." 

128 



Musquash a bog, lakes, mountain and stream in Washington 

County, Me., a road in Hillsboro County, N. H., and a 

meadow in Orange County, Vt. All are Ahnaki, meaning 

"reddish-brown animal," the muskrat. 
Musquashcut Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"abode of muskrats/' 
Musquauke New Haven County, Conn. Qiiinnipiac, "red earth." 
Musquebaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red pond." 
Musquechuge Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "place where 

rushes grow." Variants, Musquachug, Mascachuge, Mus- 

kachaug, etc. 
Musquetaug Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 

rushes." 
Musquetohauke Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"grassy place." Variants, Musquetohaug, Mosquito Hawk, etc. 
Musquetuxet Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "red brook" ? 

or "brook in grassy place," or "grassy meadow brook land." 

Given also as "place of herbs." 
Musquinepash Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "trout" 

(plural). 
Mussachuck Creek, Bristol County, R. I. Pocasset, "at the place 

of flags or rushes." 
Mussaco Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "great lowland" or 

"big outlet." Also Mussauco; see Massaco. 
Musshauge Swamp, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "grassy 

pond," or "grassy place." 
Mutanagwes Dochet Island, Washington County, Me. Passama- 

quoddy- Ahnaki, "place for storage." Also Muttonegwenish, 

and Muttoneguis. 
Mutighticoss see Titicus, Tittituck. 
Muttock see Muttught Keese. 
Muttoneguis Dochet Island, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki? 

Malecite? "little island near us," used for storage? 
Muttonegwenish Little Dochet Island, Washington County, Me. 

Ahnaki? Malecite? "tiny island near us," used for storage? 
Muttught Keese Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big 

shoulders." From the name of a famous chief at Namasket. 

Also Muttock. 

9 129 



Muxquatah Neck, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 

of rushes." 
Muxquataug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 

of rushes." Also Muxquata, Muxqua, etc. 
Muyquataug Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? "path 

to the pond place" ? or "place of rushes." Variant Muyquatage. 
Myacomet Pond; see Miacomet. 
Mystic River and Village, New London County, Conn. Pequot- 

Mohegan "the great tidal river." Also Mistick. 
Mystic Lakes and Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "great 

tidal stream." 
Mystic River, Suffolk County, Mass. See Mistic. 

-N- 

Naacook, Naamhok, Naimkeak, Naumkeag etc. Pennacook? Ahnaki? 
Natick? "at the fishing place." Several such scattered over 
eastern New Hampshire and northern Massachusetts. 

Naamcoyicke Creek, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "heaps 
of fish," possibly drying for fertilizer? But see Nanacoicus. 

Naamkeak Middlesex County, Mass. Pennacook, "at the abode 
of eels." 

Naaomuck Neck, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "nar- 
rows fishing place." Variant, Naomuck. 

Nabnasset Pond, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "near the dry 
land" ? or pond "number twelve" ? or "chestnut tree place" ? 

Nachecot Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "middle place." 

Nacheek location unknown, but see Nachick below. 

Nachick Hill, Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "my house." 

Nacommuck Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "enclosed 
point of land," or "garden at the point," or "sandy field"? 

Nadhuset Stream, Plymouth County, Mass. Narragansett, "procure 
meat or game," or "hunting place." 

Nagatossett location unknown, probably New London County, 
Conn. Eastern Niantic, "sandy brook." 

Nagatuck see Naugatuck. 

Naggawoomcom Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
probably a variant of Agawam in the sense of "a canoe 
unloading place," "basin at the sandy place." 

130 



Nagog Pond and Village, Middlesex County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the sandy place," or "at the corner" or "near the path." 
Nagusset Abagadusset Point, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, 

"at the small point." 
Nagwadog Lone Tree Hill, Orleans County, Vt. MahicanP "one 

tree." 
Nagwamqueeg Mallison Falls, Presumpscot River, Cumberland 

County, Me. Abnaki, "a single sand bar" ? 
Nahant Essex County, Mass. Natick, "the point." Also translated 

as "almost an island;" an older version makes it "two things 

(islands) surrounded," probably surrounded at high tide. 

(Nahanton, or Nahantum, was a chief in this region.) 

Nahapassumkeck Plymouth County, Mass. Natick, "right there 

at the roasting place." Also given as "place of posts or stakes." 
Nahatan Street, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, from William 

Nahetan, a Christian Indian circa 1650. 
Nahett Peninsula or Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"at the point." 
Nahigonset Island, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 

the small point." Variant, Nahiganset. 
Nahma jimski congomoc Haymock Lake, Aroostook County, 

Me. Abnaki, "fishing place at dead water lake," on high land. 
Nahmajimskitegwek Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "dead 

water fishing place meets stream" (tumbling out of high 

place) ? See Nahma jimski congomoc. 
Nahmakanta Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "plenty of 

fish." 
Nahnek-bahntik Caribou Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"big island falls." This place was an important source of 

wycobee, or leatherwood, so important in manufacturing 

pack-goods. 
Nahoosik see Hoosic, and Mahoosuc. 

Nahteawanet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "four cor- 
nered gap," or "square shaped hole." 
Nahumkeag Falls, Island, Pond and Stream, Kennebec County, 

Me. Abnaki, "eels run out." 
Nahwesetuck anciently a Mohegan village on Fenton River, 

Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "small fish stream." 

9* 131 



Naiag Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, "a point." See 

Nayaug. 
Naidni Rutland County, Vt. This is a jape — just the word 'Indian* 

spelled backwards. 
Naiog Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "at the point." 
Naiwayouk Point, New London County, Conn. Western Niantic? 

"crooked point." See Noank, 

Nalabongan Sebasticook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"above the lake," or "the lake above." Nala, or nara seem to 
indicate a resting-place at a pond above a stretch of rapids. 

Nalagamoik Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "above the 
lake." 

Nalagwem Menahan Verona Island, Hancock County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "the island upstream from bogs." 

Nalaseemagamobsis Shad Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"below the sluggish place near the small rock," where guides 
and hunters rested after poling up the stream. 

Nallahamcongan alias Natanis Franklin County, Mass. Abnaki? 
PennacookP "fishing place downstream?" See Nalumsunk- 
hungan, Natanas. 

Nallahoodus Mountain, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "below 
the rapids" ? or "fall on either side" ? See Nulhedus. 

Nallawagwis Washington County, Me. Malecite? Abnaki? "below 
the whirlpool, or great eddy" ? But see Narraguagus. 

Naltaug Brook, ¥/orcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "narrow 
place." Alternate spelling Nautaug. 

Nalumsunk-hungan Rips, Ayers Rips, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, "fish curing place below the outlet." 

Namaaskotic Lake Wallis, Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, "salmon- 
trout place." 

Namacock Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
fishing place." 

Namadunkeeunk see Nemadunkehunk. 

Namagonic Seymour Lake, Orleans County, Vt. Abnaki, "salmon 
trout spearing place." See Nammygoe. 

Namaquaog exact location not known, Windham County, Conn. 
Probably Nipmuck, "fish-place." (Namacush? see Togue.) 

132 



Namareck Hartford County, Conn. PodunkP or Poquonnock? 

"fishing place." Other spellings Namelake, Nameroc, Name- 

roake. 
Namaskeese Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "heaps of 

fish,'' perhaps for fertilizer? 
Namasket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the abode 

of fish." 
Namaskik Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the fishing place." 

See Amoskeag. Another spelling Namaoskeag. 
Namassakeeset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "heaps 

of fish." 
Namdamassuagiim Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "sucker lake." 

See Nemdamassuagimi. 
Nameaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan-Pequot, "the 

fishing place." Other spellings Nameek, Nameeg, Nameug, etc. 

Nameaug Essex County, Mass. Natick, "fishing place" possibly 
"place where eels are caught." 

Namequoit Point, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the fishing place." 

Nameroke formerly an Indian village at Warehouse Point, 
Hartford County, Conn. Podunk, "fishing place." See Nama- 
reck. 

Namemikquasset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

end of the heaps of fish." 
Namkeag Essex County, Mass. Natick, "fishing place," or "eeling 

place." 
Namkecke River, Rockingham County, N. H. Ahnaki, "fishing 

place." 
Namkook Boston Neck, now Salem. Washington County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "at the fishing place." Also Namacoke and 

Nameoke. 
Nammygoe Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Penohscot, "salmon 

trout." Same as the Togue or Nammacush. See Namagonic. 
Namokanok Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "turtle shell 

island." 
Nampscoscoske an ancient name for Wells, York County, Me. 

Ahnaki, possibly, "comes out of sandy place," a stream? or 

"sandy, rocky land" ? 

133 



Nampshaket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "temporary 

sojourning place" ? 
Nampsic Pond Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "fishing 

place." 
Namquit Pond, and Point, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"fishing place." Another source gives this as a contraction of 

Quinnemquit, "high spring." 
Namquoxet Shore, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 

the little beach," or "at the small fishing stand." 
Namshaket Creek, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a 

fishing place." But see Nampshaket, above. 
Namucksuck New London County, Conn. Western Niantic? 

"fishing place at outlet." 
Namyak probably this country was Pequot or Mohegan territory, 

around New London, Conn. The name means "fishing place" 

in those tongues. Also Namyoke. 
Nanachestawack Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place of 

safety," or "fort." 
Nanacoicus Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "an 

earthen pot," or "an earthern kettle." 
Nanakumas Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the shore," 

literally, "dry land." Variant, Nunna Koma. 

Nanantomqua Worcester County, Mass. A^z^mwc^, "rocky point" ? 

But see Nonantum. 
Nana penahekan Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "stone 

heaps; piles of fallen rocks." See Mannan penokean. 
Nanapenhakan Brook, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "stream 

coming out of stone heaps." Variants, Nanipenihekan, Nanah- 

penahekan, Mannanpenokean. 

Nanaquacket Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "swamp 
dries up." Also Namaquaket, Nunnacket, Nunnaquacket. 

Nanaquonset Island, Fox Island, Washington County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "above the confluence of two streams" ? "narrow 

strait," or "long beach; long dry shore."? 
Nanenol Mehanol off Burlington, Chittenden County, Vt. 

Ahnaki, "five islands." 
Nanepashemet Village, Essex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "he who 

walks at night," i. e.. The Moon. Nanepashemet was the 

134 



great Moon Chief of the Naumkeag at Salem in 1616. A 

"Queen Nanepashemet" was killed in 1621. Another possible 

translation is "dry fountain." 
Nanequoxet Fox Island, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"above the confluence of two rivers," or "narrow strait." 

See Nonnequasset. 
Nanhoc location unknown, perhaps York County, Me.? Abnaki, 

"downstream place," or perhaps a modification of Manhoc, 

"island place" ? 
Nanipsick Pond, Providence County, Conn. Narragansett, "place 

of the narrow body of water"? or "dried-up pool"? See 

Nipsic. 
Nannaquaket Pond, Newport County, R.I. Narragansett, "it 

dries up." 
Nannaquokset Neck; see Nonequasset. 
Nannihiggonsick R. I. This is the name of a small island described 

by Roger Williams. Rough translations include "good ferry," 

"narrow strait," etc. Some references state that this name 

may be the original of the term Narragansett. 
Nannonicky Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dry land" ? 

Nanomesset Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

narrow place abounding in fish." Now Gosnold Island. 
Nanrantsoak the Old Ahnaki name for Norridgewock, q. v. 
Nanshigganset see Nahigonset. 
Nansquatog Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "above the 

confluence of two rivers." 
Nantascot Nantasket, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the place of two points" (which appear at low tide). 

Also "narrow bridge place" (at low tide), Nantoyusk-ut? 

See Nahant. 
Nantasket Brook, Windham County, Conn. See below. 
Nantasket Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the strait," or 

"place of the ebb tide." See Nantascot. 
Nantiganset Bay, Little Narragansett Bay, Washington County, 

R. I. Narragansett, "at the small point," or "at the place 

where the river is no longer narrow." 
Nantucket County, Island, Mass. Wampanoag, either "in the 

midst of waters" or "at the far-off (at sea) place" or "where 

135 



it is, the sea gets broader;" also Narragansett, "far off, 
among the waves," and "point of land in the stream." 
Perhaps "narrow river," the strait between the island of 
Nantucket and Tuckernuck Island. 
Nantusiunk Newport County, R. I. Goat Island, in Newport 
Harbor. Narragansett, "narrow ford or strait." Also Nomsus- 
muck, and Nantusununk or Nantuzenunk. See Nantascot. 

Napackamach Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican? "fish weir," or 

"fish trap place." 
Napchecoy Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the hill 

near the shore." 
Naperhan Creek, Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "a snare or 

trap." 
Napucke Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "at the pool" of water. 
Naquag Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "a point or angle." 

Naquamke FaUs, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "place of eels." 
See Nequamwicke and Nahumkeag. 

Narantsoak Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, na-itswak, "down- 
current," or "rapids." See Norridgewock. 

Narmacungawak Brook, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "a deep 
fishing place." 

Naromiyock nowhusun katankshunk Brook, Litchfield County, 
Conn. Mahican, "fishing place in the gravelly stream near 
the big hill." (Or possibly a name built up by Whites). 

Narragansett many places; parks, trails, villages, and names in 
New England. All are Narragansett, meaning "at the small 
narrow point." This was an important Rhode Island tribe 
which occupied most of Rhode Island west of Narragansett 
Bay. Until defeated during King Philip's War they were the 
most powerful tribe in southern New England. Also Narra- 
ganset. See Nahigonset, and Nannihiggonsick. 

Narragooe an ancient Abnaki village, location uncertain; trans- 
lation perhaps, "above the marsh," or "upstream from 
canoe landing." See Narraguagus below. 

Narraguagus River, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "above the 
boggy place." 

Narshapogge Hartford County, Conn. Probably Wangunk, "two 
ponds near together." Also Neeshapaug. 

136 



Nasauket Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the neck of 

land/' "land between rivers." 
Nasawi the land between the Waits River and the Connecticut River, 

Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, "midway," or "land between." 
Nasawtuck Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "the middle 

river," or "river between." 
Nasbaug Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, "three ponds." 
Nashamoiess Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "in the middle 

of the dark land;" or Natick, "small path between." 
Nashanticut Providence County, R. I. See Mashanticut. 
Nashaquits Cliffs, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "be- 
tween islands," or "middle of islands." 
Nashawag Windham County, Conn. Nipmtwk, "between two 

river branches." Variants, Nashaway, Nashua, Nashawog. 

See Ashawog. 
Nashawake Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck "place between 

river branches." 
Nashawannuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the meadow 

between." 
Nashawena Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "it lies 

between." 
Nashawena Road, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "half 

way," or "between." 
Nashawomauk Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "in the 

middle of the country." But see Shawmut. 
Nashayte Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place between 

two tidal streams," or "two branches" of the harbor. 
Nashoba Brook, Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "between 

waters." See Neshobe, etc. 
Nashua City and River, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, 

"between" streams. 
Nashua Reservoir and River, Worcester, Mass. Nipmuck, "bet- 
ween" streams. Variant Nashawa-eg. 
Nashuae Komuck Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 

half-way house." 
Nashuatukq[ut New London County, Conn. Nipmuck? "between 

two rivers," the Yantic and the Quinebaug. Also found as 

Nashuatukut. See Shetucket. 

^37 



Naskeag Point, Harbor and Village, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"place at the end." 
Nasket Point, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "at the end." 
Nasketucket Bay and Village, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 

"at the end of the tidal stream." 
Nasnocomacock Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

halfway place," or "at the place between." Another source 

gives "end of plantation" or "as far as the plantation." 
Naspatuckett River; see Woonasquatuckett. 
Nassahegan State Forest, Hartford County, Conn. Poquonock or 

Tunxis, "he has two houses" or "he lives at halfway place." ? 

Also spelled Nosohogon, "second dwelling place." An Indian 

by this name sold lands in Connecticut in 1673. 
Nassaque mentioned by Capt. John Smith. Possibly Nasket, q. v. 
Nassawket Shore ; see Nasauket. 
Nasso-emek Dyer's Neck, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "land 

between." 
Nassouac the ancient name for Merrymeeting Bay, Sagadahoc 

County, Me. Abnaki, "land between." Variant, Naxoat. 
Natanas Brook, Franklin County, Mass. Probably Abnaki, from 

Natanas (or Natanis), a brother of Sabbatus; both were 

helpful to the Americans in the Revolution. It is suggested 

that the name comes from Natick, nootimis, "oak tree," 

but other evidence traces it to Nathan-is, "little Nathan." 

See Nallahamcongan, Sabbatus. 
Natanis Brook, Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, "little Nathan." 
Natardin Mountain, Me. See Katahdin. 
Natchaug State Forest, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"between rivers." 
Natchick Hill; see Nachick. 
Natick Village and Falls, Kent County, R. I. Natick, "the place 

I seek," that is, "my home, my house." But another source 

gives "a plain," or "a clearing." Also a village in Middlesex 

County, Mass. See Massachuset. 
Naticook now Litchfield, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki, "at 

the place where the river flows downward." 
Natuah possibly in Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "a meadow 

or intervale" ? 

138 



Naubuc Village, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "overflowed, 

flooded." 
Naugatuck River and Village, New Haven County, Conn. Quinni- 

piac, "a single tree." (Naugatuck Reservoir is in Fairfield 

County.) Another spelling, Nawcotuck. See Nagwadog. 
Naukeag Lakes and Village, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"fishing place," or "sandy place," or "soft earth." 
Nauma Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "(long) point?" 

or "(long) sand spit," "(long) fish"? Quon-nauma? 
Naumkeag or Nahum Keke Essex County, Mass. Natick, "eel 

place;" another source gives "sandy land." 
Nausauket Village, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

second outlet," or "between outlets." Another spelling, 

Nausaucat. 
Nauseag Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "the point of land." See 

Nasket. 
Nauset Barnstable County, Mass. Nauset, "at the place between" 

(Cape Cod Bay and the Atlantic Ocean?), or "on the point." 
Naushon Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "angular" ? 

"middle" ? "Spirit of God" ? "big spring" ? "first" ? 
Nau-wot Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger? "a great way" or 

"far distant." See Nawottok. 
Nawaas the general Connecticut region. Also Nowaas. 
Nawbesetuc the site of an ancient Indian village, Tolland County, 

Conn. Mohegan, "land at the pond," or "overflowed river 

country," bottom land. 
Naweag see Noank. 
Nawlombages Etna Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "a 

little pond upstream." 
Nawottok HampdenCounty, Mass., and Hampshire County, Mass. 

Possibly a transplant by White settlers from Connecticut; 

Wangunk, "land far away?" Otherwise given as "middle of 

the river," that is, on or at a small island in the stream. 
Naxoat the St. John's River, the boundary between parts of 

northern Maine and Canada. Malecite? Abnaki? perhaps 

"far away" or, "at the point of land"[?]. See Nassouac. 
Nayacke see Nayaug. 
Nay age see Nayaug. 

139 



Nayantacawnick a small island off shore from New London County, 
mentioned by Roger Williams; the precise spot is not known. 
Narragansett, "at the place across from the Niantic." Prob- 
ably Gull Island or Plum Island, N. Y. 

Nayantaquit Eastern New London County, between Thames and 
Pawcatuck rivers. Narragansett? "points of land on tidal 
stream." 

Nayanticot (Point Judith), also Nayanticut. See Nianticut. 

Nayas Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "a point, or angle." 

Nayasset Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the small point." 

Nayatt Point and Road, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
point." Also Nayot, Nayott. 

Nayaug the point at the mouth of Roaring Brook, Glastonbury, 
Hartford County, Conn. Probably Wangunk, although this word 
which means "point or angle" is used in several major dialects. 

Nayaug Colchester Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Mahican, "a 
point." 

Nayump River, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "point, rocky." 
See also Nayumps, below. 

Nayumps Rock Point, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "rocks 
at the point." (Where the Nayump river runs into Housatonic). 

Nayumpsk New London County, Conn. Western Niantic? "rocky 
point." Spelled also Nyumph. 

Nayyag Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the point." 

Nayyocossuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "brook near 
the point of land." 

Neaguamkot Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "the first place," 
hence, "old village"? See Negan odanak. 

Neanscott River, Androscoggin County, Me. Abnaki, probably 
"at the place where they cure fish," but possibly "trembling, 
boggy banks." 

Neanticoet and Neanticot see Nianticut. 

Neastoquoheaganuck see Escoheag. 

Nebisonbik mineral springs in Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, "mi- 
neral water place." 

Nebissee-woldam-wogan Weeping Rocks, near Pownal, Benning- 
ton County, Vt. Abnaki, "waters of sorrow," according to 
Rowland Robinson, Vermont's famous blind author who 

140 



collected and preserved many Indian names. (Also in Mohawk, 
Kanyatare Keahea, "lake of death"). This landmark was 
destroyed in a road improvement program in i960. 

Nebraska Notch, Chittenden County, Vt. Osage, "the fiat water," 

or "wide, fiat expanse of river." 
Necadoram the main stream of the Sebasteguk River. Penobscot 

County, Me. Abnaki, possibly "better route up this fork." 
Nechawonak see Newichawannock ; also Nechawonek, Nechewan- 

nick, Nechowanuck, etc. 
Neconaugamook Round Pond, Third Machias Lake, Washington 

County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? "third long lake."[?] 
Necotok location unknown, perhaps in Knox County, Me?. 

Abnaki, "fork in river." See Nicatow. 
Neddick Cape, York County, Me. Micmac, "heaving in sight of 

a solitary upstanding island." Variants, Nedick, Neddock. 

Neekequaw Pond, Washington County, R. I. Nanagansett, "home 
place, or house" ? or "double pond" ? Also Neekeequoweere 
and Neekeequawese. 

Neekounegan the right bank carry, past Old Town Falls, Pe- 
nobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "the better, or preferred carry." 

Neesepegesuck Brook and Ponds, Middlesex County, Mass. Nip- 
muck, "two narrow outlets." Also found as "two pond brook." 

Neeseponsonet Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "in the neigh- 
borhood of two clear ponds," or "at the second waterfall." 

Neetmock River, the Blackstone River, New London County, 
Conn., and Kent County, R. L A modern form of Nipmuck, 
"fresh water place." 

Negan odanak Old Town, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "the 
first, or original town;" that is, "the old town." 

Negas now Fort Point, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, perhaps 
part of their word for "portage," perhaps part of a longer 
word meaning "short cut." Also Negew. See Negunisis. 

Neghechewanck a small island at the confluence of Cocheco and 
Salmon Falls rivers, York County, Me. Abnaki, "island in 
two currents" or "island at the great bend." 

Neguasseag River Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "a pond" or 
"place of the pond," also "first widening] as we go up-river." 
(See Nequasset.) 

141 



Negunisis Knox County, Me. Abnaki, contraction and modification 
of Ouinigansees, "small (or short) portage." Also Negunsis. 
Negunket River; see Neguntequit and Ogunquit. 

Neguntequit ancient name for Wells, York County, Me. Abnaki, 

"old, abandoned fields." 
Negunticook Camden Harbor, Knox County, Me. Micmac, "big 

mountain harbor." 
Neguttaquid River, Berwick, York County, Me. Abnaki, "old 

island," or "first island." See also Neguntequit. 
Negwamkeag near Augusta, Kennebec County, Me. Probably 

Malecite, "a single sand bar." 
Negwasseg see Nequasset. 
Negweesen the great boulder at Rock Point, Chittenden County, 

Vt. Mahican? Abnaki? "single rock." 

Nehaiwe Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "place down stream." 

Nehantic see Niantic. 

Nehantic State Forest, New London County, Conn. In memory 
of the Niantic Indians who formerly lived here. This name 
means practically the same as Nehantuck, q. v. 

Nehantuck Niantic Point, New London County, Conn. Western 
Niantic, "point of land on a tidal river or estuary." See Niantic. 

Nehumkeag or Nahumkeag see Nahumkeag. 

Nehumkee or Nehumkike Several such places in York, Cumber- 
land, Knox, Penobscot and Kennebec Counties, Me. Abnaki, 
"eel place." 

Nekatatacomet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "divided 
field" or "divided plantation." 

Neketow see Nieatow. 

Nekrangen the mouth of the Sheepscott River, Lincoln County, 
Me. Abnaki, perhaps "the opening." See Klanganissecook. 

Nemadunkehunk, Webster Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 
Malecite? Micmac? "straight-up-the-hill stream." 

Nemasket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the fishing 
place," or possibly "grassy land." (There was a Nemasket 
Village in Boston Harbor to circa 1790.) 

Nemdamassuagum Gardiner's Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Abnaki, "sucker lake." 

142 



Nemonunck or Nominick Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 
"land to be seen far off," or "elevated land." 

Nemoset Mountain and Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"at the fishing place." 

Neotaconkonitt Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the short (or scant) boundary mark," the hill surmounted 
by Cononicus' Boulder. There are at least 60 variants of this 
name. 

Neotuquet River, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the solitary 
river." 

Nepash Stream, Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "upright stake" 
or possibly from nepaus, "the sun"(?) 

Nepasooenegg Brook, Mohawk Brook, Hampden County, Mass. 
Nipmuck, "at the upright stone." 

Nepaug Reservoir and River, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, 
"fresh pond." 

Neponset Reservoir and River, Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, 
perhaps an abbreviation of winneponset, "a good fall," 
that is, easily negotiated by canoe parties. (Perhaps this has 
something to do with nepiin, "early summer." Another set 
of roots give a hint of "sleeping," or "dreaming.") Variants, 
Naponsitt and Naponset. 

Nepp Point, Washington County, Me. If Indian, perhaps nepe, 
"water" in several dialects. 

Nepsucknet Plymouth County, Mass. From Wampanoag, "at the 
place where the brook runs all summer," or "at the brook 
which has its outlet in the pond." 

Nequamwicke Falls, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "eel-place." 

Nequaseag River, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "place of clear 
(or shallow) water." 

Nequassabemasis Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "small pond." 

Nequassebem Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "a pond or lake." 

Nequasset Pond and Village, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, "at 

the pond." 
Nequechoke Lake, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "near the 

hilly place." 
Nerigwocke, Neriwocke see Norridgewock. 

143 



Nesayik now Boy den's Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 
"the muddy lake." Spelled also Nesseik, ''roily water." 
Indians say the water is roily because of the death-throes 
of "a huge water monster," the Wiwiliamecq. 

Nesenkeag Eel Brook, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki, ''they 
come here two-by-two, " probably the so-called silver eels. 

Nesepack Ponds, Addison County, Vt. Abnaki? "two ponds" ? 
Neshaw Holmes Hole, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "two of 

a kind," or "they go two-by-two," the silver eel, 

Muraena argentes. 

Neshobe the Otter Creek Valley near Brandon, Rutland County, 

Vt. Natick, "very full of water." Also a river in Addison 

County, Vt. 
Neshunganset Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"in the middle of the fishing place." Also Neshunganes. 
Neskett Maine Coast, between Penobscot Harbor and Mt. Desert 

Island. Abnaki? "rough places"? 
Nesopack Pond, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "eels pond," 

"they come two by two," i. e., silver eels. But see Nesepack. 
Nesowadnehunk Stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "swift 

stream between mountains," or "swift stream in the moun- 
tain ravine." 
Nesquabinanset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

first water pool." 
Nesuntabunt Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "three 

heads." From a certain angle, the height seems to be three 

headed; that is, with three peaks. 
Netahme Puntook falls on Otter Creek near Vergennes, Addison 

County, Vt. Abnaki, "first falls on river," above river mouth. 
Netakamikus Knox County, Me. Penobscot- Abnaki, "big ridge." 

Variant, Netiikhamakoos. 
Netop Mountain, Bennington County, Vt. Natick, "my friend." 

Neutaconkanut Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the short or scant boundary mark." Also Natakonkanet, 
Neotacankonitt, Neutaqunkanet, etc. 

Newagen Cape and Village, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, part of a 
longer word meaning "route across the land," or "route 
stopped and turned across land," kepan-ahwangen. 

144 



Newashe Hartford County, Conn. Podunk, "a point of land"? 

New Canada Township, Aroostook County, Me. Mohawk, "the 
houses." 

Newdick Point, Sagadahoc County, Me. Malecite, "at the solitary 
place." 

Newichawannock Rapids, York County, Me. Abnaki, "at the 
place between two strong currents and rapids," or "between 
swift river forks." Variants, Nechawonak, Nechawonek. 

Newichawannuk Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipimwk, "ex- 
tended rapids, at the fork in the river." Spelled also Ne- 
wichawannak. 

Newichwanimak Lake, (Great East Lake) Carroll County, N. H. 

Pennacook, "the place of extended rapids, at the fork." 
Newichwannock River and Village, Strafford County, N. H. 

Pennacook, "where rapids extend a considerable distance, 

at a fork." 
Nexaongermek now Stetson Pond, Penobscot County, Me. From 

Abnaki, "the lake between" Etna Pond and Newport Lake, 

but not connected with either. 
Nezinscot River, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, "place of descent, 

going down-river by canoe." 

Niagara Falls, Piscataquis County, Me. Seneca, "the collar- 
shaped object," or "the neck-piece." 

Niantic Indians who lived between the Connecticut River and 
the Rhode Island boundary. Invading Pequots split the tribe 
in two; some remained in Connecticut between the Connec- 
ticut River and Niantic Harbor, others went east to live in 
western Rhode Island. Thus we have the terms Western 
Niantic and Eastern Niantic; there is actually almost no 
difference between the two dialects. The term Niantic trans- 
lates as "those who live at the point." Variants, Nehantic, 
Nyantic. 

Niantic R. I., and various points in Connecticut. West Niantic, 
"point of land on the tidal estuary." See Nianticut and 
Nyantaquit. 

Nianticut Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
''ait the tidal creek near the point." Also Nayanticut. 

Niben a meadow south of Bellows Falls, Windham County, Vt. 
Abnaki, "summer." 

145 



Nicatous Lake, Hancock County, Me. Ahnaki, "the little fork" 

in the stream. See also Nicatowis. 
Nicatow old name for Medway, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"the river fork." 
Nicatowis Fork, of Passadumkeag River, Hancock County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "the small fork." 
Nichewaug Village, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

midway place," or "place between." 
Nichiquiwanick N. H. Sometimes incorrectly [?] translated as 

"place of my wigwam." See Newichwannock. 
Nichmug River, Grafton County, N. H. Ahnaki, "fishing place 

at the fork." 
Nickwacket Mountain, Rutland County, Vt. Ahnaki, "at the 

fork," or possibly "abode of squirrels" ? 
Nigakws-wakeag Skiff Pond (or North Lake) tributary of the 

Spednick River, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "the fork- 
tailed terns' nesting place." 
Nikaagamok Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "forked 

lake." See also Nikanagamak, below. 
Nikanagamak Ragged Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"forked lake." Spelled also Nigidawagamek. 
Nikisipik a locality near Franklin, Merrimack County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "fork in the stream." 
Nimpanick Hickanuh Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 

place where a tree was split during a thunder storm," or 

"place of thunder clefts." 
Ninigret Pond, Washington County, R. I. East Niantic, "a war 

chief." Ninigret was a chief of the Niantic, 1654. 
Ninipoket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the fresh pond." 
Nipchossuck see Nippsatchuk. Variants, Nipsachoke, Nipsachook. 
Nipmuck many place names in southern New England. All derive 

from Nipmuck, "fresh water place," or, "fresh water fishing 

place," the name of a tribe living in Connecticut, Rhode Island 

and Massachusetts. 
Nippahonset Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

fresh water pool." 
Nippaniquet Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

small fresh water pond." 

146 



Nippeake New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "water 

country," probably meaning "well watered, plenty of fresh 

water brooks." 
Nippenick Lake, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, probably 

"fresh water pool," but possibly "at the summer place." 
Nippoo Pond and Hill, Strafford County, N. H. Ahnaki or Penna- 

cook, "fresh water pond." Variants, Nepo, Nebo, Nippo, 

etc. 
Nippowance Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett form, same as 

Rippo warns, q. v. 
Nippowin Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "good water." 
Nippsatchuk Hill and Swamp, Providence County, R. L Narra- 

gansett, "water near the hill," 
Nipsic Hartford County, Conn. Wangimk, "fresh pool," or 

"water brook." Another spelling Nipsuck, "at the pool" or 

"where water flows out." 
Nipsquanauge New London County, Conn. Wangunk? "land at 

the long pond." 
Nisopack Ponds, Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "double pond" 

or "two ponds." 
Nisquitianxset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "defiled 

or unclean place" ? 
Nissitissett Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "two brooks" or 

"between brooks." 
Nissitisset Hill and River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "near 

the two small rivers." 
Niswosaket Providence County, R. I. This is an ancient name for 

Woonsocket, R. L Probably Narragansett, the name means 

approximately "water broken up as it goes rapidly down- 
ward" ? or "place of two brooks" ? 
Nitchewog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "land or place 

between." 
Niupp aquashneag Brook, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac? 

"water at place of flags or rushes" or "rushy pool." 
Noag see Nayaug. Variant, Noyaug. 

Noanet Peak and Brook, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the 
far place," or "at the dry place?" or "place of dry trees" ? 
Spelled also Noanat. 



lO* 



147 



Noank Bay, Point and Village, New London County, Conn. West 

Niantic, "it is a point." 
Noautuk see Norwottuck. 

Nobscot Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, ''ait the rocky place." 
Nobscusset Harbor and Point, Barnstable County, Mass. Wam- 

fanoag, "at the place of little reefs, or small rocks." Variant, 

Nobsquassit. 

Nobska Point, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "rocks." 

Nobsquassit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the rock 
ledge cliff." 

Nockum Hill, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "land can be 
seen far off," or possibly "sandy." 

Nodawangak Lincoln County, Me.? Ahnaki, "dancing place," or 
"where we dance." There were several such places. 

Noepe Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag? an old name for 
Martha's Vineyard. See Nope, and Noepi. 

Noepi Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag? "in the midst of 
waters." An old name for Nantucket. See also Nope. 

Noeutuck Hampshire County, Mass. Natick? Mahican? "middle 
of the river." See also Noautuck, Norwottuck. 

Noguncoth Perhaps a 1649 spelling of Ogunquit, q. v. 

Nohlkai Menahan in Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Ahnaki, literally "deer island." 

Nohono Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, possibly an abbre- 
viation of the terms for "dry land" or "beach;" or "middle 
place," or "far away." 

Nokatay Island, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "one alone," 
or "first (island) come to; "possibly, "where the channel splits." 

Nokhigan a locality near Goshen School, Orange County, Vt. 
Ahnaki, "flour, or meal-mortar" (A typical Mohegan-type log 
mortar was there until 1941. Local legend had Coosucks 
grinding fine corn meal there). The words "no-cake," nokeag, 
rokeag, yokheag have the same root-meaning: "fine-ground 
meal." 

Nokomis Pond, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "my grandmother." 
Nolan gamoik Ripogenous Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"resting place after a long hard carry above a long stretch 

of falls or rapids." 

148 



Nolat keeheemimgan Freese Island, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "between the hunting grounds." 
Nolkaianak Essex County, Vt. Ahnaki, "deer here." 

NoUesemic Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, ''resting place 
at falls above the long stretch." 

Nollidgewanticook River, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "place 

above the falls in the river" ? See also Norridgewock. 
Nolumbeke see Norumbega. 

Nolwottog Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "far-away place." 

No Man's Land (Island), Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
modified by Colonists from the name of Chief Tequenoman 
of Nantucket, 1664. 

Nomascom Grafton County, N. H. Ahnaki, "long fish"? More 
likely a modification of Mascoma, q. v. 

Nomsussmuc Island, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "white 
beach place" ? Possibly also "infertile mud" ? or "place of 
little heaps" ? 

Nonacoicus Brook and Pond Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"dry earth" ? "dry pines" ? or "earthen pot" ? 

Nonantum Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "I am well minded, 
I rejoice," or Narragansett, "I am glad." 

Noncook Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "sandy place," 

or "at the shore." 
Nonequacket Island and Shore, Washington County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "dry land place," i.e., the shore. 

Nonequasset see Nonequacket. Variants, Nonequausut, None- 
qiiksett. 

None quit Cove, Pond and Point, Newport County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "dry land," the shore. Also Nonnequid, Nonquid, etc. 

Nonganeck see None quit. 

Noni's Spring, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, from the 
name of an Indian who lived near the spring before 1800. 

Nonnecoicus Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "dried soft stuff," 
perhaps dried mud, possibly baked clay, as earthen pots. 
See Nonacoicus. 

Nonnequasset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "narrow 
swamp place" ? or "above the confluence of two rivers." 

149 



Nonnewaug River, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, "dry land" 

referring to stream drying up in summer. 
Nonniquatuc see Nonequit. 

Nonnowigil Mehanol Chittenden County, Vt. Ahnaki, literally 

"five islands." 
Nononomesset Island; see Nanomesset. 

Nonotuck Hampshire County, Mass. Natick, "in the middle of 
the river," or "narrow river;" or Paugussett, "far-away place." 

Nonquitt Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "dry place," or 
"place of harvest," or perhaps "landing place." 

Nookagee Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the sandy 
place," or possibly "the clay place." 

Noomuck see Namkook. 

Nooseneck Hill and Village, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the place of the beaver." See Noozapoge. 

Noosnippi Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Narragansett, "beaver 

pond." 
Nootash Hill, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "carry loads 

in them, on your back;" that is, "baskets." 

Nootimishash Tolland County, Conn. Podunk? "oak trees." 

No-ottut Merrimack County, N. H. Natick, "far-away place." 

No-ottut Hampden County, Mass. Paugussett, "a great, long 
journey." 

Noozapoge Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "beaver- 
pond." See Nooseneck. 

Nope Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag? abbreviation of p'nops 
quessaugamaug, "menhaden fishing place." This is an ancient 
name for Martha's Vineyard. Variant, Nopi. 

Nopque Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "menhaden- 
place" ? or "utmost, furthest place."? 

Noquochoke Lake, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "soft 
earth place." See also Nequechoke. 

Noronoke Lake, Fairfield County, Conn. Perhaps Mahican, "dry 
land" or Paugussett, "far-off country"? 

Norridgewock Village, Somerset County, Me. Probably Abnaki, 
"where swift river descends". Possibly Malecite, nah-wis- 
ewauk, "two torrents at this place." Variant, Noridgewa-eg. 

150 



Norsaton now Noroton Village, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, 
(free translation) "creek almost dry at low tide." 

Norumbega Point and Village, Hancock County, Me. Also a 
Park and Reservoir, Middlesex County, Mass. This name 
appeared on maps as early as 1550, with a very large territory 
so labelled. Ganong (1912) wrote that this word is a European 
transplant, and that the following Abnaki name, however 
similar, is coincidental: Nolumbeke, ''still water between 
falls." Variants, Aranbega, Nanrhbegwa, etc. 

Norwalk see Norwauke. 

Norwauke Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "at the point of 
land." Also given as Norwaack. But see Norwottock. 

Norwottock Rockingham County, N. H. Natick? "far away 
place." See also No-ottut. 

Norwottock Mountain, Hampden County, Mass. Natick? or 
PaugussettP "far from us." 

Nosahick Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? 
"place of roiled water," or "muddy lake." See Nesayik. 

Notaconkanut Hill; same as Neutaconkanut. 

Nowaas Hartford County, Conn. Podimk, "between rivers"? 
or "at the point" ? 

Nowashe Hartford County, Conn. Podunk, "between" rivers. 

Nowatunamon Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "dried up place" 

also "dry, ready for harvest." 
Nowedonah Fairfield County, Conn. A Long Island chief who 

helped the Dutch in their Connecticut struggles, circa 1645. 

His name is Montauk, "I go seek;" presumably the enemy. 
Nowesit Neck, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "middle 

place." 
Nowpaug Washington County, R. L ? New London County, 

Conn? Niantic, "dry pond"? "beaver"? 
Noycoy Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "soft stuff," such as 

mud, or clay. 
Nubanusit Brook and Lake, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, 

"at the place of gently sloping banks"? or, "small summer 

place" ? 
Nucksisset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 

landing place." 

151 



Nuequiauke location uncertain. New London County, Conn. ? 
Western Niantic? Paugussett? "broad land" ? 

Nuhkehkummees Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a small 
shelter." 

Nukacongamoc Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "lake 
which is beginning" or "headwater pond," or "pond beyond 
which boat and burden have to be carried." 

Nukkekummees Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "sought 
for place" or "desired home." But see Nuhkekummees. 

Nulhedus Mountain, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, "(water?) 
fall on each side." 

Nulhegan River, Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, "my log trap;" a 
deadfall. 

Nullie Kunjewa Brook, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "fishing 
place downstream." 

Numachinagamook Elbow Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "lake that opens on one side." 

Numchenugmawis Second Lake, Washington County, Me. Male- 
cite, "lake one-sided;" inlet and outlet on the same side of 
the lake, so one may go straight up in a canoe. 

Numdemosees Stream, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "little 
sucker-fish swim up" (to spawn?). Possibly also, some other 
small migratory fish. 

Numtsceenaganawis Elbow Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "little crossways pond." 

Nungee Brook and Swamp, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"trembling, quaking." 

Nunkatusset River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "narrow 
meadow," "winding brook." Also, Nunketest. 

Nunkertuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "crooked 
stream." 

Nunnakomac Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, "dry 
land," or "at the shore." 

Nunnaquahgat Neck, Newport County, R. L Narragansett, "dry 
meadow." Variant, Nummastaquyt. 

Nunnatucket River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "a 
creek that dries up." 

Nunnawauk Road, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "dry land." 

152 



Nunnipaug Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fresh pond," or 
''narrow pond." Variant Nunpoak, "dry pond?" 

Nupskonaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "land at 
long pond." See Nipsquanauge. 

Nusalk Chunangan possibly on Penobscot Bay, Knox County, 
Me. Perhaps Abnaki, "village near the big fish weir." See 
Nutskamongan. 

Nuscongus see Muscongus. 

Nusquash Pond, Sagadahoc County, Me. See Musquash. 

Nutskamongan probably Ayer's Rips, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, perhaps "good cornfield" or "fishing place." It was 
here that the Mikumwessak, the dwarfs or "wee people" came 
to warn the Abnaki that the Mohawk were enroute east, 
on the warpath. The Mikumwessak were wood-dwellers, 
larger and more friendly than the rock-dwelling Wana- 
gameswak. 

Nyac New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "a point." 



-o- 

Oantenocke or Ouantinuck; see Weantinock. 
Oawascoage River; see Owascoag. 

Obscob New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "white rock." See 

also Webomskat. 
Obumkeag River, York County, Me. ? Abnaki, "sucker-fish place" 

from abodumquen-keag. 
Obwebetuck Hill. See Ocquebituck. 

Occawa Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "on the other 
side,"? or, "over against (the fishing place)"? 

Occooch Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small." 

(But possibly "flies.") 
Occopaug New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "head of the 

pond." See Aquibapaug. Another spelling, Aquebogue. 

Occum Village New London County, Conn. Mohegan, named for 
Samson Occum, 1723-1792, a famous Indian preacher who 
worked for Indian education; he was also a prime mover 
in the exodus of New England Indians to Brothertown, N. Y. 

153 



Occupaspatucket Cove, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"near the cove on the shallow tidal creek." Variant Occupas- 
pawtuxet. 

Occupasstuxet Road, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "small 
cove on tidal creek," or "cove on small tidal creek." 

Occupessuatuxet Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "small cove 
on tidewater." 

Ocinamunt Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag ? Perhaps 
originally Oshamamucks, "eel fishing place. "[?] 

Ockoogangansett Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
plantation," or "plowed fields place." 

Ockseattkontack New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "wading 
place (or fording-place) at the creek," possibly where the 
Mishimayagat, "principal trail," turned eastward. 

Ocquebituck Hill, Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, meaning 
doubtful. Perhaps "separated from river," or else "top of 
a tree;" probably the latter. 

Ocquiunk Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "under the 
tree." See Acquiunk, 

Ocsechoxit Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "fox country." 

See Woonksechocksett. 
Odana site of ancient Koessuk, Windham County, Vt. Ahnaki, 

"dwellings." 
Odonwagayon meadows near Swanton, Franklin County, Vt. 

Mohawk, "old beaver or muskrat lodges." 

Ogesh Kuppi Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small enclosure." 
Oggawame see Agawam. 

Oggunikonqquamesut Middlesex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at 
the plowed fields, or plantation." 

Ogoncog River; see Ogunquit. 

Ogunquit Village, York County, Me. Micmac, "lagoons within 
dunes" ? Also Ahnaki, "place of waves," from antegw-quit. 

Ohio Brook, Washington County, Me. Mohawk, "the large or 

beautiful river." 
Ohio Hill, Windsor County, Vt. Mohawk, "big or beautiful river." 

Ohkakquiset Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 
hollow" (or kettle-hole) ? or Wonqui quaset, "crooked rocks 

154 



place" ? or Oke-aquesset, "field ending place" (earth, dirt, 
field?) 

Ohkonkumme Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "village on 
the other side" (across the island). 

Ohnowarake a small cove in Lake Champlain, Chittenden County, 
Vt. Mohawk, "turtle place." 

Ohomowauke a pine swamp near Ledyard, New London County, 
Conn. Eastern Niantic, "owl's place." This was a favorite 
refuge of Indians when attacked. Also Ohomauke. 

Ohomowauke Swamp, Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, 
"at the abode of owls." This was a hiding-place for Indians 
during colonial wars, hence "place of refuge, or concealment." 

Ohskenonton Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, "a deer." 
Oiocommuck see Aigio commuck. 

Okemo Mountain, Windsor County, Vt. Chippewa, "a chieftain" 

or Ahnaki, "a louse." 
Okenmakomesut Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the field 

(enclosure) on the other side." This was a farming village 

regularly visited by John Eliot, 1604-1690. 
Okommakemsit see Okenmakomesut. 

Okpaak an ancient Ahnaki village, perhaps in Cumberland 
County, Me. ? "at the bend" ? or "cleared land" ? 

Olamon Island and Village, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"vermilion, red paint." 
Oloostook River; see Aroostook, Wallastook, Oolastook, and 

Walastegw, all Ahnaki or Malecite words meaning "beautiful 
river." 

Omeconset Meadow, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic? 
Narragansett? "drinking place," or "well place" {wuttah- 
hommiink), or possibly "herring fishing place" ? 

Ompompanoosuc River and Village, Windsor County, Vt. Ahnaki, 
"mushy, quaky land." 

Omquemenikeag Lake, North Schoodic Lake, Washington County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "place of cranberries." 
Onagunset see Wunnegunset. 

Onawa Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Chippewa, "Awaken!" 
(In Longfellow's Hiawatha, "Awaken, O Beloved!") 

155 



Ondawa Stream, branch of Batten Kill, Bennington County, Vt. 
Mohawk? "white stream."? 

Onderiguegon Lake Champlain, Drowned Lands south of Rut- 
land County, Vt. Mohawk, ''lake stopped up without outlet." 

Oneadalote Lake Champlain, Vt. Oneida, "a lake." 

Oneco Village, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, named for 
Oneco, the son of Uncas in The Last of the Mohicans. 

Ongeachonta Mountain, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki? "top 

(or summit) of mountain" ? 
Onkatomka Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "top of 

the rock." 

Onkawoom Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "land on 
the other side" ? or "landing-place," similar to Agawam? 

Onkoskopsug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "Uncas' 
spring." 

Onkowam Plymouth County, Mass. See Agawam. 

Onnahookset Cheshire County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the place 
of beautiful trees." 

Onota Lake, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "blue" ? "deep" ? 
or possibly modified from Oyatuck, "he dwells at a water- 
stream." 

Onset Plymouth County, Mass. If Indian, perhaps Wampanoag, 
"place at the point," or "sand place," or "shellfish place," 
or "plain, sandy place." 

Onshaukamaug Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk? a "fishing 
place for eels." 

Onyatalot Lake Champlain, north of Shoreham, Addison County, 
Vt. Oneida, "standing lake," or "(wide lake) standing in 
a stream" or "(possessed) standing lake." 

Ooalakguemook the AUagash River, Aroostook County, Me. 
Ahnaki? Malecite? "birch river," or "birch place," or "black 
camp river" ? 

Oolaghesee Cape Rosier, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "the 
entrails." This is a vein of white quartz under water, which 
resembles water-soaked moose entrails. Glooscap, the 
legendary Malecite hero, killed a moose calf and threw the 
insides to his dog. There they remain. 

156 



Oolagweskwigamicook the Allagash River, Aroostook County, 
Me. Ahnaki, "bark cabin stream," or "bark-house place." 
Also Allagaskwigamook. 

Oolamonogamook Silver Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"vermilion paint lake." 
Oolamonoosuk Olamon Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"place of red paint." 
Oolastook see Wallastook. 
Ooniganissek Cape Jellison Neck, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"at the short carry." Also Ouinigansek. 

Oosoola or Ussoola Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "flooded." 

Opechee Bay, Belknap County, N. H. ; and Stream in Waldo 

County, Me. Chippewa, "a robin." 
Opponaugue see Apponaug and Opponenaubock. 
Opponegansett see Apponagansett and Ponaganset. 
Opponenaubock see Apponaug. 
Opuitowaxet Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "fording 

place at the end of a portage," or "ford at the waiting place." 

Oquassanock Brook, Orange County, Vt. Ahnaki, "at the place 
of the slender trout." 

Oquasskikonaquam Lake Sunapee, Merrimack County, N. H. 
Ahnaki, "slender trout at the end of the field." Price (1958) 
says: "place abounding with slender trout." 

Oquossoc Village, Franklin County, Me. Ahnaki, "a blue slender 

trout," or "place of the oquassa trout." 
Oramphegan see Quamphegan. 
Orantsoak parts of the Kennebec River, Kennebec County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "rapids" or "swift water." Also Aransoak. 
Orcawa Nantucket County, Mass. See Occawa. 
Ordonakis said to be near Lyme, Grafton County, N. H. Penna- 

cook? "at the place of small dwellings" ? 

Oregon Barnstable County, Mass. Possibly a modification of 
Wauregan, q. v. If not, perhaps from French ouragan, 
"hurricane," or Latin origanum, "wild sage," or even Spanish 
orejon, "big ear."[?] 

Orenaug Hill, Litchfield County, Conn. Quinnipiac? PaugtissettP 
"pleasant place." Also see Waurenaug. 

157 



Original Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. This is not 
an Indian name but a French word meaning "elk," adapted 
by certain French-speaking Indian guides, who use this 
name for "moose." Variants, Orignal, Orignac. 

Orkatucket see Annaquatucket. 

Oronauke Fairfield County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "curved place" 
or "land at the bend." Other spellings Oronooke, Oronoke, 
Oronoque, Orronack. See Woronoco and Wauregan. 

Orono the site of the University of Maine, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, from the name of Chief Joseph Orono, who may have 
been a white man adopted into the tribe in his boyhood. 
This name is not translatable; it may not be Indian. 

Ortocoag River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "where we 
mend canoes." Also Oriocog. 

Osabeg Hills, York County, Me. Abnaki, "the other side of the 
stream or pond." See Ossipee. 

Osamequin another name for Massasoit ; from Wampanoag, "yellow 
feather." 

Osceola Island, Plymouth County, and Mountain, Berkshire 
County, Mass. ; and Mountain in Grafton County, N. H. 
Derives from Asi-yaholo, "black drink," the Seminole term 
applied to the famous leader of that tribe. The word refers to 
a ceremonial potion. 

Oselaga Camp Hochelaga, Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk, "at 
the beaver dam," from Hochelaga, q. v. 

Osotonac Creek, York County, Me. Pennacook? "land beyond the 
mountain." See Housatonic. 

Osquepaug River, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the end of the pond," not "whiskey pond." 

Osquoon Cape Rosier, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "the 
liver." This is a large reddish brown rock, supposed by 
Indians to be the liver of a moose calf killed by the legendary 
hero, Glooscap. 

Ossaghrage an ancient Indian village, York County, Me. Perhaps 
Abnaki, "place near salt water." But see Koghserage; the 
Mohawk ranged as far east as Gaspe. 

Ossapimsuck Brook. See Assapumsic. 

158 



Ossipee Lake, Mountain and Village, Carroll County, N. H. and 

Pond, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "water on other side," 

or "beyond the water." 
Oswegachie River, Essex County, Vt. Mohawk, "a long bay or 

estuary." 
Oswegatchie Hill, New London County, Conn. Oneida or Mohawk? 

"long bay or estuary." But if not Iroquoian, perhaps Mo/^^g^w, 

"outlet near the mountain" ? 
Otstenrowanen Rock Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, 

"the large rock." 
Ottauquechee River, Windsor County, Vt. Natick? "swift 

mountain stream," or "cat tails, rushes, near a swift 

current" ? 
Otternic Pond, Hillsboro County, N. H. If Indian, possibly 

Ahnaki, "at the dwellings." 
Ouatchuset see Wachusett. 
Ouchamanunkanet Meadow, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 

gansett, "cultivated plantation at the halfway place." 
Oui-ina-ouasset see Pemigwasset. 
Ouiniganisis-ikuk Stillwater Branch, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "stream with the very short carry." 
Ouinous-tic River; same as Winooski, q. v. 
Ouisnouski Bay, now Malletts Bay, Chittenden County, Vt. 

Ahnaki (modified by French influence), "at the place of wild 

onions." Another spelling, Ouynouske. 
Oukote Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "a kettle"? or "hills."? 
Oulakese-Awangan, a route along the Penobscot River between 

Abol and Chesuncook, Piscataquis County, M.e. Ahnaki, "route 

of entrails," or "route of sausage casings" because ponds 

"on this trail are strung along like links of sausage." 
Oumgomkos Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "place over 

across." 
Ouneganisis a portage at Stillwater, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "the very short carry." This was just a few yards, 

around a tricky waterfall; thus, "a small portage." 
Ouramana Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "vermilion," 

"shining," or beautiful." See Olamon. 
Ousatunick see Housatonic. 

159 



Ouschankamaug Hartford County, Conn., and Berkshire County, 
Mass. Mohican, "eel-fishing place." Also Ouschanpamaug, 
Washakamaug, etc. 

Ouwerage an ancient Ahnaki village. Possibly the same place as 
Ossaghrage? 

Ouy goody St. John's River, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, 
"canoe place" ? Spelled also Oxgoudy. 

Owanux Cumberland County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "strangers (here)" 
from aSeni, "strangers," i.e., colonists. Variant, Awanoots. 

Owascoag River, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the grassy place." 
Owassoosen Bear Notch, Orange County, Vt. Ahnaki, "bears' 

rocks," or "bear's den." 
Oweantonnuc see Weantinock. Spelled also Ouwanatonnuc in 

which version it may mean "at the cloudy, misty hill" ? 

Owenamchock a locality in Fairfield County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"beyond the fishing place." 
Owenoke Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "lowland" or "valley," 

or "country beyond." 
Owtanic Coos County, N. H. Pennacook, "ait the village." 
Owunnegunset Hill, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 

place of the portage," or "place near the kettle-hole" ? 
Owweonhimgganuck Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "where 

fish come to lay eggs" ? or "place where we gather eggs," 

(gull, plover, or turtle eggs). Another source gives "beyond 

the drinking place," and "beyond the fishing place." Also 

Oweeonhonganock, Owwaenungganuck. 

Oxecoset Creek, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
"fox country," also "place of small pines." See Woon- 
sechockset and Wonksacoxet. 

Oxoboxo Brook and Lake, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"a small pond." 

Oxopaugsuck Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "outlet 
of the small pond." 

Ozwazogehsuck Penobscot Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Ah- 
naki, "waded across by 'quartering' (because of the swift 
current)." One Indian called it "yellowish brown brook," 
but Nudenans gives answegan, vadum trajicio, "to cross a 
ford." 

i6o 



-p- 

Paamtegwitook the Penobscot River below Bangor, Penobscot 

County, Me. Abnaki, "extended rivers united in one 

stream." 
Pabachismusk Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "fishing place 

at the bend of the stream," the Farmington River. 
Pabaquamske The Split Rock on Quinebaug River, Windham 

County, Conn. Mohegan, "split rock." 
Pacamkik Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the abode of 

codfish," (or haddock?) or "dark land" (well fertilized). 

Also "open land." 
Pacanaset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "little cleared 

place." 
Pacanaukett see Pokanoket. 
Pacanoket all the land in Bristol, Warren and Barrington, 

part of Swansea, and Seekonk, eastern Rhode Island. This 

territory was called Sowams by the Narragansett. See 

Pokanoket. 

Pacatuck Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Niprmick, "open, 

clear river." See also Pawcatuck. 
Pachade Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the turn" (as 

in a road or trail). 
Pachamaquast Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

cleft rock." 
Pachassett River, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

small branch," or "boundary." 
Pachasuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "split, or divided, 

brook." 
Pachatanage Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "dividing, 

or boundary place." 
Pachaug Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "the turning 

place." 
Pachaug State Forest, Windham County, Conn. Village and Lake, 

New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "the fork, or turning 

aside place." (Some say "divided river.") 
Pachawesit same as Pocasset? 
Pachest Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "turning place." 

II i6i 



Pachet Brook, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

boundary," or "dividing place," or "turning place." 
Pachet Brook, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

turning place." See Pochet. 
Pachgatgotch Hill, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, "where the 

river divides." See Pishgachtigok. 
Pachquadnach Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at the 

mountain with bare, cleared sides." 
Pachquinacook Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "elevated 

land," a plateau. 
Pachuach Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "bends," or "turn- 

ing-off place." 
Pachusett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dividing hill 

place," or "place of the boundary hill," or "hill of 

quails" ? 
Packachaug Hills, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

turning place." Also Packachoag, Packachoog, etc. 

Packachoog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "bare mountain 

place," or "treeless mountain." 
Packamohquah Neck, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"open country," If spelled Pacomoquash, perhaps "place 

of fallen rock" ? See also Poncammooncoe. 
Packwacke Gorge, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "open 

place." Probably a shortened form of a word or phrase 

meaning "open place below the gorge." 
Packwock Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki? Malecite? 

"clear, transparent, shallov/ place." 
Pacomsuck Island, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "swift 

narrow brook," or "cleared lands." See Peagscomsuck. 
Pacomtock possibly Hartford County, Conn,, the Farmington 

River in its upper reaches ? See Pocumtuck and Pacomsuck. 
Pacoquarocke New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "a long 

stretch of cleared land." Ancient name for the east bank of 

Naugatuck River near Ansonia and Derby. Also Pacoqurocke. 
Pacoussett see Pocasset, Paugasset and Paugusset. 
Pacowachuck New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "place of 

the bare hill." 
Padaquonch or Padaquonk. See Pataconk. 

162 



Pagassett Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "place where the 
river widens/' Variants include Pawgasuck, Paugasset, 
Pawgasset, etc. 

Pageacoag Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy 
place." 

Paghmaigah New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the div- 
ided path," or "where the trail splits." 

Paghuntanuck an ancient Ahnaki village, location possibly in 
York County, Me. ? Ahnaki, "land broken up for cultivation." 

Pagiscott see Pejipscot. 

Pagolgwansek Penobscot County, Me. ? Ahnaki, "shallow place, 
clear." 

Pagonaumischaug possibly Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, 
"fishing place near the bare hill." 

Pagwonk New London County, Conn. Narragansett or Eastern 
Niantic, "cleared land." Also Paugwonk. 

Pahahauk Franklin County, Vt. Mahican, "he waits for him (or 
them?)" a rendezvous at Sciaticook or Schaghticoke on 
Missisquoi Bay. 

Pahcupog see Pauquapaug. 

Pahegansuc Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "bare hill 
place." Spelled also Pegansic. 

P'ahnmoiwadjo Squaw Mountain, Piscataquis County, Maine. 
Ahnaki, "woman's mountain." This is a Modern Ahnaki term 
introduced by Indian guides. (The word for "woman" 
is p'hanem, perhaps from French femme? There is no f-sound 
in Ahnaki; p'hanem is pronounced puh-hanem). 

Pahquioke Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "cleared land," 
broken up for planting. Also, Siwanoy, "open country," 
or "cleared land." Variants, Paquiag, Poquuag, Poquaug, 
Poquuaug, Pyquag, Poquiogh, etc. 

Pahquioque Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "cleared lands." 

Pahquopog Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"clear pond," or "shallow pond." 
Pais-unk Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "clams place." (the 

My a arenaria species). 
Pakanoket Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the small 

plantation." 

163 



Pakemit Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the clear place." 

See also Pimkapoag. 
Pakonokick see Pakanoket, below. 
Pakwakek Pickpocket Falls, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"at the place of arrows" ? 
Paliten Chittenden County, Vt. Modern Abnaki pronunciation 

of "Burlington." 
Palmasicket Hill, York County, Me. Meaning obscure; perhaps 

Abnaki, "at the place you walk by." (If Panmasicket, "where 

the brook opens out." 
Pamanset River, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

inlet or cove." 
Pamaquasset New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, 

"watered or flooded meadow" ? or "across the meadow" ? 
Pamaquesicke River, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at 

the ledges." But see Pamechipsk. 
Pameacha Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk? "crooked 

mountain," or "mountain near the small river" ? 
Pamechage see Pomachaug. 

Pamechipsk Hills, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "cross- 
wise rocks," or "transverse rocks;" that is, rocks across the 

path or trail. 
Pamedomcook or Pemidumcook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "shallow sandy place or bar extending across the 

lake," or "shallow place between two lakes." 
Pamet River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "wading 

place," or "at the shallow cove." 
Pametoopauksett Swamp, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"cove in a little pond," "running water swamp," or "small 

crosswise pond"[?] 
Pamgockamock Lake, now Mud Pond, in Aroostook County, Me. 

Abnaki, "extended shallow (and mucky?) still water." 
Pampaskeshanke Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? 

"double stream." Also Pampaskehauke. 
Pamuet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "going-over 

place," or "ford." 
Panahemsequet same as Penobscot, q. v. 

Panamske probably in Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "ex- 
tended rocks," or "sloping rocks." 

164 



Panatucket Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "(noisy) falls in 

the river." 
Panawansot Hill, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "the place of 

spread-out, extended fog," i. e., Katahdin Mountain. 
Panhanet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 

creek, or inlet." 
Panhomuk Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "strange un- 
frequented place," or "out-of-the-way meadow;" also, 

"out-of-the-way plain." 
Pannaheconnok Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "extended 

country" ? or "spread out lakes" ? The Twin Lakes near 

Salisbury. Also spelled Paimahecannuck. 
Pannawambskek Penobscot River above Old Town, Penobscot 

County, Me. Abnaki, "where the channel opens out of the 

rocks." Also given as Pannawanskek, Pannowauke, etc. 
Pannaway salt marshes near tidal creeks, Rockingham County, 

N. H. Abnaki, "where (rising tide) water spreads out." 
Pannukog now Concord, Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, 

the "downhill place." 
Panoket Island, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "far-off 

place," "small thing away off," or "sloping place." 
Panomescett Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

small fishing place." 
Panootan New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "extended 

village," or "distant out-of-the-way village." 
Panoumke Old Town, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "opening 

between rocks." 
Pansacaco Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"crooked outlet," or "crooked current." See Pascachuto. 
Pantacimset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

round place." 
Pantigo Hill, Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, "rapids or falls in river." 
Pantoocoog Falls, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "place of the 

falls in the river." 
Pantook Reservoir, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "falls in the 

river." 
Pantookaeg the falls at Lowell, Middlesex County, Mass. Same 

as Pawtucket, q. v. 

165 



Pantoosuck Mountain, Hartford County, Conn. Wangtmk, "at 
the falls in the brook." This may be an abbreviation of 
Aimnonantacksuck, which includes a "lookout-place" root — 
perhaps meaning "hill lookout-place near the brook with the 
falls." See Mawnantuck. 

Pantukket Falls, Essex County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the falls in 
the river." 

Panway Strafford Comiiy, N. H. Abnaki, "the rising tide spreads 
out (here)." 

Papanomscutt Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 
(where we get) winterfish," that is, frostfish or tomcods 
paponaumsuog. Also translated as "lookout place," and 
"broken rocks." Variants, Popanomscut, Poppanomscut, 
Poppanompscut, etc. 

Papaquinapaug Pond and River, Providence County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "shallow long pond," or "double long 

pond" ? 
Papasgush Washington County, R. I. ? Narragansett, from the 

name of one of King Philip's counselors. 

Papasquash Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "broken 
rocks" ? or "double hill" ? or "partridges" ? See Paupas- 
quachuke. 

Papoose Rock, New London County, Conn. Western Niantic? 
"an infant." (But perhaps a corruption of Papasquanch, 
"double hills" ? 

Papootic York County, Me. See Poodik. 

Pappacontucks quash River, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"cleft bank rocks," or "gorge." 

Pappoose Ponds, Oxford County, Me. Narragansett, "my child." 

Pappoose Squaw Island, see Poppasquash. 

Papuduc and Papuding see Poodik. 

Pa qua Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "open or clear" 
pond. 

Paquaback Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "clear or 
shallow pond." Also Paquabuck. 

Paquabaug Island, Litchfield County, Conn. Patigussett? "clear, 
open pond" or "shallow pond." See Pauquapaug. 

i66 



Paquanaug Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "cleared lands." 
Spelled also Paquanauke, Paquaanocke, Faquanick, Pak- 
waunic, Paquanunke, Paquanage, Paquanauke. 

Paquantuck River, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, ''clear, 
open or shallow river." Also Poquannotuck, Poquantuc, etc. 

Paquantuck Stream, Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck? ''clear 
or shallow river." 

Paquatanee Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "far from us," off the 
beaten track, out of the way. 

Paquatnach see Pachquadnach. 

Paquattuk the Pawcatuck River, between Connecticut and 
Rhode Island. Eastern Niantic, "the clear, shallow tidal 
stream." 

Paquinapaguoque Meadows, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "place of shallow (or clear) long pond." Given also 
as Paquinapaquoge. 

Paquoag Franklin County, Mass. Nipmuck, "an open or clear 
place." 

Paquonk quamaug Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
shallow fishing place." 

Parmachenee Lake and Stream, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki, 
"across the usual path," aslant, deviating from the most- 
travelled route. But see Pomersimbeke. 

Pasacomuck Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where it 
(the trail?) turns or branches." 

Pasakasock Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "place of division 
or of branching." 

Pasam-Aquada or Possam-Accada same as Passamaquoddy, q. v. 

Pasaoumkeag same as Passadumkeag, q. v. 

Pascachute Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"dividing place." Variant, Pascachuto. 

Pascatiguage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place clear 
of trees," or "open place near the stream." 

Paschuchammuck Cove, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"divided fishing place," or perhaps "turning place." 

Pascoag Village, Reservoir and River, Providence County, R. I. 
Nipmuck, "the dividing place," two branches of the Black- 
stone River. Also spelled Pascoage, Paskhoage, etc. 

167 



Pascodumoquonteag see Passamaquoddy. 

Pascomanset Neck and River, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 
"at the fork in the path''? or "meadow boundary"? (If 
Passemansit, "miry meadow place.") 

Pascomattas Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "muddy 
place" ? 

Pascommuck School, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where 
it turns or branches," or "plantation where road forks." 

Pascongamoc Holeb Pond, Moose River. See Pescongamoc. 

Pasconuquis Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy 
cove." 

Pascunas Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "steep." ? 
Pascunas was a landholder and witness to deeds. 

Pasharanack an Ahnaki village, location uncertain; "near the 
jutting-in bay." 

Pashebesauke Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic, "near 
the outlet or river mouth." Also Pashpeshank. 

Pashesauke Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic, "split 
outlet," the mouth of the Connecticut at Saybrook. See 
also Passquishhunk. 

Pashipscot Sheepscott, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "channels 
split by rocks;" also Micmac, "where tide flows splitwise." 

Pashqiiishhook see Pashesauke and Passquishiink. 

Pasipuchammuck Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "divided 
fishing place." See Paschuchaniinuck. 

Paskeegh Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the branch of 
the stream." See Paseoag. 

Paskesickquopoh Pond, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck^ 
"pond that branches." 

Paskhoage Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck? Narragansett? 
"land at the branch." See Paseoag. 

Paskhommuek Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "turning 
place," or "dividing place," a boundary-mark. 

Paskuisset Pond and Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "miry place." 

Pasmocadie Washington County, Me. Same as Passamaquoddy. 

i68 



Pasocha Valley, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "miry 
land," or mucky meadow?" or "bare hill" valley, a valley 
with sparsely wooded sides? Also found as "boundary hill." 

Pasomkasik Passumpsic River, Caledonia County, Vt. Ahnaki, 
or Pennacook, "stream with the clear sandy bottom" See 
also Pesammes. 

Paspatanage Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the branch 
in the stream." But see Paspatonage. 

Paspatonage Brook and Neck, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "small inlet place," or "boundary at small inlet." 

Pasqne Island, Dukes County, Mass. If Indian, perhaps Wampa- 
noag, "split." Another spelling, Pasquenese, "little split." Per- 
haps, "barren place" and "small barren place." See Penikese. 

Pasqueset Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at 
the miry place," or "muddy place at the end." 

Passaconaway River and Village, Carroll County, N. H. Penna- 
cook, "papoose bear," or "bear cub," from papisse-conwa. 
Named for a famous leader of that tribe, father of Wanna- 
lancet, who was important in colonial history. He figures 
prominently in Whittier's Bridal of Pennacook. 

Passadumkeag River and Village, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"rapids over the gravel beds." 

Passagas-sa-waukeag at head of Belfast Bay, Waldo County, 
Me. Malecite, "place for spearing sturgeon by torch light." 

Passaguanik shore of New Found Lake. Grafton County, N. H. 
Ahnaki, "sandy bottom at the fork, landing place." 

Passaiaco Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy place." 

Passamagamet Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki? Malecite? 
"at the place of many fish." 

Passamaquoddy Bay, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "place 
of abundance of pollack." 

Passanoke Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy 
land." Also Passanoquke. 

Passaquatch Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
divided hill." 

Passata quack same as Piscataqua? 

Passatuthonsee River, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy 
shallow place," or "muddy ford." 

169 



Passawaukeag Lake, Waldo County, Me. Malecite, "place of the 

sturgeon." 
Passcogue see Pascoag. 
Passenchaug Hill, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "steep 

(bluffs) mountain." 
Passenchaug Meadow, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "miry 

land," or "mucky place." 

Passeonkquis Cove and Pond, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"the miry place." Also Passconuquis, Paskonucquish, etc. 

Passonagesit Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "where bluffs rise 

up," ? or "slippery descent place," ? or "miry place" ? 
Passpatonage Brook; see Paspatonage. 

Passquessit south of New London County, Conn. Narragansett, 
"at the place where the bluffs stand up." 

Passquishunk Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic? "land 
at the outlet," the mouth of the Connecticut River. Also 
given as Pashquishhook, perhaps "muddy, split outlet" ? 

Passuatuxet see Pawtuxet. 

Passumpsic River and Village, Caledonia County, Vt. Ahnaki, 
"flowing over clear sandy bottom." (Pesammes on Father 
Aubery's map, 1715). 

Passuntquanucke Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the end of the sandy place," ? or "slippery rock landing 
place" ? 

Paston the Modern Ahnaki pronounciation of Boston, Mass. (All 
New Englanders are Pastonaki, similar to Colonial French 
Baston and Bastonnais) . 

Paswampisic Caledonia County, Vt. Ahnaki, "great clear place." 
See Passumpsic. 

Paswonquitte location uncertain, Kent County, R. L Narra- 
gansett, "at the muddy bend." 

Patackhouse see Potock, Potucko's and Quaiapen. 

Patackosi Brook, Town Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "narrow," or "short and narrow," also "round (rock 
place)." 

Patacomumscott Windham County, Conn. Nipmnck, "place of the 
round rock." See Puttacawmaumshcuck. 

170 



Pataconk or Pattequonk Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "at 

the round place," possibly Cedar Lake. 
Pataconkset Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, ''at the round 

place." 
Pataguanset or Pattaquonset Lake, New London County, Conn. 

East Niantic, "at the round, shallow place." Another spelling 

Patagunset. 
Patagumkis or Pattagumkus Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 

Malecite, "sandy round cove" or "gravelly bend." 
Patagumskocte Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 

of the round rock." 
Patant atonet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "windy 

hill place" or "thunder hill place." 
Patapso possibly Sagadahoc County, Me.Abnaki? "round rock." ? 
Pataquasek or Pataquasak see Pattaquasset. 
Pataquongamis Telosimis Lake, Piscataquis County,] Me. Ab- 

naki, "little round lake." 
Pataug Plain, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "a bog" ? or 

"small trees."? 
Pataweekongomoc Telos Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"lake near burned-over land." 
Pataweektook Ragmuff Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"stream (running through) burned-over land." Variants, 

Paytayweektook, P'tawektook, etc. 
Patawomut River and Rocks, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "miry meadow place." But see Potowomut. 
Patchogue River, Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic, "at 

the place of turning." 
Patcongomic Lake and Portage, Piscataquis County, Me.Abnaki, 

"round lake," possibly the lake now called Telos ? 
Pateook Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place at the falls." 
Patequonque see Pattaconk. 
Pat-higget Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag (modified by 

English), possibly from Patusuc, "falls at the mouth," or 

"falls in the brook." An ancient name for Plymouth, some- 
times called Patuxet, q. v. 

Patnisset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 
hill." 

171 



Patopacassit Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where 
strait widens." Also given as "foamy place where narrows 
open into a small pond." 

Patowomuck see Potowomut. 

Pattaconk Hill; see Pattaquonk. 

Pattagawonset see Pattaquonset. 

Pattagussis Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki? Malecite? "little 
oxbow," or "little back turn." See Petagoubky. 

Pattaquasset Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, "at the 

round place." 
Pattaquattic Hill and Ponds, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"at the round place," or "at the round hill." 

Pattaquodtuck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "round hill 
near the river." Spelled also Pattaquottuck. 

Pattaquonk Hill, New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, 
"round hill." Found also as Padaquonch and Padaquonk. 
See Pataconk. 

Pattaquonquomis Lake, Allagash River, Aroostook County, Me. 
Ahnaki? Malecite? "long double lake?" or "long lake joined 
to a round pond ?" or "long fishing place in the round lake." ? 

Pattaquonset Pond, New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, 

"at the small round place." This may have been a small 

rock, or hill, or a sweat-lodge ; see Pissepunk. 
Pattaquottuck see Pattaquodtuck. 
Pattukett the Providence River. See Pawtucket. 
Patty quonck Hill, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "round 

place." 
Patucket Falls, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

falls in the river." 
Patuisset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the small 

falls, or rapids" ? 
Patuxet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at or near the 

little falls." 
Patuxett River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

little falls." Also Patuxit. 
Patuxit see above. 
Paucahak or Paukahak see Pocasset. 

172 



Paucamack Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "open 

or clear pond," or "shallow pond." 
Paucatuck Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "shallow 

river," or Natick, "falls in the river." 
Paucatunnuc see Poquetanuck, 
Pauchasset River; see Pocasset. 

Pauchaug Brook and Meadow, Franklin County, Mass. Narra- 
gansett, "at the turning place." 
Pauchauog Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "where they 

play games and dance," or "they are playing" ? but more 

likely, "the turning place." See Pachaug. 
Paucomptucke River, Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuc, "narrow 

swift river." This is the Pocumtuc, now the Deerfield River. 
Paudowaumset New London County, Conn. Mohegan-Pequot, 

"trading or barter place." 
Paug Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "a pond." (This is a generic 

name for "pond." Variants occur as poque, baug, etc.) 
Paugachauge Newport County, R. L Narragansett? Wampanoag? 

"at the clear, open place" ? or "pond near the hill" ? or "bare 

hill" ? 
Paugamaug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"shallow or clear fishing place." 
Pauganuck Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "cleared land." 
Paugasset New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "where river 

widens." See Paugussett. 
Paugatuck River; see Pawcatuck. 
Paugeamapauge Pond, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"divided pond" or "shallow fishing place at pond." 
Paugunt New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place of the 

ponds," ? or "cleared land." ? 
Paugus Bay, Belknap County, N. H. Ahnaki, "small pond." 

Paugus was an Indian killed at Fryeburg, Me., in 1725. 
Paugus Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "small pond." 
Paugussett Trail, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a swift 

current in the divided river," or "the river widens out where 

the forks join"? also "place of the small pond." This was 

a small tribe occupying parts of eastern Fairfield County and 

New Haven County, Conn. 

173 



Paugwonk New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "pond at the 

cleared place," or "crooked pond." Also Pogwonk. 
Pauhunganuck Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at 

the place where millstones are quarried;" (or perhaps stone 

mortars made ?) ; "within the bend;" also "little field brook;" 

also "small enclosed field." 
Paukatuck see Pawcatuck. 
Paukopunnakuk Hill, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"where you turn aside from the narrowed path" ? or "refuge- 
place" ? or "bear place"? 
Paukunawawock Hill, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "bear's 

place." 
Paukyowohhog New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, possibly 

"purifying place," a sweat-lodge? (See Pissepunk). Perhaps, 

"cleared land." ? 
Paumpagussit Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "God of the 

Sea." 
Paupakquamcook Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the double ponds," or possibly "quail country." 
Paupasquachuke Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

double hill." 
Paupasquachuke Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "double hill 

place," papiske wadchu auke. 
Paupasquachuke New London County, Conn. Nipmvick? "place 

of the double hill." 
Paupasquatch see Paupasquachuke, above. 
Paupattokshick New London County, Conn. Mohegan- Pequot, 

"round bare hills near the river." 
Paupock (singular) Paupoksuog (plural) Poopoohquotog (plural) 

This name or cognates appear in several places in Southern 

New England. Its translation is "quail" or "quails." 
Pauquanauge Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "land cleared 

and prepared for planting." See Poquetanuck. 
Pauquapaug Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "clear 

water pond." Also, Pahquepaug, Pequabuck, Poquaback, etc. 

Pauqununch Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett? "clear creek" ? 
"divided creek" ? "long split rock reef" ? This seems to be a 
remnant of a longer word. 

174 



Pausatuck Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "miry, or 

mucky, river." (From pusseog, ''mud/') 
Pautage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmiick, "a neck, where the 

land juts out." 

Pautapaug Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "the jutting 
cove or pond." This name fits a pond nearby. Other spellings 
Poattapogue, Potabauge, Potapogue. 

Pautipaug Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "miry land." 
Given also as Pootapaug, Pautiboag, etc. 

Pautonk Hartford County, Conn. An alluvial island or bar at the 
mouth of the Farmington River. Possibly from Mohican, 
paudtau-ank, "he brings it hither;" that is, someone brings 
his fishing equipment. PauUmk might refer to building up of 
lowlands or deltas by alluvial soil. See also Podunk. 

Pautuckquitt Fields, or Pautuckqut Field and River. See Paw- 
tucket. 

Pautuxet New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic? Narra- 
gansett? "at the little falls." Also Pawtucksit. 

Pauwaget Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "small 
clear meadow." Other spellings Pawwawget, Pawamack, 
Pawwanget and Pauwanganset. 

Pawcatuck River and Village, New London County, Conn. 

Eastern Niantic? PequotP "the clear divided tidal stream;" 

or "open divided stream." Given sometimes as Pawcatucket, 

Pawkeatucket, Paquatuck, Paucatuck, etc. 
Pawchauquet Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? "at the 

dividing place;" more likely "at the boundary." 
Pawcomet (now Beach Pond) Washington County, R. I. and 

New London County, Conn. Narragansett? Eastern Niantic? 

"at the small beach." 
Pawconakik, Pawkeesett, Pawkunnawkutt; see Pokanoket. 
Pawhikchatt River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the shallow branch," ? or "at the winding river." ? 

Pawkamauket Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, possibly "at 
the cleared land" {pokanoket, or pokonoket) , or "fort-place" 
or "place of refuge." (Pawkamauket was the spelling used by 
King Philip's secretary in 1670.) 

Pawkhungernock see Puckhunkonnuck. 

^75 



Pawmechaug see Pomachaug. 

Pawmet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the sea 

shore," or "at the swimming place." 
Pawnook Lake, White Oak Pond, Penobscot County, Me.Abnaki, 

"large opening," or "the opening." Also found as Ponoke. 
Pawonbowk a cove in Lake Champlain, Thompson's Point, 

Chittenden County, Vt. Ahnaki, "dish-shaped pond." 

Pawpoesit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "snipe (or 
partridge) country," ? or "at the little swamp." ? 

Pawquabunke Providence County, R. I. NarragansettP "shallow 
pond." 

Pawqutaboque see Pocotopaug. 

Pawsacacow see Pascachute. 

Pawtuckaway Mountains and Pond, Rockingham County, N. H. 
Ahnaki, "falls in river" ? or "clear, open, shallow river" ? 

Pawtucket City and Reservoir, Providence County, R. I., Wind- 
ham County, Conn, and Bristol County, Mass.; Narragansett, 
"at the falls in the tidal stream." 

Pawtucket Falls, and Village, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, 
"at the falls in the river." 

Pawtuckquachooge New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
"at the hill near the river falls." 

Pawtuxent Falls, Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, 
"at the small falls." 

Pawtuxet Plymouth County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the little 
falls." Others in Middlesex County, and Hampden County. 

Pawtuxet City and River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"at the little falls." Also a cove of this name in Kent County. 

Pawwating Village, Plymouth County, Mass. Chippewa, "at the 

falls or rapids." 
Paw Woh Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a 

conjurer or medicine-man; a ceremonialist." See Pow wow. 
Paynatuck see Pawcatuck. 
Payquage see Poquiag. 
Peacepunk see Pissepunk and Pesuponck. 
Peagscomsuck Island, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"cleared lands." 

176 



Peagwompsh Windham County, Conn. Nipmiick? Mohegan? 

"bare rocks." 
Peamecha Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? possibly, "small 

river near the hill;" or "land by the stream." See Sebethe. 
Peantam (Bantam) Litchfield County, Conn. Natick, "he is 

praying." 
Peboamauk Falls, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "wintry place," 

or "country of the winter." 
Pecausset Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "a small 

clearing." 
Pecheneganook Rapids, St. Francis River, Aroostook County, 

Me. Micmac, "long portage because of rapids." 
Pecowsic Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where the river 

opens out." But some derive this from Indian names of 

"red or gray fox." (Another spelling Peccawoosuck may be 

translated "clear, open brook.") 
Pedaugbiouk headwaters of Damariscotta River, Lincoln County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "double cove" or "round bay."? One source 

gives "place where spreading out waters turn about." See 

Pedcoke gowake, below. 
Pedcoke gowake Carry, Lincoln County, Me. Micmac, "reverse 

bends," S-bends in the stream. 
Pedee Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "pitch or gum," 

from a tree such as pine, spruce, wild cherry. 
Peech-oonegonik Village, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, "at 

the long portage." 
Peegwon Place, Middlesex County, Conn. Natick? "tear drop" 

(lachrymal fluid) . 
Pegan Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "bare." But perhaps an 

abbreviation of a longer word such as Quamphegan? 
Pegansic Hill, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "bare, un- 

wooded place," or some say Eastern Niantic, "bear's abode," 

pegunapaw, but this is unlikely. See Pahegansuc. 

Pegusset Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "where waters widen 

out." 
Pegu usset New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac? Pangusset? 

See Paugussett. Found sometimes as Pequ usset. 
Pegwacket or Pegwakik. See Pigwacket. 

177 



Pejipscot near Brunswick, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 
"extended long rapids." Also Pejebscot, Pejepscot, Pegypscottj 
Pejepschaeg, etc. 

Pekdabowk possibly Shadow Lake, Orleans County, Vt. Abnaki, 

"smoke pond." 
Pekenut Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "bare place." 
Pekketegw Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "branched river." 

The Piscataqua river. 
Pekontuk Otter Creek, Rutland and Addison Counties, Vt. 

Abnaki, "crooked river" ? or "clear open stream" ? 
Pemadinisikek Clifton-Dedham-Oldham Hills, Penobscot County, 

Abnaki, "extended little mountains," or "range of small 

hills." 
Pemadnek Mount Desert Island, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"extended mountains," or "mountain range." See also 

Pemetic. 

Pemadumcook Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Malecite, "ex- 
tended sand bar place." 

Pemaquid Point and Village, Lincoln County, Me. Micmac, 
"extended land," long peninsula running into the sea. Other 
spelUngs include Pemaquida, Pemaquideag, Pemakwid, etc. 

Pematagoet see Pentagoet. 

Pematchuwatunch Mountain, Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuck? 
"twisted or winding ridge of mountains," ? or "village in 
twisted mountain range," ? or "joined crossways." ? 

Pemategu Mt. Desert Island, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 
fern "extended," plus antegw "a wave;" translated as "long 
rows of breakers." 

Pematinek (Routes), Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "route (to) 
the distant mountain range." See Matanawcook. 

Pemenos Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "small path," or 
"narrow trail." 

Pemetic Hills, Mt. Desert Island, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 
"range of mountains." A more correct spelling is Pem-etnic. 

Pemidjuanosick FaUs, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "place of 

the extended falls, rapids or swift current." 
Pemigewasset Mountain and River, Grafton County, N. H. 

Abnaki, "swift extended current," or "successive rapids." 

178 



Pemigewasset Pond, Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, "extensive 

rapids." 
Pemjeedgewock Falls, Treat's Falls, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "extended, rapidly descending current/' 
Pemmaquan River, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "long ridge 

covered with maple trees." 
Pemmaquan Lake and Stream, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 

"slope or ridge covered with maple trees." 
Pemmoquittaquomut Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the 

place of two ponds joined by a straight stream or ditch." 
Pemskudek see M'skutook. 
Pemsquamkutook Birch Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"hardwoods near river." Sometimes translated "birch 

river." 

Pemtaquamcook the Penobscot River. See Pemtegwatook. 

Pemtaquiauktook mouth of the Pembroke River, Washington 
County, Me. Malecite, "extended waters joined" or "extension 
of stream into larger body." Sometimes found as Boamtuquet, 
"broad stream place." 

Pemtegwatook the main stream of the Penobscot River, below 
Bangor, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "extended de- 
scending river current." 

Pemunneaht Fairfield County, Conn. Paugusset, "a string or 
cord," especially a fish line. Variants, Pemenante and Pern 
munneaht-om, "line for fishing." 

Penacook Village, Merrimack County, N. H., and River, Worcester 
County, Mass. Pennacook, "downhill," or "at the foothills." 

Penagou so named on Aubery 's 1715 map ; probably in Merrimack 
County, N. H. Pennacook, modified by French, "sloping 
land," or "foothills." 

Penapsquacook Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, ''steep rocky 
banks." 

Penecoog Ridge, Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "foot- 
hills" or "sloping land." The Pawtuckaway Range. 

Penetahpoh Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "crooked 
wading place," or "crooked pond." Also suggested, "whales 
here," but unlikely. 

Penhongansett see Ponaganset. 

12* 179 



Penikese Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, meaning 
now lost. Perhaps ''small waves thunder down," or "small, 
sloping land." It may refer to Chief Penakeson, related to 
one of Metacom's chieftains. Also Pasquenese. 

Penjejawock Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "current 
falling down raggedly." See Pemjeedgewock; also Bemidjwok. 

Penkese Island, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
shallow place" ? May refer to Penakeson; see Penikese, above. 

Pennacook Lake, Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the 
foothills" or "sloping down place." Pennacook Indians occu- 
pied upper Connecticut Valley, south-central New Hampshire, 
northeastern Massachusetts and southern York County, Maine, 
in early times. After the King Philips War ended in 1676, they 
migrated north to Canada, New Hampshire and Maine. 

Pennamaquan River, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "extensive 

area covered by maple trees." 
Pennechuck York County (?), Me. Abnaki, "slope of mountain" ? 

or "bottom of the mountain" ? or "at the rapids." ? 

Pennecook Falls, Rumford Falls, Oxford County, Me. Pennacook, 
"at the foot hills" or "down hill," or "at the bottom of the 
hill." Variants, Pennecoo, Penacuk, Pennycook, etc. 

Pennessewassee Lake, Oxford County, Me. Natick, "a strange, 

shining-then-fading light . ' * 
Pennichuck Brook, Hillsboro County, N. H., andMerrimack County, 

N. H. Pennacook, "at the rapids." 

Penobscot County, River, Lake in Penobscot County; Village in 
Hancock County; Pond and River in Piscataquis County, 
Me. Malecite? Abnaki? "at the descending rocks" or "at the 
extended ledges." The Penobscot Indians, closely related to 
the Abnaki, live chiefly at Old Town, Maine, and the adjacent 
Penobscot Valley. 

Penobscot Middlesex County, Mass. Pennacook? "place of sloping 
ledges." Variant, Penobsceag. 

Penobseese Stream, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "little Penob- 
scot." 

Penobskeag see Penobscot. 

Penobsquisumquisebou the Sandy River, Kennebec County, Me. 
Abnaki, "sloping rocks (fragments?) river." 

180 



Penoomskeeook the Penobscot River. Abnaki, "place of rocky 
falls." 

Penopeauke the Penobscot River. Abnaki, ''place of sloping 
rocks." 

Penopsquacook Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, ''steep, rocky place." 

Pentagoet former name of Castine and vicinity, Hancock County, 
Me. Abnaki, modified by French, "at the falls." 

Pentucket Lake, Pond and River, Essex County, Mass. Natick, 
"at the twisting river." 

Peormug seeboog New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "fish 
in the brook." An old name for Poquetanack Cove. 

Pepemightughk on the boundary between New York and Connec- 
ticut, (Fairfield County). Delaware? MahicanP "selected 
tree," possibly a surveyor's mark. 

Pequabuck River, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "clear, 
open pond." Also a village in Litchfield County, Conn. 

Pequag or Pequiog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "cleared 
or cultivated land." 

Pequatit New London County, Conn. Narragansett, "at the 
Pequot's place." 

Pequawket Pond, Carroll County, N. H. Abnaki, "broken land." 

Pequawkett Jockey Cap Mountain, Oxford County, Me. Malecite, 
"punched-up-through place." 

Pequid Brook, Norfolk County, Mass., Pequot? or Natick, "water- 
place" ? or "cleared, plowed land." ? 

Pequimmet Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the shallow 
place," or "place of open springs." 

Pequiog Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "cleared land." 

Pequod Middlesex County, Mass. Pequot, "destroyers of men." 

Pequonnock Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a small plan- 
tation" near Bridgeport. Some sources say the correct 
form is Paquanan auke, from Narragansett "battlefield," or 
"slaughter place." Variant, Pequannuc. 

Pequot an important Connecticut tribe who were almost^anni- 
hilated during the Pequot War of 1637. Their name means 
"the destroyers," and has been applied to a large number 
of sites and places in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Mas- 
sachusetts. It is also found as Pequod. 

181 



Pequot Tract, Franklin County, Mass. Pequot-Mohegan, "de- 
stroyers." 

Pequotauk New London County, Conn. Mohegan? Narragansett? 
"territory of the Pequots," part of New London County. 

Pequot sepos New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "little river 
of the Pequots." The Mystic River ? 

Pequt a term used to distinguish between the Narragansetts of 
Rhode Island and the Connecticut Pequot Indians. "De- 
stroyers." 

Pequt toog "The Pequots," a name given by Roger Williams. 

Perquanapaqua Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "clear long 
pond," or "clear still water." 

Pesammes now the Passumpsic River, Caledonia County, Vt. 
Abnaki, "clear, sandy bottom." 

Pesaumkamesquesit Pond, now Blackmore Pond, in Providence 
County, R. I. Narragansett, "very small plain or meadow, at 
its end." 

Pescedona now the Androscoggin River, Cumberland County, 
Me. This ancient name is Abnaki, and probably means "a 
branch." 

Peschameeset Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, some- 
thing to do with small fish; perhaps, "where we catch and 
split small fish"? Also, "blue place"? Variant, Peshamesset. 

Pescongamoc Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "branched 

pond." 
Peskadamioukkanti the St. Croix River, the boundary between 

Washington County, Me., and New Brunswick. Malecite, 

"plenty of pollack." See Passamaquoddy. 

Peskebegat Lobster Lake, Picataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"split lake." 
Peskebskitegwek Soper Brook, Eagle Lake, Aroostook County, 

Me. Abnaki, "branch of the deadwater stream," 
Peskedopikek Alder Brook, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"branch at the place of alder bushes." 
Peskeompscut Franklin County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the split 

rocks." 
Pesketuk the Piscataquis River, York County, Me. Abnaki, 

"the split river," or "river fork." 

182 



Peskutum-akadi Passamaquoddy Bay, Washington County, Me. 

Micmac, "place of the pollack." 
Pespataug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"the land at the bursting-out place," or "at the small inlet." 

Pespataug New London County, Conn. Narragansett, "where the 
stream flows out," possibly the mouth of the Pawcatuck 
River, or that of the Mystic River, the eastern boundary of 
the Pequot country. 

Pesquamscot River and Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "at the cleft rock," or "split boulder place." 

Pessakenew Agenek West Quoddy Light, Washington County, 
Me. Abnaki, "at the lighthouse." Also Pessaken-i-higanek, 
"at the lighting apparatus." 

Pessicus from the name of a Narragansett chief who was killed 
fighting Mohawk invaders in Maine. Malecite, "sturgeon." 
(In Natick, the word psukses means "little bird.") Also, 
Pessacus; see Passagas sa waukeag; Moosup. 

Pesuckapaug location probably in Middlesex County, Conn. ? 
Wangunk, "mucky or miry pond." See Pishatipaug. 

Pesuponck Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "a hot house." 
Roger Williams tells of such sweathouses where the men 
went "first to cleanse their skin, secondly to purge their 
bodies. ... I have seen them run (summer and winter) into 
brooks to cool them without the least hurt." Several such 
place names are found throughout Connectitut, Rhode Is- 
land and elsewhere in New England. 

Pesut amesset an old camp ground at Brewer, Penobscot County, 
Me. Abnaki, "seen only when near it." 

Petagoubky now the lower reaches of the Missisquoi River, Frank- 
lin County, Vt. Old Abnaki, "river full of (unexpected) 
bends and eddies," that is, back turns or oxbows. 

Petapauket Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "swampy place." 

Petapawag River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "boggy place 

where our feet sink in." 
Petaquapen Fairfield County, Conn. A Paugussett chief? See 

Petuckquapaug. 
Petch-kajisk Washington County, Me. Malecite? Abnaki? "sharp 

bend," or "sharp bend at ledge." ? 

183 



Petcongomac Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, ''crooked pond*' or 

"lake that turns." 
Petcumcasick Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "round bend 

with a gravelly bottom." Also Betcumcasick. 
Peteconset Meadow, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"small plantation." Variant Petequonset. 
Petegwamgamek Round Pond, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, 

"round lake." 
Petekamkes Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "the gravelly bend." 

(The old form of Patagumkis.) 
Petekesisk Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "at the little oxbow 

turns." 
Petekwangamessis probably Telosinis Pond, Piscataquis County, 

Me. Abnaki, "little back turns." 
Petit Manan Point, Washington County, Me. French and Abnaki, 

small "island." 
Petonbowk now Lake Champlain. Abnaki, "waters that lie 

between" the Green Mountains and the Adirondacks. 

(A Micmac term petoobook means "a long dish of (salt) 

water.") 
Petowamacha Hills, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmtick, "jutting- 

(up) mountains," or "bulging mountains." 
Petow Bowk Lake Champlain. Abnaki, "lake that lies between" 

New York and Vermont. 
Petow Pargow now Lake Champlain. Mahican, "double pond," 

or "two great ponds joined;" or Nipmuck, "two bulges"[?] 
Petowtucke River, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 

"country around the falls." 
Petowwag Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "bulging place." 

One authority gives "land from whence water flows to us." 

See Petowamacha. 
Pettaconsett Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "at the small 

enclosure, or plantation"? or "place of the round rocks"? 

Pettaquamseutt Cove, River and Rock. Washington County, 
R. I. Narragansett, "at the round rock." Also Pettiquamscut, 
Pettycomscok, etc. 

Pettopaugsett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 
the small round pond." 

184 



Pettukaway Mountains, Rockingham County, N. H. Pennacook, 

"round" ? But see Pawtuckaway. 
Petuckquapaug Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "round pond." 

Also given as Betuckquapock and Petuquapen. 
Petukunok River, the Chester River, Middlesex County, Conn. 

Hammonassett, "round rock place." 
Pewagon West Branch of the Pemmaquan River, Washington 

County, Me. Malecite, "small portage." 

Pewampskine Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Wampanoag? 
Natick? "little blond girl" or "small whitish child," from the 
name of a female chief or Sunksqua. Possibly a white captive 
adopted into the tribe ? A man named Powampskin deeded 
land here in 1673. 

Pewonganuck River, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
place of whetstones," or "place of small long stones." Also 
"country of small bends or turns." 

Piamikin Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "where the path 

is narrow." 
Pichet Mountain, Aroostook County, Me. If Indian, perhaps 

Abnaki, "split."? 
Pico Peak, Rutland County, Vt. Abnaki, "the pass or opening." 

Or perhaps from Spanish term pico, "peak." Pico overshadows 

Sherburne Pass in the Green Mountains. 
Picosick Hampden County, Mass. Nipmiick, "river opens out"? 

or "red fox." ? See Pecowsic. 

Piggscut River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "at the branch." 

Pigscomsuck Island, New London and Windham Counties, Conn. 
Mohegan, "clear land." Found also as Paukyowohhog and 
Pesquamscot, "where stream divides into two currents." 
See also Pacomsuck. 

Pigsgussett Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "where stream 

widens." See Pegusset. 
Pigwacket now Fryeburg, Oxford County, Me. Malecite? "land 

naturally clear or open;" also given as "broken, punched-up 

land." See Pequawket. 

Pigwaduk gamok Pushaw Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Pen- 
obscot- Abnaki, "bent stream lake." Variants, Pigwatook and 
Bigwadook. 

185 



Pikaghenahik Crooked Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"curved or crooked island." 

Pimsepoese River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "creek 
which supplies food." Also given as "crooked creek," or "ex- 
tended little river," etc. 

Piscasset the Lamper Eel Stream in Rockingham County, N. H. 
Abnaki, "at the branch" (of the river). 

Piscatacook Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, "at the river 
branch." Variants, Scatacook, Schachtigoke, etc. 

Piscataqua Point, York County, Me. ; the River is the boundary 
between Strafford County, N. H., and York County, Me. 
Pennacook, "the place where the river divides." Also Piscatua. 

Piscataquis County, Me., and Stream in Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "at the river branch," or "at the little divided 

stream." 
Piscataquis awangen Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "a route 

via the forked (Piscataquis) river." 
Piscataquog River, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki, "where the 

river divides." 
Pisgah many locations by this name are found in New England; 

most refer to mountains. If Abnaki, the meaning is, "dark;" 

if Mahican, "muddy." However, the nearby presence in 

Vermont of Mount Hor suggests Old Testament Hebrew, "a 

mountain." {see Numbers 20:22 and 21:20). 
Pisgatoek River, Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, "at the place 

of the river branch." 
Pishatipaug Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "muddy or 

miry pond." 
Pishgachtigok Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "where the 

stream branches." 
Piskaquoag River, Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "place 

of the branch or tributary." 
Pispogutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the miry 

pond." 
Pisquasent Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "muddy 

rocks place," or "slippery rocks place." 
Pisqueheege Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "at the river 

branch." 

186 



Pissak Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "swampy place." 

Pissapogue Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "a hothouse," 
a ceremonial hot air or steam bath place. Probably this gives 
the name to Hothouse Pond, 

Pissatapaug see Pishatipaug. 

Pissepunk "Ceremonial Hothouses," Hartford, Middlesex, and 
New London Counties, Conn. Narragansett, pesuponck, an 
especially tight hut or cave where men built hot fires and 
took ceremonial sweat-baths. (From pesuppau-og, "they are 
sweating.") 

Pissepunk Hill, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a sweat- 
lodge." See Pesuponck. 

Pissoups Windham County, Conn. ? Nipmuck, "mucky place." ? 

Pistapaug Mountain and Pond, New Haven County, Conn. 
Quinnipiac, "muddy pond." Also Pistepaugh. 

Pitawi teguk the Stillwater Branch, Penobscot County, Me. 
Abnaki, "at the roundabout river" or "meandering river;" 
(locally, "the back way.") 

Pitchawamache Swamp, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at 
the place of low, miry land." Also, Pitchawam. 

Pitchgussett Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "muddy or slippery 
ledge place." 

Pitchoohutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "muddy pool." 

Pitow baygook Long Island, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "be- 
tween two channels;" also given as Pitau-begwi-menahanuk, 
"the island between two channels." 

Piwan gamosis Field's Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"little round pond." 

Plausawa Mountain, Merrimack County, N. H. Named for an 
Abnaki warrior; meaning obscure, but possibly "wild pigeon" 
or "short yell." He was killed near here in 1753. 

Poakyowohog Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "land cleared 
and prepared for planting." See Paukyowohog. 

Poataskehung Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "green 
cleared land," or "green pasture" ? 

Poattapoge see Pauquapaug. 

Pocahantas Road, Fairfield County, Conn. Pocahontas (1595-1617) 
was the daughter of Powhatan, an important Virginia chief; 

187 



her real name was Matoaka. Pocahontas is translated as 
"she is playful/' although Strachey gives "a sharp pointed 
instrument, such as an awl." 

Pocamsus Lake Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "little shallow" 

or "little clear." 
Pocapawmet Plymouth County, Mass. Natick, "at the shallow 

swimming (or wading) place," or "at the cleared trail." Also 

given as "at the stopped-up inlet or cove." 
Pocasset several Rivers, Lakes and Streams in New England. All 

are Natick and cognate tongues, meaning, "where the stream 

widens." Other spellings, Pochasset, Pohkasset, etc. 

Pochassic Hills, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmiick, "at the 

narrow outlet." 
Pochasuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmiick, "narrow outlet," 

or "narrow brook." 
Pochaug River, Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic, 

"where they divide." Also Patchogue, Pooachoage, Pochawg, 

etc. 
Pochet Island and Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wamfanoag, 

"at the narrow place." Or possibly "at the turning place." 

See Pachet. 
Pochick Bluff and Rip, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"divided reef," or "bulging-out place." Also given as "turn- 
aside place." 
Pochoboquett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small 

pond opens up," or "opening of small pond." Also translated 

as "boundary pond place." 
Pochoke location unknown. Natick? "turning place." 

Pochuppunnukaak Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 
divided path." See Paukopunnakuk. 

Pockapockhunk Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "creek be- 
tween two hills" ? 

Pocketapaces Neck, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "divided 
cove, on tidal river." 

Pockhanoket Pokanoket, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 
"wood or land at the other side of the water" ? 

Pockquamscutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 
the split rock." 

i88 



Pocksha Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "where he 

turns aside." 
Pockwasook Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "low water," or 

"shallow water." 
Pockwockamus Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "little 

muddy pond." 
Pocomo Head, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "round 

iishing place," or "clear fishing place."? 

Pocopassum an ancient Abnaki village, possibly in Cumberland 
County, Me. Abnaki, "cleared land" ? or "small round cove" ? 

Pocopawmet Barnstable County, Mass. ? or Plymouth County, 
Mass.? Wamfanoag? NatickP "at the closed cove," or "at 
the plugged-up inlet." 

Pocomtakuke probably in the Deerfield Valley, Franklin County, 
Mass. ? A variant of Pocomtuck, "narrow, swift river" or 
"clear, open stream" ? 

Pocotopaug Creek and Lake, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, 
"divided pond," or "two ponds." Also Pagetupaug, Poca- 
topaug, Paw qut a bo que, Poacatoobuck, etc. 

Pocowset Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "stream widens 

here." 
Pocoy Shore, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "open." 

Pocumpcus Lake, Washington County, Me. Micmac, "at the 
gravelly place." 

Pocumtuck Mountain, River, and Valley, Franklin County, 
Mass. Also, the Deerfield Valley, Windham County, Vt., 
Pocumtuck, "narrow swift river," or possibly "clear, open 
stream." These Indians occupied the Deerfield and Connecticut 
Valleys in Vermont and Massachusetts. Mohawk warriors 
destroyed their Deerfield, Mass., fort in 1666. 

Podpis Harbor, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "divided 
harbor," or possibly "bay place." 

Podunk Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "where you sink in 
mire," a boggy place. Podunk, or Pautunke, is the name of a 
tribe or sachemdom and the territory they inhabited. Their 
lands are marked Nowaas on maps of the early i6oo's. 

Podunk Pond and Village, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "at 
the place where the foot sinks," or "at the miry place." 

189 



Poekquamscutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
place of broken rocks," or "split rocks." 

Pogamqua River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "shallow, 
sandy." 

Pogatanack Brook; see Poquetanuck. 

Poggaticut Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at the 
clear tidal creek." There was a chief so named. 

Poggatossur Brook, Hartford County, Conn. Agawam, "clear 
pool." But see Pogotossuc. 

Pogopskekok Stream, Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "a shallow 
gravelly place." 

Pogotossuc Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the small 
hollow," or "outlet of the small hollow." Also translated 
as "steep falls brook." 

Poguassek Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "moonlight," or "moonlit 
place." See also Pok-o -moonshine. 

Pogue Windsor County, Vt. If Indian, this may be a word taken 
from pog or paug, meaning "pond" in several dialects. See 
Capawack. 

Pogumkik the Ogunquit River, in York County, Me. Micmac, 
"lagoon formed by sand dunes." 

Pogwonk see Paugwonk. 

Pohenagamook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki? "spread- 
out lake." ? 

Pohgassek Franklin County, Mass. Pennacook? Pocumtuck? 
"place of the small pond." But see Poguassek. 

Pohio New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, "cleared 

land." See Poquiogh. 
Pohoganse Pond, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? 

"shallow, sandy pond." ? 
Pohoganut Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place of 

the pipe." 
Pohomoosh Stream, Washington County, Me. Micmac? "shallow 

creek." ? 
Pohquantuck River; see Paquantuck. 
Pohqui Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "open, clear, 

shallow." 

190 



Pohtaiyomsek New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 

place of the prominent (projecting) rock," the southwest 

boundary of Mohegan territory. 
Pohtatuck New Haven County, Conn. Paugussett, "land near the 

falls/' 
Pojac Point, Washington County, R. I. See Potock. 
Pojassick Franklin County, Mass. Pociimtuck, "narrow brook,'* 

or "narrow outlet." 
Pokahganeh Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "white perch." 
Pokamquoh Neck, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"narrow place." 
Pokanoket Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''ait the cleared 

land," or "fort," or "refuge." This was a favorite haunt of 

King Philip. 
Pokanoket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at or near 

the cleared lands." Also Pokanokik. 
Poke -o -moonshine Lake, Washington County, Me. Probably an 

English corruption of pok-wajan-i-tagook, Ahnaki, "stumps 

in the brook." But note the Micmac term pocomoosh, "(salt) 

water extending inwards." 
Pokey Lake, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "clear, shallow, 

open." Another name, Gawaysik. 
Pok-o -moonshine Brook, Strafford County, N. H. Possibly mixed 

Ahnaki and English, "pond clear as moonlight." See Poke-o- 

moonshine. 
Pokonoket see Pokanoket and Pawkamauket. 
Pokumkesawangamoksis Harrington Lake, Piscataquis County, 

Me. Ahnaki, "shallow sandy pond on a canoe route." 
Pokutcheco Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

harbor," or "enclosed place." 
Poland Androscoggin County, Me. Possibly named after Polan, 

chief of the Sokoki, killed in 1756. 
Polpis Harbor, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "branching 

harbor, or cove." ? 
Polyganset see Apponagansett and Ponaganset. 
Pomachaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "across the 

path," or "over the hill." ? Variants Pamechage, Pomechoag, 

Punmiechog, etc. 

191 



Pomacuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "narrow path*' 
or possibly "place of the grant," or "land of tribute." Also 
Pomoacooke and Pomatuck. 

Pomagusset Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the stream 
which is crossways of the path or trail," or possibly "at the 
dancing place." 

Pomamgansett Pond, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
small bend" ? or "athwart the path" ? or "place of tribute" ? 

Pomauknet Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "he gets there by 
water," or "country reached by water travel." 

Pomecanset an ancient Indian village near Pawtuxet Falls. See 
Pomamgansett. 

Pomecansett Neck, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "athwart 

the path"? or "at the small bend"? or "at the place of 

tribute." ? Also Pumgansett. 
Pomegobset Hammond Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"slanting ledges." 
Pomersimbeke now Parmacheene Lake, q. v. Oxford County, 

Me. Old Ahnaki, perhaps "(extended) little crosswise pond," 

the headwaters of the Androscoggin River. This name is so 

indicated on Aubery's 1715 map. 
Pometacomet Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "chief's house," 

one of the titles of Metacom, or King Philip. 

Pomham Rock and Shore, Providence County, R. L Narra- 
gansett, possibly "he travels by sea." Pomham was a Narra- 
gansett sachem, killed in 1676. 

Pomkeag Stream, now La Pomkeag, Penobscot County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "the place of rocks." 

Pomkikin Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "shallow place," 
or "fording place." Also Pommakin. 

Pompauoosuc see Ompompanoosuc. 

Pompanuck Creek, Bennington County, Vt. Wangimk? "place for 
playing games" ? 

Pompashpissett Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, the same 
place as Pispogutt, q. v., but the translation may be "rock or 
boulder at the miry place." 

Pomperaug River, New Haven County, and Trail, Fairfield County, 
Conn. Paugiissett, from the name of the sachem of Woodbury, 

192 



Conn., around 1725; meaning obscure, but possibly, "place 

to walk, or to play," or "rocky place/' ? Variants, Pomperage, 

Pomperague, Pompawraug, etc. 
Pompositicut Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the clear 

river," or possibly "cliff at or near tidal stream." 
Pompwanganug Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "where 

the trail turns or bends." Also Pomponagaug. 
Ponaganset Pond and River, Providence County, R. I, and town 

in Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "oyster processing 

place," or "waiting place at the cove" ? 
Poncammooncoe Neck, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"open or clear fishing place." See Packamohquah. 
Pondock River, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the falls." 
Ponemah Village, Hillsboro County, and Cemetery, Middlesex 

County, N. H. Chippewa, "the blessed hereafter," or "the 

sweet bye-and-bye." 
Pongokwahemook Eagle Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"place of the woodpeckers." 
Pongokwayhaymock Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "wood- 
pecker lake," from pogakmokqueh, "pounding on wood." 
Pongonquamook Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "muddy 

lake," source of the Allagash River. 
Poniken Village, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck? "put down 

your burden" (at end of portage?). But if Quassaponiken, 

perhaps "edge of bank" or "for ding-place." 
Ponikin Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "put down 

your burden." Spelled also Ponnakin. 
Ponkapog Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "clear, open pond, "or 

"shallow pond." Also Punkapog and Punkapoag. 
Ponsamsick Mountain, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "the 

place of fallen rocks." 
Ponscachuto Pond; see Pansacaco and Pascachute. 
Ponset Hampden County, Mass., and Middlesex County, Conn. 

Western Niantic, "at the falls." 
Pontiac Highway, Kent County, R. L Ottawa, "the falls in the 

river;" the name of the famous Ottawa chief, circa 1765. 
Pontoocook Cove, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "near the falls in 

the river." 

13 193 



Pontoosuc several sites in Mass., all Mahican or Nipmuck, "falls 

on the brook." 
Pontoosuc Hartford County, Conn. Wangtmk, "falls on the brook," 

at Glastonbury. Also Poontook suck. 

Pontpetsicke Suffolk County, Mass. Wampanoag "falls in small 
brook." 

Pontugwotchaug New London County, Conn. ? Mohegan, "place 
of the falls in the river, near the mountain." 

Ponus Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? Possibly from ponam 
mohsketu ussenat, "he applies herbs as part of his work." 
Hence, "medicine-man" or Pow Wow. Ponus was a sagamore of 
Stamford, 1641. But another source says Pon-ees, "little falls." 

Poo Cutahunk Anow see Cuttyhunk. 

Poodatuck Franklin County, Mass. Mahican, "land near the falls." 

Poodhumsk New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "projecting 

rocks," or "reefs sticking out of water." Also Poodhumseck. 

See Paudowaumset and Pohtaiyomsek. 
Poodik now Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, Me. Malecite, 

"sticking out into the water," a prominent rock formation. 

Also Porpooduck, Purpoodik. 

Poohookapaug Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "cats' 

pond." But if (Pookhookapaug, "pond where we smoked 

tobacco.") 
Poohpoohsaug location unknown; possibly from Natick, "cats," or 

"wild cats." 
Poohunck New London County, Conn? Mohegan, "wildcat 

place," ? or "miry place" ? 
Pooksha Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, possibly 

"it smokes," or, "it is misty." 
Poonlcosuc see Pontoosuc. 
Poosumsuck River, Windsor County, Vt. Abnaki, "mushy, quaky, 

boggy outlet." (It has been suggested that this name is a 

modified form of a Virginia dialect word aposom, but "the 

opossum" is rare this far north.) 
Pootapaug see Pautipaug. 
Pootatuck River and State Forest, Fairfield County, Conn. 

Paugussettl "falls in river," or "county around the falls." 

Also Potatuc, perhaps "miry stream." 

194 



Pootatugock Providence County? R.I. Narragansett? "at the 
place of the cove in the river," or possibly ''at the shallow 
cove in the river." 

Pootowoomet Neck; see Potowomut. 

Popanompscut Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, "lookout hill, 
place." But possibly "winter-fish (frost fish) place" ? or "place 
of the double boulder." ? See Papanomscutt. 

Popasquash Island, Franklin County, Vt. Natick, "partridges" ? 
or Narragansett, "double thing," or "double island," or 
"double hill." 

Popokomuk wodchussu Whetstone Falls, Penobscot County, 
Me. Ahnaki, "near the mountain with many cranberries." 

Popo quash Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Pequot, "quail." 

Popossego quohock egge Brook, Essex County, Mass. No satis- 
factory translation available; perhaps Natick, "place where 
quahog clams abound"[?] Also Popossesgos quock egg. 

Poppanompscut same as Papanomscutt, q. v. 

Poppaquinnapog see Papaquinapaug. 

Poppasquash Island, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "part- 
ridges," or "broken rocks"? 

Popponesset Bay and Beach, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "at the place of the frost fish or tomcod;" or, "place of 
the obstructed inlet," or, "lookout place." 

Poppotonuck Mountain, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "at 
the double mountain." 

Popsquatchet Hills, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"rocky hills," or "double hill"? 

Popumossett Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "place where they 
go to and fro," or "the trail." 

Poquaback see Pauquapaug. 

Poquahaug Island, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "the 
round clam," Venus mercenaria, the quahog clam, also called 
co-hog, or pookaw. These shells were used to make wampum 
beads. 

Poquanatuck Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "shallow 
river," or "stream." 

Poquannatuck River, New London County, Conn. ? Nipmuck? 
Pequot? "shallow river" ? or "the plain near the river" ? 

13* 195 



Poquannoc and variants, Paquanaug, Paquanick, Pequonnock, 

Poqonnock, etc. In several dialects, "cleared lands." 

Poquanticut School, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

clear or shallow stream." 
Poquatocke see Pawtucket. 
Poquaug see Paquoag. 

Poquechanneeg New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "creek 
between two hills," or "valley between the hills" ? 

Poquetanuck Village, New London, Conn. Mohegan, "land 
broken up as plowed for crops." (Local persons say "broken, 
as cracks in mud during dry spells or low water.") 

Poquiag Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "cleared land." 

Poquian see Uncas. 

Poquiant Brook, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? 

This seems to be part of Poquiantep, "bald head," but 

possibly this is just "clear place," or "cleared land." Another 

possibility is Poquian, "defender." 
Poquiogh New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "open 

land," or "open meadows, cleared for planting." 

Poquiunk Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "clear 
or shallow stream." Variants, Poquiant, Poquinunk, and 
Poquyent. 

Poquomock Neck, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "open 
country." See Packamohquah. 

Poquonock there are several places bearing this name in Connecti- 
cut, deriving from cognate Algonquian roots; all mean, 
"cleared land (for cultivation)." 

Porchcommock Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"divided enclosure." 

Porpooduck see Poodik. 

Posneganset see Punhanganset. 

Posseps Cangamock Cathance Lake, Washington County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "pebble bottom lake." 

Postatugock see Pootatugock. 

Potabaug see Pautapaug. 

Potagansett Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 
jutting rock," or "at the reef." Also Potaguansett. 

196 



Potanamaqut Harbor and Village, Barnstable County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, "foaming island place," etc. See Potenumacut. 
Potapaug see Pautapaug. 
Potateuk New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "land near the 

falls." 
Potatuck New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "land near the 

falls." Also Powtatuck. 
Potaywadjo Ridge, Piscataquis County, Me. AbnakiP See Poto- 

wadjo, "wind blows over mountain." 
Potcomet Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the muddy 

beach." Also spelled Pottacohannet, "at the long miry beach." 

(If Pottacomet or Pettacomet, "round (or curved) beach place.") 

One informant says "round house." 
Potebaug see Potepaug. 
Potenumacut Harbor, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"foaming island place," or "jutting out dry land place." 

Potepaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "miry pond," or 

"damp, marshy land." 
Potobek Lilly Bay, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "bulge in 

the lake," or "cove in the lake." 
Potock Point and Rock, Bristol County, R. I. Potock was a 

Narragansett counselor of Queen Quaiapen, before 1675. 
Potonapa Pond, Hillsboro County, N. H. Old Abnaki, "cove in 

the pond." 
Potoowoomuck Neck and River, Kent County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "muddy country," or "where rushes grow" and 

possibly "trading place" ? 
Potowadjo Hill, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "wind blows 

over the mountain." The Abnaki word for "whale" is podebe, 

"the blower." Thus the mountain is sometimes called Whale 

Mountain. See Potaywadjo. 
Potowhommet Franklin County, Mass. Pennacook? "damp' field 

place." 
Potowomuck Neck and River, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"at the place where miry land sinks." (Some give also "where 

rushes grow.") 
Potowomut Village, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "low 

meadow land." (Another set of roots gives "where there is a 

197 



going-to-bring-again," that is, "a trading-place" or "mart." 

These two latter may be descriptions of activities at the 

place rather than translations of the name.) 
Potowomut Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "boggy damp 

field." Potowoomuck, Pootowoomuck, Potowomut, etc. 

Potowoome see Potowomut, above. 

Potquient see Poquiunk. 

Pottacohamiet Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "curved 
long fishing promontory" ? See Potcomet. 

Pottanumacutt Harbor and Road, Barnstable County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, "at the whale fishing place." Also given as 

Portanimicut, or Portnameqout, "at the place of the foaming," 

probably ocean breakers. 
Pottapaug Hill and Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"marshy, damp bog," or possibly "a bulging cove or pond." 

Also Pottapogue, Pottapoug, etc. 
Potuckco's Ring, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "round" ? 

This name may have come from that of Patackhouse, a 

suncksqua or "queen," the sister of Chief Nassahegon. 
Potumska Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "round rock," or 

"jutting reef." 
Poucha Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "it opens out," 

or perhaps "small hill." 
Poughkeeste now Buzzard's Bay, between Barnstable and Dukes 

Counties to eastward, with Plymouth and Bristol Counties, 

Mass., to westward. Wampanoag, "bay with coves," or 

perhaps same as Pocasset[?]. 
Powachaug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "mountain 

near falls," or "steep mountain." 
Powaget Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett? Eastern 

Niantic? "small clear meadow." 
Powahag Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "customarily he 

dips and immerses himself there." 
Powakasik Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the widening 

out place." 
Powaw River, Rockingham County, N. H. See Pow wow. 
Powisset Norwalk County, Mass. Natick, "at the small, low field" ? 
Powntuck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "river-falls." 

198 



Powntucket see Pawtucket. 
Powntuxet see Pautuxet. 

Pow Wow River and Pond, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, 
Natick, and other New England Algonquian Indians had 
simiHar words, freely translated as "sorcerer" or ''medicine 
man." 

Powwow Hill and River, Essex County, Mass. See Pow Wow. 
(If NcUick, perhaps ''small plain place.") 

Poxon same as Foxon. 

Poyasuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "small brook". 

Pquakis Pond, Oxford County, Me. Old Abnaki, a diminutive 
form of Pequawket, "little humped-up." ? 

Presumpscot River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "ledges in 
channel." Variant Presumskeag. 

Prosewamenos Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, from name of 
the sachem Prosewamenos, who deeded land in 1640. 

P'sahn Bar Harbor, Hancock County, Me. Malecite, "clam bake 

place." 
Psazeske Stream, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "muddy 

branch." 
Psinkskihigan-i-ontop one of the Nesowadnehunk Mountains, 

near Katahdin, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "notched 

head ;" it resembles the notch in the blunt end of an arrowhead. 

Psinkwandissek a location on Passadaumkeag Stream. Penobscot 
County, Me. Abnaki, "place of scalping" or "scalping rock," 
from roots psik, "split" and antep "head." 

Psiscontic Brassua Lake, Moosehead, Piscataquis County, Me. 

Abnaki, "place of splitting branches (and bark?) (to make 

canoes)." 
Puccatannock River New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"shallow river." Local name for the Thames at Poquetanuck. 

Puckanokick see Pokanoket. 

Puckcommeagon River Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "white 

oak tree." 
Puckenokick see Pokanoket. 

Puekhunk Hill, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "clear 
stream," "smoke place," or "bear"[?]. 

199 



Puckhunkonnuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "bear 
hill" ? or "place of the bear's den." ? 

Puckhussunaug Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"place of broken stones," or possibly "place cleared of stones." 

Puckquahawks New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "open 
plains" or "cleared land." Also Pukquahaks. 

Pudjquenssis-ak Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "abode of the power- 
ful sorceress." ? Variant, Pukdjinskwes. 

Pug Lake in Washington County, Me., and Pond and Lake in 
Piscataquis County, Me. Doubtful origin; if this is Indian, 
it is perhaps Abnaki, meaning a "pond," or "a shallow 
place." 

Puggamugga River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "shallow, 
sandy." 

Pughquonnack see Poquannoc. 

Pujejewock see Penjejawock. 

Pukanauket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
small plantation," or "cleared land." 

Pukwannusett Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "bear's 

abode." 
Pumgansett see Pomecansett. 
Pumgustuck Falls, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "falls near 

the mouth of the river." 
Pumhaiu see Pomham. 
Pummachog see Pomachaug. 
Pumpissett River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the crooked place," or perhaps "it runs down to the sea." 

Also "shallow place." 
Pumpumbashunk New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "rocky 

reefs at the river mouth." Also Pumpinbashoonk. 

Pumpsoquattick see Paupasquatch. 

Puncatest Neck Road, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "low 
meadow," or "shallow when overflown." Variants, Punco- 
teast, Punkatees, Ponquatist, etc. 

Punhanganset see Ponaganset. 

Punkapoag Pond, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "shallow 
fresh- water pond." 

200 



Punkatesset Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "shallow 

brook." 
Punkups New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, from name of 

an Indian called Puckahomp, "bare rock." 
Punonakanit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "out of the 

way beach," or distant enclosure." 
Punset see Cockaponset and Ponset. 
Piirchaed Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag "turning place." 

Variants Purchade, Pochead, Pocheag, etc. 
Purpoodik see Poodik. 
Puscommatas Pond, now Burden's Pond. Washington County, 

R. I. Eastern Niantic, "muddy pond" or "miry stream." 
Pushaw Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Included only because 

of a frequent confusion. It is not Indian, but was named 

for an early English settler. The Indian name was Pigwaduk. 
Putchaug Brook, Cheshire County, N. H. Nipmuck, a "turning 

place," or "division place." 
Puttacawmaumshcuck Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the 

round rock," or "at the fishing place near the round rock." 
Puttawuamscut River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"place of the round rock." (Another source says, "where we 

snare birds in a net;" but this appears to be a declaration of 

activity at the place rather than a translation of the name.) 
Puttuckqupmscut Washington County, R. I. Narragansett? "at 

or near the round rock." Other spellings, Petaquamscot, 

Puttaquomcuts, etc. 

Pyquiag Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "open land." 
Pyqyag Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "open land," for 
cultivation; "open meadows." 

-Q- 

Quabacook near Merrymeeting Bay, Sagadahoc County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "sunken land, swamp." 
Quabaconk Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red pond," or 

"swampy land." Also Quabacutt, Quabakonk, Quabauk, etc. 
Quabbin Mountain, Hampshire County, Mass. Also Reservoir and 

Park, Hampden, Franklin and Worcester Counties, Mass. 

201 



Nipmuck, ''it twists and turns about"? "crooked streams"? 
Named for a chief ? 

Qiiabeag Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "swampy cove, 
or bay." 

Quaboag Pond and River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"before the pond," or "pond-before"? More likely an ab- 
breviation of m'squ'boag, "bloody pond," or "red pond." 

Quacataug Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, "swampy 
place," or "where the land trembles." 

Quacataug Hill, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
"swampy land." Also Quahquetough and Quaukataugh. 

Quack near Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 
"meadows," or "marshes." 

Quaco rocks in the sea near Cape Neddick, York County, Me. 
Micmac, "hooded seals" (now extinct). 

Quacumquasit Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, possibly 
from the name of Chief Quacuunquasit of Quaboag. Other 
possible derivations include Pequot words for "black ducks." 

Quacumquasset Pond, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "black 
ducks marsh," or "end of the marsh." But see below. 

Quaddick Reservoir and State Park, Windham County, Conn. 
If Nipmuck, perhaps "bend or oxbow in river." If Narra- 
gansett, "miry place." See Pattaquattic, Pattaquodtuck and 
Pawtuckquachooge. Also found as Anadic and Anaddic. 

Quadochqoik River, location uncertain; perhaps in Oxford 
County, Me.? Abnaki? "place of the mountain range"? or 
"at the mountain between the waters" ? or "place between 
whirl pools" ? 

Quag Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where land 

shakes and trembles;" a shaking marsh. 
Quagachusque D'Orville's Head, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? 

Malecite? properly spelled Kwagustchus'k, "dirty mountain." 

So called because it appeared black after being burned over. 
Quagana Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "swamp" near 

a hill. 
Quaganapoxet Salt Marsh, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"quagmire at the small pond." 
Quahmsit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the rock." 

202 



Quahog Point, Dukes County, Mass. Natick, Narragansett, etc., 
"round clam," the Venus mercenaria, probably from kuppogki 
hogki, ''thick shell." Also poquahock; called pookaw on Nan- 
tucket, it was commonly known as co-hog elsewhere. This 
is the shell from which most wampum beads were made. 

Quahtannet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "ait the great 
village." Also Sachtananet. 

Quaiapen Bristol County, Mass. Quaiapen was the squaw-sachem 
or "Queen" of the Narragansett people in the early 1670's. 

Quaiombog Cove New London County, Conn. Eastern Ni antic, 
"scoop up fish in cove," using scoop nets? 

Quaise Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the extreme 
point." Another source gives "reeds, or flags-place."? Also 
Quayze. 

Quakansick Bennington County, Vt. Mahican, "shaking or 
trembling land," boggy places along the Hoosic River. 

Quaket Neck and Pond, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"narrow swampy place," abbreviation of Nonnequaket or 
Nanniquacut. Another spelling, Quacut. 

Quakish Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "boggy, flooded; 
low places near water." See Guagas. 

Quamaskechett-Tookepessett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "high grass wilderness," or "high grass in an aban- 
doned place." 

Quamatucumpic Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "rocks 
in the long stream," or "extended deserted land." Variant, 
Quanatumpic. 

Quambaug New London County, Conn. Pequot, "end of pond," 
or "long pond." 

Quampakasset Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "little 
long pond," or "small red pond." 

Quampaug River, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long pond." 

Quamphegan Falls, York County, Me., and Strafford County, N. H. 
Ahnaki, "dip net." Here the fish were so abundant that they 
could be "dipped out" in a net. See Wussquamhegonset, and 
Atgatogwisas. 

Quampiasan Landing, York County, Me. From Ahnaki, 2l. canoe 
launching place, "enter vessel, immersed in v/ater up to a 
certain mark." 

203 



Quamquit Cove, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "wide 

place." But see Nonquitt. 
Quamscook Kennebec County, Me. Abnaki, "salmon place." 
Quana Hampden County, Mass. Nipmiwk, "long." Probably this 

is just part of original longer name. 

Quanabog Cove and Neck, New London County, Conn. Eastern 

Ni antic, "long pond." 
Quanacontaug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"extended deserted place," or "at the long beach" ? or "two 

long ponds in succession" ? 
Quanaconwampith Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "trees 

near the meadow." 
Quanaduck Meadow, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

"long tidal stream," or "long tidal estuary." See Quonatuck. 

Quanapaug Pond, Fairfield County, Conn, and Stream in New 

Haven County, Conn. Paugussett, "long pond." Also Quean- 

nepauge and Quenopooke. 
Quanascomcook Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? 

"rock summit" ? or "plenty of long rocks in the bay, or pond." 

One Indian said, "plenty of long fish place;" these might be 

eels, pike, or pickerel. Usually the particular fish which 

appeared in quantity would be named, as in "plenty of 

sturgeon," e. g., Cobossecontee. 
Quanata Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "boundary 

place," or "long hill," or "tall tree."[?] 
Quanatock Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "long 

stream," or "tall trees." 
Quanatumpic Grove, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"long ford, or wading place." 
Quanatusset Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the long 

brook." Also Quanutusset, Quatissik, Quatiske, etc. 
Quanduck Brook, Windham County, Conn. Wangunk, "long 

stream." 
Quanesusett Norfolk County, Mass. Naiick, "long brook." 
Quanhiggin River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long 

pointed stick," or "long spear," or "long house. "[?] 
Quanitick Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "tall trees," or "long 

tree." Or possibly, "long river." 

204 



Quannapowitt Lake, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the 

long pond," or, less likely, "long falls." 
Quannipi Alton Bay, Belknap County, N. H. Ahnaki, "the long 

lake." 
Quannuntowock see Quassaconkanuck. 
Quanotock Harbor, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

"long tidal stream." 
Quanpaukoessut Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

little long pond," or "place at the end of the swamp." 

Quanquanjawatchuck Providence County, R. I. ? Narragansett, 
"at the hill with two long ridges." See Cawcawnjawatchuck. 

Quanset Cove and Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"long place." But if an abbreviation of Aqounset, this may 
possibly mean "boundary place," or "at the fort." 

Quansigomog Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "pickerel fishing 
place," or "long brook basin." See Quinsigamond. 

Quansoo Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "long outlet." 

Quantabacook Lake, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "plenty of game 

(fur-bearing) animals."? 
Quantisset Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long brook." 

Quantituck Hill, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "tall 

tree" or "long river." 
Quantuckoyog see Yantuckkoyog. 

Quanumpacke Swamp, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the long pond," or "swampy place." 
Quapaukuk Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "at the place 

before the pond," or perhaps "at the pond before." Also 

translated, "as far as the pond." 
Quaquadne Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Pennacook, "high hill." 

Quaquananawich Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "high ob- 
servation (lookout) place." 

Quaquoountuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "shaking 
marsh creek." 

Quarasksucks New Haven County, Conn. Mohegan, "long green 
lands," or "long green place near the brook." 

Quasapaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "pickerel pond" ? 
(But see Oquassa, "slender blue trout.") 

205 



Quascacunquen Falls, Essex County, Mass. If Ahnaki, "the long 
ridge;" if Natick, "the long bank." 

Quashnet Road, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
small cove." See Acushnet. 

Quassaconkanuck Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"stone fence boundary mark," or "turning place at the stone 
wall." 

Quassapaug Pond, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "stones 
in the pond," or "gravelly pond." But if an abbreviation of 
Kehtequasset, "the largest." 

Quassaponikin Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
largest fording place," or "greatest shallow section." 

Quassink Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the stony 
place." 

Quassuck Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the very 
large outlet." 

Quateuus Dutch Island, Newport County, R. I. Another fre- 
quently mistaken term; it is not Indian, but derives 
from early Latin, meaning "as far as." Also Quetanis or 
Quotenis. 

Quatoncanit Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "large plan- 
tation," or "large enclosure." 

Quatuck River, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "the 
large (tidal?) stream." 

Quawawehunk Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "where 
the land shakes and trembles." This was the location of the 
Great Swamp Fight, December, 1675. 

Quaweejoos D'Orville Head, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 
"dirty mountain," dirty appearing because it had been 
burned over. 

Quawquinnippau Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Ni- 
antic, "stream with a wide turn." 

Quayachick Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "high hill." 

Quayz Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag "place of growing 

reeds" ? or "the extreme end." ? See Quaise. 
Queachick Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "swift current," 

See Cochichewick. 
Quebaog see Quaboag. 

206 



Quebek Hartford County, Conn. Timxis, "stopped up place," 

or "enclosed place." 
Queghommatch Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "shaking or 

trembling mountain." 

Quenaumett Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "look out 
place." See Cataumet. 

Quenibeck Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "long pond." 

Quentabacook see Quantabacook. 

Quequachanoke Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"place of a strong rapid current." 
Quequataug see Quacataug. 

Quequecham Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "very swift 
current." Also Quequechan. 

Quequeteant Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "swift water" 
or "torrent." 

Quesquitcumegek Ridge Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "long carry 
over high land," or "long ridge." Also Quesquitcumgee. 

Quetequash Hills, Island and River, Plymouth County, Mass. 
Wampanoag, "red rocks." See Quittacus. 

Quibiquesson River, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "little long 
river," or "long brook." 

Quidnesset Road, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the small island." Variants, Quidnissit and Aquidnesit. 

Quidnet Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the island." 

Quidnic River and Pond, Windham County , Conn., and Pond, Prov- 
idence County, R. I. Nipmuck, from Acqueedenuck, "place 
at the end of the hill." 

Quidnick City and Reservoir, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"at the end of a hill." 

Quillicksq Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "mixed water and 
earth," i. e., mud, or mire. 

Quillipiac New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "where we 
change our route." See Quinnipiac. 

Quinabaag River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "long pond." 
See Quinnebaug. 

Quinacquck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "high land." 

207 



Quinamoge Meadow, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"long fish," i. e., "eels" (probably lampreys). 
Quinapaug Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "long pond." Also 

Quinibaug, Quineboag, Qunnubage, etc. 
Quinapoxet Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place 

of the little long pond," or perhaps "the long swamp." 
Quinebaug Pond, Windham County, Conn., and River, New London 

County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long pond." 
Quinetusset Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "long brook." 
Quinibaak Cheshire County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the long pond." 
Quinibeck Camp, Orange County, Vt. Ahnaki, "a long pond." 
Quinicuntauge see Quonocontaug. 
Quinnamuck Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the long 

fishing place." 
Quinnatisset Brook and Pond, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"long brook," or "little long river." 
Quinneaska Island, Chittenden County, Vt. Ahnaki, "long joint," 

or "long elbow." 
Quinnebaug River, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "long pond." 
Quinnebequi ancient name for the Kennebec River. Ahnaki, 

"long still water." 
Quinnehtukqut The Connecticut River. In several Algonquian 

dialects, "country at the long river." Also Quinetucquet, 

Quinnihticut, etc. 
Quinnepoxet Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place of the 

little long pond." 
Quinnibeque the Charles River, Suffolk County, Mass. Ahnaki, 

transplanted from Maine, "long still water;" the Kennebec. 

Also Quinobeque, Quinobequin, Quinnebequon. 

Quinnipaugh Pond, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "long 
pond." Other spellings Quillipoke, Quillipog, etc. 

Quinnipiac River and Village, New Haven County, Conn. Quinni- 
piac, from quinnuppin-uk, "where we change our route" and 
go inland north of New Haven harbor, along the Great Path 
Mishimayagat from New York to Boston. 

Quinnipiac Territory, much of New Haven County, Conn., and 
part of Hartford County. Variants Quillipeak, Quillipeage, 
Quillipiac, Quinopiock, Quinnypiock, and Quinnepyooghq. 

208 



Quinnisk-wouk-ook near Robbinston, Washington County, Me. 

Malecite, "at the long gravel bar." 
Quinshepaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "pike pond," 

or "pickerel pond." 
Quinsibis Island, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "long little 

stream," or "long brook." 
Quinsigamond Lake and River, Worcester County, Mass. Nip- 
muck, "pickerel fishing place." Another translation, "enclosed 

place at the long brook." 
Quinsnaket see Quinsnikit. 
Quinsnikit Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at my 

stone house." 
Quintikoock according to Roger Williams, the Narragansett 

applied this name to Indians dwelling in the Connecticut 

valley. 
Quinunicut see Conanicut. 

Quinuqui Komuk Plymouth County, Mass. Natick, "high en- 
closure or tower." 
Quisquamego Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "long ridge," or "long 

peninsula." Also Kwesahkamegus. 
Quisset Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the place of 

the small pines." Also spelled Quissit; see Coeset. 
Quitemaug Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the great 

fishing place." Named for John Quittemug, a Nipmuck coun- 
selor in 1630. 
Quito Hill, Cumberland County, Me. If Indian, perhaps Abnaki, 

"long flow," but more likely Spanish, from the capital of 

Ecuador. 
Quittacus Ponds, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "red 

rocks?" or "long brook."? Other spellings Quitiquos, Quitti- 

quash, Quiticus, etc. 
Quittapeage Rock, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "sunk 

in bay," or "reef in harbor." ? 
Quittaub Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "he sinks," as 

into water, or mire. 
Quittiquash Ponds, Plymouth County, Mass. See Quittacus. 
Quittuwashett Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the great hill." 

14 209 



Quitquasset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the is- 
lands." 

Quksett Neck, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "miry place," 
"muddy place," or "rocky place"[?] 

Qumatumpick Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
long ford," or "long wading place." ? Also given as "sinking 
swamp." 

Qiunmunagat see Canonicut. 

Qunnoskwamkook near Robbinston, Washington County, Me. 
Malecite? MicmacP "the long gravel bar." 

Qunnubage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "long pond." 

Qununkwattchu Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the high 

mountain." Variant, Qununque wachu. 
Quoaug Rock, Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 

Niantic, "round clam" {Venus mercenaria). 
Quodduck sunckset Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"turning place near the outlet." 
Quoddy see Passamaquoddy. 
Quohoag Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Ahnaki? Natick? "hard 

clam," or "chowder clam" (Venus mercenaria). 
Quonackquk Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "high place." 

Quonacontaug a salt-pond partly in New London County, Conn, 
and partly in Washington County, R. I. See Quonocontaug. 

Quonahassit Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "long rock place," 

or "a fishing promontory." 
Quonatuck Meadow New London County, Conn. See Quanaduck. 

Quonektacut Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the long 
river," the Connecticut. 

Quonepaug Hill, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "long 
pond." 

Quonnipaug Mountain, Middlesex County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 
"long pond." 

Quonochontaug Ponds, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Ni- 
antic, "the long, long pond." 

Quonocontaug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic? 
"at the extended pond," or "at the long beach." 

Quononicut see Conanicut. 

210 



Quonopataug see Quanacontaug. Variants, Quanaquataug, Quo- 

naquatog, Quonaquontaug, etc. 
Quonopaug Brook, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "long pond." 
Quonset Point and Village, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "long place," (or abbreviation of petequonset, "a 

round shallow cove.") 
Quonshapage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "long fish pond," 

that is, "pickerel pond." 
Quontabacook Lake, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "plenty of 

(muskrat or beaver) at this pond." 
Quoquinnakeesapassananagnog Hillsboro County, N. H. Penna- 

cook, "at the place of the long falls in many hills and meadows." 

But see Quoquinnapasskeesanahnog, below. 
Quoquinnapasskeesanahnog Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, 

may mean "where the panther hunts for small birds," or 

"where the broad-tailed hawk hunts for small birds." 
Quoquiquasoug Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"the long muddy outlet." 
Quosopanagon Meadow, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "plain 

near the river." 
Quotonset Beach, Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonassett, "at 

the place of dunes," or "gravelly place." 
Quowatchaug Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "high 

hill." Also Quowchauk. 
Qussuknashunk Rock, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the place of the upright, elevated rock," in the water; or 

"stream near the rocky hill." 
Quttonckanitnuing Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "wide 

planted place," or "wide garden."? 



-R- 

Raggertask Island, Ragged Island, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki? 
Micmac? possibly from naghetobsk, "island rocks." ? 

Rahonaness Plain, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? Mohican? 
Possibly an Indian's name ? Any translation would be guess- 
work. "Sandy."? Mohawk: roaneh, "lady." 

14* 211 



Ramapoge Hampden County, Mass. Natick? "fish pond," from 

namaaspoag. 
Ramapoo Fairfield County, Conn. Delaware or Mahican, "they 

are en route," or "temporary dwellers." (Other sources give 

"stream formed by round ponds," and "river which empties 

into round ponds.") 
Ramassoc ancient Penobscot village (1628), Penobscot County, 

Me. Old Abnaki, "fish-place," or "alewife place." 

Ramaug Lake, Litchfield County, Conn., abbreviation of the Ma- 
hican word wauremaug, "good fishing," or quonkemaug, 
"fishing place at the river-bend."? 

Rameson Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "below the 
alewife place;" in this case, below Alamoosuk Lake. 

Rampopeag see Lampopeag. 

Raskohegan Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "watching 
place;" same as^Erascohegan, Skowhegan, etc. Other spellings 
Rasthegon, Lastiggin, and Reskegon. 

Regiochne Rock Rogeo, in Lake Champlain, near Burlington, 

Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, "place of the Cowardly 

Spirit." 
Retacumuckut Washington County, R. I. Narragansett? "on the 

mainland opposite," west of Canonicut Island. See also Neu- 

taconkonut. 

Retaw-erif a joke; spell this backwards. 

Rippogenus Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki? "small 

rocks, gravel." ? 
Rippowams Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "standing rocks," 

or "rocky cliff." Also Rippowance. See Nippowance. 
Roatan Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? "creek almost dry at 

low tide." Variant, Noroton. 
Rockabema Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "a wood- 
pecker." ? See Rockomeko. 
Rockomeko Mountains, Oxford County, Me. Abnaki? "hoed-up 

corn land." ? See Romomeko. 
Rodsio Canyatare Lake Champlain. Mohawk, "Cowardly Spirit's 

Lake." 
Rogeo Point, Chittenden County, Vt., and Rock, in Grand Isle 

County, Vt. Mohawk, "at the place of the cowardly spirit." 

2X2 



Romomeko Androscoggin County, Me. Abnaki, ''good corn 

country/' 
Roswic same as Arrowsic, q. v. 
Rottsiichni Rock Rogeo in Lake Champlain; Mohawk, "The 

Cowardly Spirit," or "The Weakling/' 
Rowayton Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? "creek almost dry 

at low tide." 
Rumfeekungus, properly Rumsickhimgas Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "alewive fishery below outlet." (There is no f-sound 

in Abnaki; this f-letter was really a long s, mis-copied.) 
Runckinheage Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? "at the boundary 

place." 
Runksoos see Lunksoos. 
Rutawoo River, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "flowing 

out of a pond." 

-s- 

Sabada Pond, Cumberland County, Me. A bnaki, ' 'provision cache" ? 
or "thoroughfare." ? 

Sabagwagum Hadley's Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 
"lake near salt water." 

Sabagwilha Hathaway Point, Franklin County, Vt. Abnaki, "sl 
sea duck." 

Sabao Mountain, Hancock County, and the West Branch of 
Machias River, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "passage," 
or "almost through." This river word, transferred to the 
mountain, may suggest how the travelers felt "almost 
through" their journey when this landmark was sighted. 

Sabbatia Lake, Mass. Exact location unknown. Probably from 
Sabbatus, q. v. 

Sabbatus Pond, River and Village in Androscoggin County, Me., 
and^Heights in Merrimack County ,^^N. H. An Abnaki ren- 
dition of the French St. Jean Baptiste, an Abnaki who aided 
the Continentals in Arnold's 1775 invasion of Quebec. Another 
Sabbatus was killed at Canterbury, N. H., in 1753. 

Sabino an ancient village site near the mouth of the Sagadahoc 
River in Maine. ( ?) Said to be the name of an Abnaki chief. 

Sabonac Pond. See Saponac. 

213 



Sabotowan Big Spencer Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "end of pack or bundle, where strap is pulled to- 
gether." This was Glooscap's pack, which he threw down 
along with his kettle Kokadjo, so that he could pursue a 
moose calf. 

Sacadiock same as Sagadahoc, q. v. 

Sacarabig Cumberland County, Me. Ahnaki? "outlet of falls or 
rapids near a pond?" See Saccarappa. 

Sacarappa see Saccarappa. 

Sacasawaki River, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "place near 
a small outlet," or "land near a brook" ? 

Sacatyhock see Sagadahoc. 

Saccanossett Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "along 
the little seashore trail," or "black earth place." 

Saccarappa Falls, Cumberland County, Me. Ahnaki, (free trans- 
lation) "where we stop to rest and tie up loose ends or knots 
on our packs." Also given as "pond outlet, then rapids, then 
falls." Also Sacarappa. 

Sachacha Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "place 
of the boulder-stream hill." See also Sasagacha. 

Sachem Peak, Grafton County, N. H., Head in New Haven 
County, Conn., and Pond, in Newport County, R. I. This is 
a common New England Indian title for "chief." It is liter- 
ally, "a chief," or "he has the mastery." See Sagamore. 

Sachimma Comock Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "the prince's 

house," or "ruler's plantation." 
Sachimo Comaco Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "sachem's 

house," or "ruler's plantation." 
Sachtalen Sock's Island, Penobscot County, Me. An Ahnaki 

rendition of the French name, Jacques' Island. 
Sachuck Hill, Providence County, R. I. Nipmuck, "at the moun- 
tain." 
Sachuest Bay, Beach, Point and River, Newport County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "at or near the great hill." Also Sachueeset, 

Sachues, Sachuset. 
Sackatehock see Sagadahoc. 
Sackatucket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

mouth of the tidal river." 

214 



Saco River, Carroll County, N. H. Abnaki, "flowing out," or 

"outlet." Also a city and river in York County, Me. 
Saconaset see Sockanosset. 
Saconesset Hills, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dark 

earth." See Sockanosset. 
Sacunyte Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "path along the sea 

shore." Another source gives Sacunyte Napocke, "at the 

outlet of a pond." (Also Delaware, shajahikananey.) 
Sadawga Lake, Windham County, Vt. If Mohawk, possibly 

"swiftly flowing water," "side hill," or "a house burst open." 

This lake, in Pocumtuck country, was named for an old 

Indian who remained there. A 1640 map shows a Mohawk 

outpost near here. 
Sag Pond Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "outlet." 
Sagadahoc County and River, Me. Abnaki, "the outflowing of a 

swift stream as it nears the sea," particulary the lower 

Kennebec River. 
Sagamore Beach and Village, Barnstable County, Mass., and 

Hill in Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "chief;" liter- 
ally, "he has mastery of." 
Sagamore Creek, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "chieftain." 

{Abnaki spelling sogmo.) 
Sagamore Sam see Shawsheen. 
Saga quash Island, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "hard 

rocks." Given also as Sagaquish, Saquish, etc. 
Sagassett Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "near the outlet," a 

local name for the mouth of the Kennebec River. 
Sagatobscot Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

place of hard rock." 
Saghibpatook Falls, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "falls in 

a rough, difficult river." 
Sagiask Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "hard rocks." Also 

Sagioshk. 
Sagistonac Falls, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "at the 

place of hard rocks." 
Sagon-dagon Lake, Newport Pond, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "level place." (Some Indians say, "old portage.") 
Sagoquas Plymouth County, Mass. Naiick, "hard rocks." 

215 



Sagosset Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "near the out- 
let." 

Sagumskuffe Coos County, N. H. Probably Sagoniskusse, Abnaki 

or Pennacook, "place of the small hard rocks," or "difficult 

passage because of rocks." 
Sagumumpsketuck the Hop River, Tolland County, Conn. 

Nipmuck, "river that runs through hard rock." 
Sagus same as Saugus. 
Sahbahesset Fox Island Thoroughfare (or Narrows), Washington 

County, Me. Abnaki, "thoroughfare." 

Sahbimskitegwek Thoroughfare Brook, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Abnaki, "rocks at outlet of stream;" but many Indians say, 
"stream connecting two lakes." Another source gives, "a 
stream that empties (flows) between two large bodies of 
water." 

Sahkabehaliik Moose River, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 
(a free translation), "fiat place, most volume tributary," or 
"outlet of water body discharging most volume." 

Sahkahegan Telos Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "arti- 
ficial outlet connecting" with another water system. 

Sahnchecontucket Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
outlet of the principal long tidal stream," or "place of the 
principal cold water stream." Also Sanchecantacket. 

Sahnghib pahntook Falls, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "rough 
falls in the river," at outlet. 

Sakadamkiak outlet of Saco River, York County, Me. Malecite, 

"sandbar at the outlet." 
Sakessett Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the small 

outlet." 
Sakonnet City, Height, Point and River, Bristol County, R. I., 

and Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "abode of the black 

goose," or "rocky outlet," or "at an outlet." Also Saconnet, 

Sakonet, Seaconnett, etc. 
Salko Hill, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Micmac? possibly 

from words meaning "the outlet," or "humped up like a 

turtle's back. "(?) 
Salquin Island, off mouth of Kennebec River, Sagadahoc County, 

Me. Abnaki? Micmac? possibly "high, humped up like a 

216 



turtle or horseshoe crab, far off sea/*? Found also as 

Sutquin, Sequin, Satquin, Sodkin, Zedquin on maps dated 

1607 to 1647. 
Sammauchamoi Pond, Ptymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"place where we feed, or get provisions/' 
Samoset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag? Samoset, the 

famous Sachem of Monhegan, greeted the Pilgrims in 1620. 

Also called Osamoset, "he walks over much" ? 
Samp Mortar Reservoir, Fairfield County, Conn. Natick, "corn 

bruised in a mortar and boiled/' Samp was a favorite New 

England meal, with sugar and milk, until at least 1925. 
Sampopeag see Lampopeag. 
Sanchekantacket Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

the long cold river." Also, Sanchecantacket. 
Sancoik Bennington County, Vt. Probably French, "St. Croix," 

but if Indian, possibly Mohican, "I emerge from hiding." 
Sankaty Head, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "cold 

stream," ? or "cold hill." ? 
Sankrohonk Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "land at the 

outlet." Also, Sankrohoncuin. 
Sanqutagnappipanquash Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"fording place at the outlet of the cold water pond;" also 

given as "it pours out from under contorted rocks." 
Santuit Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "cool 

water place." 
Sapokonist Brook, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "miry 

field." 
Saponac at Chibanook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"the great outlet," or "big opening." 
Sapowet Marsh, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "by the 

river," or "wet, miry place." 
Saquaische Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "going out" or 

"outlet." See Sunkaze. 
Saquassis diggin Island; see Sebascodegan. 

Saquatucket River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the mouth of the tidal stream." 

Saquid mouth of St. George River, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"the outlet/' 

217 



Saquish Neck, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, possibly 
"hard rocks," or "plenty of clams;'' the soft shell clam Mya 
arenaria, used in steaming (hence sohqussog, "they spit or 
squirt.") 

Saracasks New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "green banks," 
or "grassy banks." 

Saratogue Riviere de Saratogue, now the Batten Kill, Bennington 
County, Vt. Mohawk, "the side hills;" or perhaps "where 
heel prints may be seen (in soft ground)." 

Sasagacha Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "sour, 
black berries" (alder berries, blackberries, over-ripe cran- 
berries or unripe grapes ? One source suggests "black slippery 
fish, eels.") 

Sasagook apaug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "alder pond" ? 
Some give "black snake pond." (Possibly eels, sassaman- 
quock, "shiny black and slippery ?") Another source translates 
this as "rattlesnake pond," but a "rattlesnake" would be 
sesek, or sesegk in Massachusetts; further north, sisikw. See 
Sisikwa menahan. 

Sasaketasick Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "dark flowing, 
muddy stream." 

Sasanet Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the place 

of black slippery rocks." 
Sasanoa the lower Kennebec River, now the Black River. Named 

for Chief Sasanou, who met Samuel de Champlain. See 

Sasanow, below. 
Sasanow now Mt. Agamenticus, York County, Me. Named by 

John Smith "Sasanow's Mount," after Chief Sasanou, an 

Abnaki sachem, 1607. 

Sasa quash Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "rattlesnakes" ? 
Sasco Swamp, Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger? Delaware? 

"mud." Also Sasquenaugh. 
Sasonkususett Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

of small sassafrass bushes." 
Sasquenaugh Sasco Swamp, Fairfield County, Conn. Probably 

Wappinger, "muddy river;" same roots as Susquehanna, q. v. 

But see Sassaqum. 
Sassamon's Cove, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, named for 

John Sassamon, Metacom's secretary. His murder at this 

' 218 



place in 1675 triggered King Philip's War. Possible meaning, 

"cranberry." 
Sassaquin Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, perhaps 

"cranberries," or "he is slow." Possibly the name of a chief, 

"Black Feather." 
Sassawich Beach, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "eel 

trap." 
Sasson Kussett Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"muddy, warm." ? 
Sassucksuck Brook, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "black 

earth brook," or "muddy brook." See Saukiog, Sioascauk 

and Sicaog. 

Sataylan Penobscot County, Me. English, "shad island," as 
pronounced by Abnaki. 

Satucket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the mouth 

of the tidal creek." 
Satucket Plymouth County, Wampanoag, "at the mouth of the 

tidal stream." 
Satuit Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "cold brook." (Salt, 

cold stream?) 

Saucauoca Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dark land." 
(Possibly magnetic iron on the beach? or black mud?). 

Sauga Point, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
outlet." 

Saugatuck Reservoir, River and Village, Fairfield County, Conn. 
Paugussett, "outlet of the tidal river." 

Saugatucket Pond and River, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 
Niantic, "at the outlet of the tidal stream." 

Saughtuckquett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
mouth of the tidal creek." 

Saugus River and Village, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "the out- 
let," or "small outlet." 

Saugus Island, Penobscot River, Penobscot County, Me. Natick, 
"small outlet?" or Abnaki, "rough, difficult."? 

Saugutagnappiepanquash see Sanqutagnappipanquash. 

Saukiog Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "the ground is dark," 
sometimes found as Sicaog or Suckiaug. 

219 



Saiiks Island, Washington County, R. I., If Indian, perhaps 
Eastern Niantic, "an outlet," or an abbreviation for ''black 
mud." Possibly, however, it derives from osakiwog, ''yellow 
earth people," i.e., the Sauk tribe. 

Saukwonk River Hampshire County, Mass. Natick, "outlet 
place," or "bend at the outlet." 

Sauquish see Saquish. 

Sauquonckackok New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 
ledge of hard rocks." Also translated as "land in a high place." 
See Sagumumpsketuck. 

Sauseimk Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, from the 

name of one of Sachem Sowheag's sons, Sause-Unk, "Uncas 

of the South." He sold lands in 1672. 
Sawaams see Sowams. 
Sawacook Sagadahoc County, Me. Probably Ahnaki, "sloping 

land," but possibly a Narragansett import, "shell beads," 

sawhosachick. See Sawgogue. 
Sawacotuck an old name for the Saco river at its mouth, hence 

Ahnaki, "mouth of the tidal stream." See Saugatuck, etc. 
Sawad Apskek the Sawadabscook River, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "at the place of sloping ledges." See Saw watap 

skechuwas. 
Sawaquatock see Sawkatucket. 

Sawcatucket River; see Saugatucket and Massaugatucket. 
Sawcomst Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "flowing out 

over rocks." Also Saukompsk. 
Sawcook Foothills, Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "sloping 

land." 
Sawgogue Washington County, R. I. Narragansett? Eastern Ni- 
antic? "loose shell beads, unstrung wampum" (or, "at the 

outlet" ?) Also Squakheag, Sawgoge, Sawgoog, etc. 
Sawhegan Falls, Coos County, N. H. Pennacook? "south country," 

or "waiting place." ? 
Sawish Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "sluggish." 
Sawkatucket Barnstable County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

outlet of the tidal creek." Given also as Sawahquatock. 
Sawkhead see Sawquid. 
Sawquid Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "outlet place." 

220 



Saw watep skechuwas Sawmill Brook, Hampden County, Mass. 
Nipmuck, "pouring forth alone it comes out," also translated 
as "continuous outflowing current runs over sloping ledges." 
See Sawad Apskek. 

Saxafrax (Sassafrass) Point and Cove, R. I. Narragansett, "eels"? 

or "place of the upright rocks."? 
Sayquish see Saquish. 
Scaggrock River, Aroostook County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "green 

place," or "grassy place." 
Scammon Pond, Hancock County, Me. If Indian, perhaps Ahnaki, 

"maize," or "Indian corn." 
Scamscammuck Spring, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "rock 

enclosure," referring to a walled-up spring. Another spelling, 

Scamscamnet. 

Scantic Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where the river 

branches." 
Scantic River and Village, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"branch of the river." Originally Peskantuk. Other spellings 

Scantuck, Skeantocke, Scuntock. 

Scanticook Hartford County, Conn. A village and fort anciently 
on the north bank of Scantic River; Nipmuck, "at the river 
fork." 

Scantuk River, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck,'' river branch." 

Scargo Lake, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "it flows 
out." Possibly part of an ancient word for "bass." ? 

Scargo Mountain, York County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "skunk"? or 
"outlet" ? 

Scatacook Kent County, R. I. Nipmuck, "fork in river." Also 
Scatacoke, Scatacosh, etc. 

Scataway Hill, Cumberland County, Me. Old Ahnaki, "burned- 
over place" ? or "little mountain" ? (If this were a tidewater 
location, Scatuate would fit). 

Scaticook Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican [Stockhridge] , "con- 
fluence of two rivers," or "where rivers divide." Variants 
Scatacook; in New York, Schaghticoke, etc. 

Scatuate near Dover, Strafford County, N. H. Ahnaki, "slack 

water," or "ebb tide." 
Scatiik see Schoodic River. 

221 



Schachticoke an ancient village on Missisquoi Bay, Franklin 

County, Vt. Mahican, "where the river branches." 
Schaghaticauke Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "where the 

rivers fork." Also Pishquachticook. 
Schaticook now Hoosac River, Bennington County, Vt. Mahican, 

"bend in the stream," or "fork in the stream." 
Schenob (Schnob) Brook, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, 

"great pond outlet" ? Also found as ashim ops "water spring 

at the rocky ledge." See Moshenupsuck. 

Schodac Brook, Merrimack County, N. H. Abnaki, "trout place." 
Schodack Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican? "where there was a 

fire," or "burned-over land," or "fireplace." Possibly also 

"trout place," or "point of land." 
Schohomogomoc Hill, Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, "lake 

with fire markings near it." 
Schoodic many waterways in Maine bear this name, deriving from 

Abnaki or Malecite, "trout place," or perhaps, "point of land." 
Schooset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fire place." 
Scitico Village, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "land at the 

river branch." These are also found: Skitico, Squitikko. 
Scittery gusset Creek, Cumberland County, Me. Perhaps another 

spelling of Squidrayset, a chief of territory near Lynn, 

Mass. Some say Abnaki-English, "flows rapidly, continuous 

current." 
Scituate Plymouth County, Mass., and Providence County, R. I. 

Wampanoag, "at the cold spring, or cold brook." But possi- 
bly slack water, between tides ? 
Scoakequanocksett see Sockanosset. 

Scodoqua River, Franklin County, Vt. Abnaki, "trout stream." 
Sconnoups Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "dark 

rocks." Also Succonups. 
Sconokoskes Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. WangunkP "small 

stones at outlet," or "outlet with small stones." ? 
Sconticut Neck and Point, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 

"at (the end of) the cold brook," or possibly "at the end of 

the crooked stream." 
Sconunganuc Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "plenty of corn 

here," or "green stuff place." 

222 



Scoodeag River, Washington County, Me. Malecite? Abnaki? 
"fire-place," or "burned-over land." 

Scoodik the upper St. Croix River, Washington County, Me. 
Malecite, "the point or end." 

Scook Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "snake," or 
possibly a contraction of Quassacook, "stony place." ? 

Scotomak Caledonia County, Vt. Abnaki, "trout place." 
Scouhegan Falls; see Skowhegan. 

Scucurra Snake Hill, New Haven County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"snakes here." 

Scusset Beach, Harbor and River, Plymouth County, Mass. 
Wampanoag, "at the wading place," or possibly "at the out- 
let." One reference said, "something about sparks of fire 
here." Another gave "small fires, possibly torches for luring 
fish." 

Scutcuk see Scaticook. 

Seanna Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, from the 
name of one of Sachem Sowheag's sons. 

Seapuit River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "in the 
current," or possibly "in the undertow." 

Seaukum Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "muddy place," or 
perhaps, "hard going." ? 

Sebacook see Sebec. 

Sebago Lake, Cumberland Conuty, Me. Abnaki, "big lake," or "big 
still water." See Sobagwa. 

Sebahticook Indian Pond on Kennebec River, Kennebec County, 
Me. Abnaki, "passage, or thoroughfare, or narrows." 

Sebaik see Sebayck. 

Sebaim Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "much water." 
Same place as Sebec Lake. 

Sebamook Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, 

"large lake." 
Sebasco Estates and Harbor, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 

"almost through passage," or "portage almost completed." 

Sebascodegan Island, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "carry or 
passage almost completed." Also Sebascodiggin, Saquasis- 
diggin, etc. 

223 



Sebascohegan River, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "a portage 

or carrying place." 
Sebaskiak Neck, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "narrow place 

in or near a stream." 
Sebasticook Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Penobscot- Ahnaki, 

free translation, "the shortest route;" literally, "almost- 
through-place." Also Sebastoocoog. 
Sebayek narrows at Quoddy Village, Washington County, Me. 

Ahnaki? "narrow stream, or narrow current;" but Seebyik 

(Pleasant Point) is Micmac for "peninsula." Also Sebayik. 
Sebec Lake and Village, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "much 

water." 
Sebesteguk River, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "short passage 

river." 
Sebethe River, Middlesex County, Conn. Mohegan? Wangunk? 

"a brook." Sometimes given as "small river." A cognate of 

Seboeis or Sebes; the substitution of th for s is rare. 
Seboeis Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "small lake," or 

"small waterway." 
Seboois Village, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "little stream." 
Seboomook Elm Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at or 

near the large stream." 
Sebosenec Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the place of the 

stony stream." 
Seboy cook Washington County, Me. Same as Sebayik, q. v. 
Secarabigg Falls, Amancongon River, Cumberland County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "pool, then rapids, then falls." See Saccarappa. 
Seccasaw Plymouth County, Mass. ? Natick, "black earth," or 

possibly "squirting clams" ? or "hard rocks." ? 
Secesakut Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "black 

rocks place." Variants, Secesakutt, Sekescute, etc. 
Seche nayaug Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "spring at 

the corner," or "pool at the point," sohken-nayaugP . 
Seconchet Village; see Seconchqut Village, and Seekonk. 
Seconchqut Village, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

summer place," or "late-spring place." 
Seconnet Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "early summer, or late 

spring, place" ? iy^)i&::e^^ecd±ch.sequanamauquock,t\iehxQdin\ ?) 

224 



Sedunkehunk Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "rapids 
at mouth." Sometimes (incorrectly) spelled Segeunkedunk. 
Perhaps the earlier and more complete name was Matasede- 
dunkehunk, "enters the river with rapids." 

Seebaticook Indian Pond, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"lake-stream place." 
Seeboomook Lake, River and Village, Piscataquis County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "at the place of the large river or lake." 

Seeboomook Village, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "large lake, 

or stream." 
Seebyik Pleasant Point, Washington County, Me. Micmac, "a 

peninsula." 
Seeconnesset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small 

late-spring, or early-summer, place."? But see Sockanosset. 

Seekonk River, Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, "the mouth 
of the stream," or "outlet;" possibly "wild goose." Also 
found as Seaconke, Seaconk, Seakunk, and Sikunke. 

Seekonk Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "wild black goose," 

or "pouring-out place," or "rocky beach." 
Seeogamook Stillwater Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"passing without rapids into a stream." Also Shogomock. 

Seepoocke Washington County, R. L Eastern Niantic, "salt pond" 
or "salt water." Also found as Seepooke, Seepoke, Seippog. 
"Sour water" ? See Sebago and Sobagwa. 

Seewamuck Point, Bristol County, R. L Narragansett, "at the 
place where we catch bream," (porgies, mishcuppaog) literally, 
"at the place of early summer fish." (See Sowams.) One 
source translates this as "big plain (or meadow) place;" 
another, "place of sewan." 

Segocket mouth of St. George River, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"at the outlet." Variants Segoquet, Segocket, Segohquet. 

Segotago an ancient Indian village, possibly in Cumberland 

County, Me. Ahnaki, "outlet of the river." 
Segreganset Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place of hard 

rocks," or "where it pours out." 
Seguin Island and Passage, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"humped up" like a turtle, or horseshoe crab {limulus poly- 

phemMs). 

x5 225 



Segumkendunk River, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "rapids at 

the confluence/' See Sedunkehunk. 
Segunesit Windham County, Conn. Possibly Nipmuck, "where 

we go in the spring or early summer." But see Sockanosset. 

Seguski-menahanikuk an island in the Penobscot River, Pe- 
nobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "broken island place," or 

"plowed-up island." 
Seipican River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a long 

stream." See Sippican. 
Seketegansett Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dark- 
colored spring place." 
Sekidawe Franklin County, Vt. Abnaki? "beaver dam." However, 

a Mohawk word for "beaver" is dawinet. 
Sekled Obscus Lakes, Penobscot and Washington Counties, Me. 

Malecite, "shark-shaped rock." 
Seminenal River, Salmon Falls River, Strafford County, N. H. 

Abnaki, "pebbles," or "coarse gravel." 
Senaglecouna early northern boundary of Maine, Aroostook 

County. Malecite? "long rocky banks." 
Seneca Mountain, Essex County, Vt. Natick? "place of stones" ? 

Perhaps named after the Seneca Indians, or may even derive 

from Lucius Annseus Seneca, the Roman philosopher. 
Senechataconet Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "stony 

angle (or corner) of the plantation," ? or "stepping-stones 

ford."? 
Seneptuit Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

gravelly (or rocky) place." 
Seneteconnet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

rock-strewn fields," or "gravelly place." 
Senexet Valley and Meadow, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"place of small stones." 
Sengekonlacket Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

cold, long creek," or "rocky, long creek." Found sometimes as 

"lookout tree place." Also Sengehontakit. 
Sennebec or Sennibec Pond, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "rocks 

in the pond." 
Sennemahgesso Eagle Rocks, Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, 

literally, "rocks of the eagle." 

226 



Seogogguaiiegabo Cumberland County, Me. Probably Abnaki, 
"big canoe landing place," but possibly "extended dunes." 

Sepaconit or Sepaconnet River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampa- 
noag, "at the long stream." Also, "pouring out at beach." 

Sepasonnet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the grav- 
elly stream," or "stones in the river." 

Sepos Tamesuck or Sepaw Tamesuck Brook and Cove, New 
London County, Conn. Mixed Mohegan (sepos) and English 
(T(h)ames), "outlet of the River Thames." 

Sepsis-edal-apskit Hancock County, Me. Abnaki "where a bird is 
carved or punched into the rock." (This picture near Sedg- 
wick has been practically obliterated ; the weather, and many 
souvenir-hunting vandals have taken their toll) . 

Sepunamus Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "younger 
sister." Sepunnemoe is a better spelling; she was a Wangunk 
squaw of some means who deeded land in 1662. Sepunamus 
might be translated as "little river-fish." 

Sequankit New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac "place of summer 
(dwellings),"? or "what is left, what remains." Also Se- 
quanaukit. 

Sequassen Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Tunxis, Sequassen 

was a sachem of the Tunxis Indians, circa 1635. 
Sequin see Sowheage. 
Seremobscus Muscongus Island, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, 

"place of extended ledges." 
Sesachacha Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. From Wampanoag, 

"boulder hill here." But see Sasagacha. 
Sesuit Creek and Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"cold water" or "cold creek;" also translated as "big 

spring." 
Setamachut Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

great stony hill" ? or perhaps "place of strong currents." ? 

Variants Settemeechut, Sissamachute, Schichemachute. 

Setnesset location unknown. Naiick? "stretched out, or extended, 

tract." 
Setuat Providence County, R. I. See Satuit. 
Setucket Road, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

mouth of the tidal creek." 

15* 227 



Sewadapskak Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "place of 

the sloping ledge." 
Shabokin Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, ''place of the 

departed" (chepiohkomuk) or "hell." Variants, Shabikin, 

Shabbiikin, Chabikkin. 

Shadogee see Chataguay. 

Shaganiscathoke Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"land at the side of the hills," or possibly," land of the green 
hills," or "land between hills." Variant, Sheganishkachoke. 

Shakameeko Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican? "slippery fish" 

or "straight fish;" that is, "eels." See Shonkamonke. 
Shakum Pond, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, probably a 

contraction of Washacum; or "enclosed between" ? 
Shamcook Shore, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

abbreviation of "salmon fishing place," or "great fishing 

place."? 
Shamuet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the spring." 
Shamunganuck see Chemunganock. 
Shanaks Fort, Cheshire County, N. H. If Indian, perhaps Penna- 

cook, "halfway place" or "place between." 
Shankhassick near Exeter, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"at the hidden outlet of a stream." 
Shannock River, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic? 

Mohegan? "place between" (streams) ? or "stony place" ? 

Also Shannuck and Shawnuck. 
Shannock Hill, River and Village, Washington County, R.I. 

Mohegan, "where two streams meet." People more poetically 

inclined look to Niantic, "big squirrel," or Natick, "morning 

star." Variant, Shannuck. 
Shantituck Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "where 

two large tidal streams unite," or (more likely) "large trees 

near the river," Mishantig-tuck. 
Shantok New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "midway up 

river." This was an old Indian fort almost halfway from 

New London to Norwich; it is now a park. 
Shaomet Franklin County, Mass. See Shawmut. 
Shatterack Mountain, Windham County, Vermont. Pocumtuck? 

"big mountain,"? "fireplace,"? or "between mountains."? 

228 



Shatterack Brook and Mountain, Hampden County, Mass. Nip- 
muck? Ahnaki? possibly "where two streams meet," or 
"foaming place" ? 

Shaum Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the neck" (or as in 
Shawmut, "landing place.") (Also found as Shaume, Shum, 
etc.; often confused with Shimuet, "at the spring.") Cape 
Cod was sometimes labeled Shaume or Mishaum, "big neck." 

Shaume Neck (Cape Cod Peninsula), Barnstable County, Mass. 

Nauset, "the neck." See Shaum, above. 
Shawacotoc an ancient name for Saco, York County, Me. Old 

Ahnaki, "(country around) the mouth of the river." A tribe 

of that name lived there ; variants of the name include Saco, 

Sawco, Shawakotock, Shawocotuck, etc. 

Shawamug New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "fishing place 
at the fork in the stream (where two streams meet)." 

Shawkemo Creek and Hills Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"place of springs," or "spring field," but possibly "gnats." 
See Okemo and Shekomeko. 

Shawme State Forest, Barnstable County, Mass. Nauset, same 
as Shawmut, "the neck." 

Shawmut Suffolk County, Mass., and Village, Somerset County, 
Me. Natick, (i) "he goes there by water;" (2) "ferry;" (3) 
"at the neck" (where we draw up our canoes). This is an 
ancient name for Charlestown, Boston, and Dorchester. 

Shawnuck see Shannock. 

Shawomet Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the peninsula, 
the land between waters," or "at the neck." There is more 
than a hint of "canoe landing place" in this word. See also 
Shaomet, Shawmut, etc. 

Shawomet Bristol County, and Plymouth County, Mass. Wam- 
panoag, "at the neck," or possibly "at the canoe landing-place." 
This was anciently a Wampanoag village. 

Shawsheen River and Village, Middlesex County, Mass. Probably 
Nipmuck, from the name of Sagamore Sam, alias Shoshanim. 

Shawunkhassiek River, Rockingham County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at 
the hidden outlet of a stream." 

Shawwunk New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "where the 
streams join," literally, "place between." 

229 



Shebeag see Chebeague. 

Shecoway River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "sheldrake," 
or "American merganser." This bird is also called Shecorway, 
Skeecoway and Ussikawai, "rough shaggy crest." 

Sheehauge Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "land between," 
or perhaps, "eels here." Also, with another inflection, possibly 
"loose unstrung beads, or shell money." See Sawgogue. 

Sheepscot Pond, River and Village, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, 

"many rocky channels." Also, Shepscooke, Shippscutt, etc. 
Sheganishkachoke see Shaganiscathoke. 

Shekomeko Brook, Lichtfield County, Conn., and Dutchess County, 

N. Y. Mahican, "principal house," or "headquarters" (of 

Moravian missions). See Chicomico. 
Shemunkanuck see Chemun ganock. Also Shemunkanug. 
Shenecossett New London County, Conn. Pequot, "level land." 
Shenewemedy Essex County, Mass. Natick, "spring meadow 

place." 
Shenipsit Lake, Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the great 

pool." 
Shenskonet Brook and Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragan- 

sett, "strong field"? or "wholly enclosed place"? or "level 

land" ? 
Shepaug Reservoir and River, Litchfield County, Conn. Tunxis, 

"great pond." Variants, Shippoack, Shippang, Sheppog, etc. 

Shequocket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the fork" ? 
or "big swamp." ? 

Shetucket River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "land 
between rivers." Some authorities give Mashetucket, "at the 
great river." Variants Shawtucket, Showwatuckhet, Show- 
tucket. 

Shewamet Neck Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 
neck." See Shawmut, Shawomet. 

Shewatucket Stream, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"at the place between tidal streams." Variants, Shewatuck, 
Shewtuck, Shewtuk, etc. 

Shewatucquese Stream, Washington County, R. L Narragansett, 
"place between small streams," or "small place between 
streams." Also given as Showatucquese. 

230 



Shewunk see Shannock. 

Shickasheen Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"great spring." 

Shimmoah Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a spring," 
(of good water). Also Shimo, Shimmoo, Shimuet, etc. 

Shimmimk Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, ''at the springs." 
Also spelled Shipmuck. 

Shinskatuck Brook and Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "spring-fed river." 

Shipmuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "springs," "big 
watery place," or "big bog." ? 

Shippan Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "the shore, where 
the sea begins." 

Shippaquonset Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "place 
apart from big point, or from long point" ? 

Shockolog Pond, Worcester County, Mass. See Chockalog. 

Shogonaug Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "land on the 
side of the hill." 

Shohomagock's Hill, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, from an 
Indian so named. But see Schohomogomoc. 

Shoneeto now Beaver Pond, Rockingham County, N. H. Penna- 
cook? Natick? "big outlet" ? or "rocky place." ? 

Shonkamonke Pond, Berkshire County, Mass. From Mahican? 
or Delaware? "abode of eels." Also given as "cultivated land." 
See Shoonkeek Moonkeek, below. 

Shoonkeek Moonkeek Lake, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, 
"abode of straight fish; eels." 

Showaluckqut Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where the 
river forks." 

Showatucket River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "land 
between the rivers." 

Shuckquam Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "grassy mea- 
dows." 

Shumack Stream, Washington County, R. L Possibly Narra- 
gansett, sumhup, "a beaver," but more likely just the name of 
the "sumac bush," which is an Arabic word. 

Shiiman Kanue Hill, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"high enclosed place," or "place of refuge high up." 

231 



Shumuit Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the spring" of 

good water. 
Shunock River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "stone 

place," or possibly a corruption of Shawnuck, "where streams 

join." See also Shawwunk. 
Siasconset Nantucket County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the place 

of many bones." or "great bones place." Possibly because 

skeletons of whales, etc., were strewn about. 
Sibegehanuck Cross Island, Washington County, Me. Malecite, 

"passage by water," or "sea-avoiding passage." 
Sicaog Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "dark earth" or "muddy 

place." The Sicaog Indians lived in and around Hartford. 

Sickcompsqu Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "black rocks," 

or "hard rocks" ? 
Sickenames River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "black 

fish," probably the tautog (plural). 
Sicojocke an early name for the Connecticut River, probably from 

Wampanoag, "dark colored earth," or "dark land;" i. e., 

mucky land. Also found as Sioasock. 
Siguenoc Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "at the humped-up 

place." See Seguin Island. 
Sigwanawock Stream, Coos County, N. H. Pennacook, "spring- 
time place." 
Sigwooganock River, now Israel's River, Coos County, N. H. 

Abnaki? Pennacook? "toward the south," or more likely, 

"place where we return in the springtime." 
Sikunke see Seekonk. 
Simquish Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "dip up a 

drink." 
Singrawac River, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, "springtime 

place." 
Sinuessutt New London County, Conn. The eastern boundary of 

Mohegan territory. Possibly Mohegan, "place of small stones." 

But see Sneeksuck. 
Sioascauk Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "black or dark 

colored earth," or "covered at high tide." Also Sioascock. 
Sioug Pond, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "thorns or briars," 

or Natick, "sour or bitter." 

232 



Sip Pond, Cheshire County, N. H. Perhaps this is the Enghsh 

word "sip." Possibly Old Abnaki, "a bird;" or Malecite, "a 

duck." 
Sipp Bay, Washington County, Me. Perhaps an English name; if 

Abnaki, "a bird." (Or from -sebe, cognate with the -sippi 

in Mississippi ?) 
Sippenak Brook, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "edible lily roots." 

Sippewisset Harbor, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the little river." See Seboois. 
Sippican River, Neck and Harbor, Plymouth County, Mass. 

Wampanoag, "long stream," or "gravelly stream." 
Sippigunnet River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

long river." 
Sippiquonet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the long 

stream." 
Sipsaconta Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "plenty of birds," per- 
haps ducks. Also Sipsisconta, 
Sisikwa Menahan Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, literally, 

"Rattlesnake Island" in Lake Winnepesaukee. 
Sisladobsis Lake (Lower), Lower Dobsy Lake, Washington County, 

Me. Malecite, "rock shaped like a shark or dogfish." Also 

Sysladobsis. 

Sisladobsis Lake (Upper) Penobscot County, Me. See Lower 
Sisladobsis. 

Sisquisic Cousin's River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 

"muddy place." See also Sysquissett. 
Siwanoy were Indians living in Fairfield County, Conn, and 

westward into New York. Probable meaning, "south people." 

Also Siwanog. 
Skahogan a locality in Essex County, Vt. Abnaki, "a sharp 

stick." (As a pole for the center of a haystack.) 
Skaket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, from Namskeket, 

"at the fishing place." 
Skaki or Skwasi Cumberland County, Me. Old Abnaki, "a way or 

place or method of standing or waiting." See Skowhegan, 

Squakheag, etc. 
Skamonikoos Windham County, Vt. Abnaki, "corn harvest 

moon." 

233 



Skamscommuck Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "rock 

enclosed spring place." See Scamscammuck. 
Skanentgraksenge the shore of Lake Champlain near Burlington, 

Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, "a notably bad landing 

place." 
Skanetoghrowa Lake Champlain. Mohawk? "largest lake." 
Skatehook Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "at the branch of 

the stream" ? or "fire place." ? 
Skatutakee Hill and Lake, Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, "a 

fire swept by here." 
Skauton Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "edge of the sea." 
'Skeag Island, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, part of Naamas- 

keag, "a fishing place." 
Skeecoway Creek, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, the American 

merganser, "rough shaggy crest," or "sheldrake." 
Skenunganock Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "green field." 
Skeset Meadow, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

outlet," or perhaps "overflowed." 
Skiga-Nason or Skeega-Nassun-Edowa? Washington County, Me. 

Malecite, "April-moon place." (Where this band returned in 

spring to their cleared lands near a stream, to prepare for 

summer crops and fishing. ?) 
Skinequit Pond, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

salmon fishing place," or perhaps "first blood place." 
Skipmaug Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "chief fishing place." 
Skitchewaug Mountain and Trail, Windsor County, Vt. Probably 

Abnaki, "big mountain," if applied to the mountain. But 

if transplanted from nearby Black River, perhaps Micmac 

or Malecite, Kawap skitchwak "rough rocky rapid current," 

or "falls go down like steps." 
Skitticook Branch, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "dead 

water," "sluggish stream," "slack water," "standing water." 
Skogogwaganock Penobscot County, Me. ? Abnaki, "place of the 

snake-dance."? 
Skokorat New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac? "snake hill," 

Skug-adchu. 

Skookum Chuck Brook, Grafton County, N. H. Chinook Jargon, 
"dashing water" or "rapids." 

234 



Skoonkeekmoonkeek Lake; see Shonkamonke, Shoonkeek Moon- 
keek. 

Skowhegan Village, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "place of 
waiting and watching," a fish-spearing place. 

Skuakheag Franklin County, Mass. Ahnaki or Pennacook, "sharp 
instrument," probably a fish-spear; but see Squakheag. 

Skuamkeag Windham County, Vt. Ahnaki, "salmon place" or 

"red place." Probably Skuakheag or Squakheag, miscopied 

or misspelled. See also Skowhegan. 
Skudek Washington County, Me. Probably Ahnaki, "fire place," 

or "burned-over place." 
Skug River, Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "a snake." 
Skukoal Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "meadow grass." 
Skunkamug River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanaog, "green 

field" ? But see Skunkamug, Conn. Variant, Scunganuyk. 
Skunkamug the Hop River, Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, 

"eel fishing here." Also Skungemaug and Shonkamonk; and 

Narragansett, neshuongok, "eels." (Literally, "they go in 

twos.") 
Skunkscut see Kongscut. 
Skutarza or Skutarzy Ahnaki, "trout-place." See Escutassis or 

Skuthazis. Several places so named. 
Skuthazis or Escutassis Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"brook trout." 
Sneech Pond, Providence County, R. L Nipmuck, "rocks at 

the outlet" ? See Sneechteconnet. 
Sneechteconnet River, Bristol County, Mass. Nipmuck? "rock in 

or along the river." This is a local name for the Blackstone 

River. See Tittituck. 

Sneeksuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "stone shelter 
(overhang) near the brook outlet;" or "at the cave," or "at 
the stone house." ? 

Snipatuit Pond and Village, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the rocky river." Other spellings Snippatuit, Snipatuett, 
etc., sometimes translated as "log palisade," or "big stakes 
place." 

Snipsic Pond, Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, abbreviation of 
moshenupsuc "the great outlet." 

235 



Soadabscook Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, ''place of large, 

water-smoothed rocks." See Sowadabscook. 
Soakatuck see Saugatuck. 
Soansacut see Moswansacut. Also spelled Soansarut. 

Sobagwa the Atlantic Ocean. Abnaki, "salt water." See also 
Sebago. 

Sobscook Nichols Rock, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki? MicmacP 
''rock around which the tide current appears to boil." 

Socatean Stream, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, "divided into 

two parts." 
Sockanosset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

dark-colored earth." 
Sockanosset Cross Road and Hill, Providence County, R. I. 

Narragansett, Sockanoco was a Narragansett chief. Possible 

meaning, "dark colored land." 
Sockhigones An old name for the lower Saco River and its valley, 

in York County, Me. 
Soggahannego Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "where the river 

enters the ocean sea." Said to be the home of Samoset, 

q. V. 
Soghali Menahan Piscataquis County, Me. English- Abnaki, 

"sugar island." Modem Abnaki substitute L for R, hence 

soghal or soogle for sugar; Mali for Mary, etc. 

Sogkunate Point, River and Village, Newport County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "haunt of the black goose," or "land at outlet," 

or a cognate of sackahickneyah (Delaware), "a path along the 

seashore."? 
Sokones Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "dark earth." 

See Sockanosset. 
Sokoquois Riviere des; the Connecticut River. Abnaki? Penna- 

cook? modified by French, "south people's river." So named 

on Aubery's 1715 map. 
Solikuk Isle au Haut, Hancock County, Me. Micmac or Malecite, 

"place of shells." This seems questionable; Captain John 

Smith called this Sorico, perhaps Sonico, from hassun-ohke, 

"stony place. "[?] 
Sologismoodik Five-Island Falls, Penobscot County, Me. Old 

Abnaki? "depression-place," or "ravine-place."? 

236 



Somersic Rattlesnake Hill, Hartford County, Conn. This is really 
a water-name, not a hill-name; probably Wangimk, "at the 
large outlet." Also Somasick and Meshomasick. 

Sonanoxet Island, Fox Island Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "crushed by heavy stones," as in a deadfall trap? 
More likely, "place too stony to dig with hoes," or "little 
stony place." 

Songo Pond, Oxford County, Me. Mohegan, "cold water." 

Sonkipaugsuck Hartford County, Conn. Wangimk, "outlet of 

cold brook." 
Sonkpog New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, "cold 

pond." 
Sonoogawanock River, Coos County, N. H. See Sigwooganock. 

Sooneybeag Pond, Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "stones in pond." 

Also Sooneybek. 
Soongapog New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "cold spring." 

Soucook River, now Israel River, Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, 
"rocky place" (Another stream of same name in Merrimack 
County.) But see Sigwooganock. 

Souhegan River, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "southwest 
river," also "watching place." 

Souhegan River, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, "watching 
place; still-water fishing." Also Souheganock. 

Souneunk Stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "(extensive ?) 
rapid stream."? See Sourdnahunk. 

Sourdnahunk Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "extensive 

rapid stream." 
Sowadabscook River, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 

place of sloping ledges," or "smooth sloping rocky banks." 
Sowames see Sowams. 
Sowampsett Pond and River, Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, 

"at the place of red rocks." Also Soewompsit, etc. 

Sowams Bristol County, R. I. Wampanoag, "stony plain path" ? 
or "southwest place." But see Sowamsett. Also Sohomes. 

Sowamsett River, Plymouth County, Mass. Narragansett, "at or 
in the south country," or "stony plain," or "beach trees." ? 
This is possibly Metacom's "Southwest Place." 

237 



Sowangan Island, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "the bald 
eagle." Another spelling, Sowungun. 

Sowanoxet Island, Fox Island, Washington County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "place of small shells?" See Sonanoxet. 

Sowcook Cheshire County, N. H. Ahnaki, "sloping ground," or 
"descending land." Also translated as "outlet place;" see 
Saco. Variant Sowcoog. 

Sowheage Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "South- 
land" or "South Sachemdom." Sowheag was a sachem of the 
Wangunks, known also as Sequin, which may signify that 
he was the last of a large group; he sold land in 1635. 

Sowhigginock same as Saco. See also Skowhegan. 
Sowhomes see Sowams. 

Sowniganock Coos County, N. H. Ahnaki, "to the south going" 
(trail). 

Sowockatuck a Sokoki (Abnaki) village on Saco River, noted 
by John Smith, 1616. Ahnaki, "country around the river 
outlet." 

Sozap Nebees Joe's Pond, Caledonia County, Vt. Ahnaki, "Jo- 
seph's Pond." "Indian Joe" was a Revolutionary character 
who aided the Continentals. 

Spednic Falls, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "visible, but 
shut in by mountains." 

Spoart Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "large cove." See 
Espowet. 

Squabage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red pond." 

Squakheag Windham County, Vt. ; Franklin County, Mass. ; and 
Cheshire County, N. H. Ahnaki, "watching place," similar 
to Skowhegan, Me. This name has been the subject of much 
research, but "watching place" seems to be the best trans- 
lation. Other possibilities include roots indicating "red rocks," 
"black swamp-earth," "quaking bogs," "forearm," "tears," 
etc.; but the history, territory and etymology all point to 
"waiting, watching," and"spearing fish." This was one of King 
Philip's last rallying places, 1675-1676. 

Squakheague Washington County, R. I. See Squakheag. 

Squam River, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "at the end (or top) 
of the rock." 

238 



Squam Head, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, either "at 

the summit, or end of rock," or (less likely) an abbreviation 

of mishquammanock, "salmon." 
Squam Lakes and Mountain, Carroll and Grafton Counties, N. H. 

Abnaki, "salmon." 
Squamagonic (also Gonic) Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"salmon spearing place." 

Squamcut Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "red earth," 

or "salmon place." 
Squamicuck New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "salmon 

fishing place." Variants M'squamicook, Squammacut. 
Squamicut see Squammicott and Misquamicuck. 
Squammicott Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "salmon 

fishing place." 
Squamokwisseeboo Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 

"salmon in little stream." 
Squamscott Bloody Point, Rockingham County, N. H. Pennacook, 

"at the end of the rocks," or "red rocks." 
Squamscut Bog, Hillsboro County, N. H. Abnaki, "place at the 

end of the rocks," or "red rocks." 
Squannacook River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "green 

place," or possibly "place for taking salmon, or for catching 

bream?" 
Squannacook River, Worcester County, Mass. Possibly a corrup- 
tion of Natick, Squamacook, "salmon fishing place,"? or "in 

the season of gardens," or "green place" ? 
Squannahonk Swamps, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, 

"green place." Other spellings Squannakonk, Skwannakonk, 

etc. 
Squannequeest Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

where mud ends." 
Squanticook Brook, Franklin County, Mass. Pennacook, "place 

of the green brook." See Squenatock. 
Squantuck New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "at the end or 

branch of the river." See Wesquantook. 

Squantum anciently a village in Cheshire County, N. H. Natick, 
"angry god;" but if the spelling is correctly Squontam the 
translation is "door, or gateway." 

239 



Squautum Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "a door or gate," 
also Narragansett, "angry god." A Wampanoag named 
Squantum, or Squanto, was the interpreter for Massasoit 
in 1620. 

Squapan Lake, Mountain and Village, Aroostook County, Me. 
Abnaki, '^bear's den." 

Squapnassutte New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "place at 
the top rocks," or "between rocks" ? Possibly "red rocks." 
See also Squibnockel. 

Squatesit Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "red place," or 
"red brook." ? 

Squattock Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "trout river." 

Squaw a multitude of topographical features, such as Squaw 
Peak, Squaw Pond, Squaw Rock, etc., are scattered throughout 
New England. They all stem from a cognate Narragansett- 
Natick-Nipmuck term, squaw, esqua, eskwaw, meaning "a 
female, one of womankind." In common usage, this refers to 
an Indian woman, or an Indian's wife. The word is a fe- 
minine suffix for nouns, as "Kinjames," and "Kinjamesqua." 

Squaw Bally Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, mixed with 
English? "One of womankind; a female," but Bally may be 
a modification of Betty. See Squaw Betty. 

Squaw Betty Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag; Squaw Betty 
was the name of a Wampanoag woman, Sausaman, the wife 
of Nanooswanum. She inherited a large tract of land from 
her father, Paumatuck Quasuk, in 1673. 

Squazodek Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "a lookout place" 

or "waiting-place." 
Squenatock Brook, Franklin County Mass. Pocumtuck, "long 

stream" ? See Squanticook, "red stream," from m' squenatock? 

Squepaug Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "red pond" 
if from misqiie paug; "end of pond" if from usque paug. 

Squeteague Harbor, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"the weakfish," or "the gluey one." This fish is also called 

chequit. 
Squibuocket Point and Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the place of red (or black) rocks." Possibly "sticky earth, 

(or clay) cliff." 

240 



Squidrayset Creek, Cumberland County, Me. Named for Chief 
Squidrayset, of Salem, Mass. Variants, Squiddera Gusset, 
Squitheragusset, Squintregust, etc. 

Squimonk Pond, York County, Me. Abnaki, "red fish place," 
probably salmon. This was Bonnabeg Pond. 

Squitcomegek Falls, Knox County, Me. Abnaki, "at the long ridge.'' 

Squog Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, an abbreviation of 
Piscataquog, "at the river branch." 

Squog Kane Kaneek Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "cold 

water spring," "spring at big rock," or "big fishing place 

at rock." Perhaps from Musquaquag Konet, "red, or wide 

swamp enclosed place"? or "big refuge place."? 
Squontonk Brook, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "red 

river" ? or "place of red earth." ? 
Squotuck Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis? "red river" ? or 

"place of red earth." ? 
Statuckquett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

source of the creek;" or perhaps "place of no trees." 
Stockbridge Indians; see Mahican. 
Subecwangamook Hadley's Lake, Washington County, Me. 

Old Abnaki? "portage or trail toward the salt water," and 

"portage or trail toward the large body of water." 
Succanesset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

black shells," (for wampum)? or "bass-fishing place?" or 

"early summer place" ? See Sockanosset. 
Succotash Point, in Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"shelled corn kernels separated from the cob and beaten to 

a pulp." (Modern succotash has beans in it.) 
Suchow Hampshire County, Mass. Perhaps from Chinese, but if 

Indian, possibly Nipmuck, "between the hills," or "dark 

colored lands," or "big hill" or "rocky hill." 
Suckatunkanuck Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"dark colored earth (or rocks) at the summit." 
Suckiaug Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog, "muddy land" or 

"dark colored land" or "black earth." Variants Sicaiock, 

Suckiagge, Sicaogg. 

Suckquackheag Franklin County, Mass. Pennacook? "black 
swamp, or dark, miry place." See Squakheag,.... y. 

i6 241 



Sucktequesite Plymouth County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "at or 
near the small dark river," or "at the outlet of the small 
river." 

Sugalmanahan Sugar Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"sugar island." See Soghali Menahan. 

Suker Pond, Providence County, R. I. If Indian, probably from 
Narragansett, "it pours forth." 

Sumpauge Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Narragansett, or 
Nipmiick, "male beaver," or "pond with small stones; a 
gravelly pond." 

Sunapee Hill, Hampden County, Mass. Pennacook, "rocks in 
the water," or "stony pond." 

Sunapee Lakes, Merrimack and Sullivan Counties, N. H. Penna- 
cook, "rocky pond." 

Simcook Mountains, Belknap County, and Pond, Rockingham 
County, N. H. Pennacook, "rock place." 

Suncook Rivers, Merrimack County, N. H. and Oxford County, 
Me. Abnaki, "at the rocky place." Also Suncoog. 

Sungahnee took Lewis Creek, Addison County, Vt. Abnaki, "fish 
weir river" or Mahican, "wolf trap river." 

Sunkataradimk mouth of Kennebec River, Sagadahoc County, 
Me. Abnaki, "concealed outlet of large swift currents." See 
Sunkaze. 

Sunkatunkarunk same as Sunkataradunk, Suukaradunk, etc. 

Sunkaze Rips and Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "con- 
cealed outlet." 

Sunkeath see Sawkhead. 

Sunkipaug New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, "cold 
pond." 

Sunmuckquommuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "ex- 
tended plantation." 

Sunsicke Hills, Franklin County, Mass. Pocumtuck, "at the 
stony place," or Pennacook, "boulder brook." 

Suntaug Lake, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "stony ground," or 

"place of boulders." 
Suponic Pond, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, same as Chibanook 

and Saponac, "big opening." 

242 



Susquesong Cousin's Island, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 
"muddy place/' 

Susquetomscut Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at 
the place of mixed rocks and mud," or possibly "muddy 
stream flowing near (or over) rocks." Also Suskotomscot and 
Susquoetomscutt; possibly "place of the red ledges." 

Sussgussugg see Susquesong, Sisquissic and Sysquissett. 

Sutamachute see Setamachut. 

Sutquin same as Seguin. 

Swackadock Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "swift stream 
outlet place." Similar to Sagadahoc. 

Swagadahock this name apparently was applied by early ex- 
plorers to the Saco, the Kennebec and other Maine rivers at 
their mouths. The general meaning is "pouring forth at outlet 
place." 

Swam cot see Misquamicut, R. I. 

Swammicott Valley, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"south plantation." 

Swampscott Essex County, Mass. and River in Rockingham 
County, N. H. Natick, "at the place of the red rocks." 

Swango Island, Sagadahoc County, Me. Abnaki, "an eagle"? 

Swank wahiganus Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "little bell, 
or chimes," so named for a small English early settler named 
Bell; Indians would say, "Let's stop at Little Bell's place." 

Sweecktaconet see Sneechteconnet. 

Swegotchy see Oswegatchie. 

Swegustagoe River, Roy all's River, Cumberland County, Me. 
Abnaki, "mouth of the river." 

Swichichog New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place to get 
clams"? or "dark earth?" 

Sybaik see Sebayek. 

Syenpauge see Sympaug. 

Sympaug Brook and Pond, Fairfield County, Conn. Possibly 
Paugussett or Western Niantic, from sumhupaog, "beavers." 

Sysladobsis Lake, see Sisladobsis. 

Sysquissett Cousin's River, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, 
"muddy place," or "muddy stream." 

i6* 243 



-T- 

Taascamessick Bennington County, Vt. Mohican, ''small crossing 
place," or ''small ford'' (across the Walloomsac). 

Tabamapaug Pond, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "this 
pond is sufficient," ? or, more likely, "clear or shallow pond." 
See Paugamaug and Paugeamapauge; also Taubakonommock. 

Tabusintac Stream, Washington County, Me. Micmac, "two by 
two," or "they go in pairs;" possibly silver eels. 

Tabuttantam Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "he gives 
thanks." 

Taccomhuit Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "he who 
strikes" (repeated blows) See also Takemmy. 

Tachamugus Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "forest bear," 
or "digging bear" ? From the name of an Indian. Possibly 
the same as Terramuggus, q. v. 

Tachannike Berkshire County, Mass. Delaware? This is Zeis- 
berger's name for the Taconic Mountains, translated as "full 
of timber." 

Tacoma Lake, Kennebec County, Me. Nisqually [of Washington 
state], "snow covered, or great white breast." By that 
state's legislative decree, "Mountain That Was a God." 
Possibly applied locally by a returning early traveler [?]. 

Taconic this name is applied to many features of the topography 
of New England, particularly mountains (e. g., Mt. Wash- 
ington, in Mass.). The derivation is unclear; it may be from 
Mohican or Notick, meaning "steep ascent," "small field or 
plantation in the forest," or "forest." Variants, Tachannike, 
Taghkannuc, Taughkanghnick, etc. 

Taconic Mountains, Bennington County, Vt. Notick, "ladder," or 
"steep ascent." (But Tooker says, "field in the woods.") Vari- 
ant, Tachonaeg. 

Taconic Mountains and Trail, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, 
see above. 

Taconnet River, Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the wading 
place, or ford." 

Tacook Penobscot County, Me. Abnoki, "waves." 

Tadmuck Brook and Meadow, Middlesex County, Mass. Notick, 
"wading-place." L. K. Gahan says, "blueberry place." 

244 



Taghkanick Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "forest" or 

"wilderness;"? if Tohkonick, "enough water." 
Taghkannuc Mountain, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "wild 

lands," ? "forest" ? Spelled also Taughkanghnick. 
Taghommay Middlesex County, Conn. Western Niantic, "corn 

grinding path." See also Takemmy. 
Tagwahogan York County, Me. Modem Abnaki, "a corn mill" 

or "grinding instrument, for grains." See Nokhigan. 
Tagwesi Menahol Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, literally "twin 

islands." 
Tagwonk New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "a stone 

mortar" for grinding grain and acorns. Also Tagwoimcke, 

Tagunk, Tangwonk, Togguhwhonk, etc; see Takemmy. 

Tahanock Knox County, Me. Micmac, "toward the open sea;" 
this is on Simanca's Map, 1610. 

Tahanto Point, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, possible 
meaning "principal point or neck of land." George Tahanto 
was chief of the Nashaway in 1700. 

Tahonwenta Grand Isle County, Vt. Mohawk? "canoe launching," 
"where one drops a canoe into it." 

Tahwomp Place, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "white dug- 
things (white jack-in-the-pulpit roots)"? or "white digger"? 

Takebi-suk Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "at the place of the 

cold water (spring)." This one is at Cold Stream, Enfield. 
Takekomuit Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of the 

spring," or perhaps "fountain." 
Takemmy Trail, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, probably, 

"trail to the corn-meal mill," or "the com grinding path" 

(togguhum-mai) ; or possibly "camp field" (tetant-komet, or 

tuppuksinnoonk) , 
Takwangan York County, Me. Old Abnaki, "crush by repeated 

strokes," that is, using a* rockj'pestle to crush com. Also 

Taggwangun. 

Talagodissek Treat- Webster Island. Penobscot County, Me. Ab- 
naki, "painting place for squaws." Also spelled Tallagodisik. 

Talaquya Bristol County, Mass. No suitable New England roots 
seem to apply. Perhaps this name is a transplant from 
Tahlequah, the Cherokee capital in Oklahoma ? 

245 



Talhanio Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "low meadow." 
Tallawanda Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "hoarse voiced 

ones;" that is, "bitterns or cranes." 
Tamarack Road, Litchfield County, Conn, and Pond in Coos 

County, N. H. Possibly of Indian origin; the name is in 

common use for certain larches and pines. 
Tamescot Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "ale wife place." 
Tamesuck the Thames outlet. New London County, Conn. 

English-Mohegan, "Thames outlet." See Sepos-Tamesuck. 
Tamett Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "flooded 

place," or "low place." 
Tammesham Hampden County, Mass. Narragansett, "my wife," 

(my wife's place?). Also Nummetawamus. 
Tamonquas Brook, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "a 

beaver." 
Tamtashua Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "summit of the 

mountain." 
Tanipus Pond, Hillsboro County, N. H. Natick, "a tortoise" ? 

or "herring" ? 
Tankeroosen Brook; see Tunkahoosen. 

Tankiteke Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican? "forest dwellers." 
Tantaquidgeon Lodge, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

meaning lost. The Tantaquidgeons were prominent in Mohegan 

tribal affairs. One man of the name still survives (i960). 
Tantiusque Worcester County, Mass. Mohegan, from the name 

of Chief Tantaquieson, or Tantaquidgeon, q. v. 
Taphamshashack River, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, 

"at the place of cold springs." Also found as Tappanshashick, 

Tappunshasic, etc. 
Taphance Fairfield County, Conn. If Paug^issett, possibly "he 

buys" or "he is satisfied." But more probably Siwanoy or 

Wappinger, "cold spring." 
Taquahunga Falls, Franklin County, Vt. Mohawk, "haunt of 

bitterns." 
Tarratine Village, Somerset County, Me. The Tarratines were 

Micmacs from Nova Scotia, who invaded and controlled 

parts of Maine around 1600. It is doubtful that the word is of 

Indian origin, although southern New England Indians in 

246 



the 1600 's were said to have called the Abnaki Tarratines, 

or Taretyns. The Puritans used this term also in referring to 

the Abnaki, and the contemporary Malecite call the Penobscot 

by the same name. 
Tashima Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the great (or 

principal) spring." 
Tashmoo Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "big spring," 

or perhaps "deserted pond." 
Tashmuit Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the great 

spring." 
Tashnuc Spring, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "deserted 

place." 
Tashua see Tamtashua. 
Tassacaumet Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the deserted 

beach." 
Tassacauset Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 

abandoned carrying place (or portage)." But see Tassacaumet. 
Tataesset Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "near the thing 

that rolls on an axis;" the "rocking-stone place." 
Tatamuckatakis Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "little mea- 
dow trembles (when you walk on it)." 
Tatetuck Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "principal stream." 
Tatnic Brook and Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at 

the great hill." 
Tatnit Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the great hill." 

Another spelling, Tatnuck. 
Tatnock Marshes, York County, Me. Abnaki, "at the shaking 

place," or "quivering meadows." 
Tatomuck Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "trembling 

meadow." Variants, Tatomok, Tomuk, etc. 
Tattahassun Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the top of the 

shaking or rocking boulder." 
Tattamacuntaway River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"place of trembling bogs." 
Tattamasket Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "winding 

around place," or perhaps "berry place." Also Tatumasket. 
Tattaquamock-pangok Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Pau- 
gussett? Mahican? "pond in the boggy trembling meadow." 

247 



Tatuppequaog New London County, Conn. Peqiiot, "level, open 
land that trembles" when walked on. Boggy land along the 
Thames River, near Mohegan Village. Probably abbreviated 
from Tattaquannockpancook. 

Taubakonommock Hill, New London County, Conn. Western 
Niantic, "place where there are many lamprey eels." Given 
also as Tabaconomock, Konomok, etc. 

Tauchaug Meadow, Hartford County, Conn. Tiinxis, "land at the 
brook." 

Taughkannuc see Taconic. 

Taukonnock see Taconic. 

Taupagoh River, now Williams River, Berkshire County, Mass. 
Mohican, "an isolated or solitary pond;" or Natick, "satis- 
factory pond," or possibly "wise speaking." 

Taupoowaumsett Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the place of wise counsel," or "here they preached;" 
possibly "deserted meadow." 

Tausakaust see Tassacauset. 

Tauseguse Oxford County?, Me. Old Ahnaki? "upon the back," 
i.e., carrying goods over a portage. 

Tauskounk Meadow, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a ford 
or wading-place;" possibly the site of a bridge. Variants, 
Toskiounke, Toskeunke, etc. 

Tautemco Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "camp field." 
Variant, Tawtemko. See also Takemmy. 

Ta wak be dee eeso Wadso Camel's Hump, Washington County, 
Vt. Ahnaki, "prudently, we make a campfire in a circle near 
water (and rest) at this mountain." Given by Rowland Rob- 
inson as "resting place, or sit down place, mountain." 

Tawawag New London County, Conn. Mohegan-Pequot, "useless 
or abandoned lands." Also found as Tawawog. (The Indians 
near New London moved away from these fields sometime 
before 1650). 

Tchebatigosak Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "crossing at the 
separated place;" or freely, "crossing which does not take so 
long." Sometimes given as "crossing at the boundary." 

Tchobacco Lake; see Chebacco. 

248 



Teapanock Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"ai the great clearing,'' or "at the great cove." Found also 
as Teapanocke, Teapannock, Tepanock, etc. 

Teaticket Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''at the prin- 
cipal tidal stream." Also, Tecticut, Tehticut, etc. 

Teckyadoughinyariga the Narrows at Chimney Point, Addison 
County, Vt., and Crown Point, N. Y. Mohawk, "two points 
of land standing opposite each other." 

Teckyadough Nigarige The Narrows on Lake Champlain near 
Charlotte, Vt., and Essex, N. Y. Mohawk, "two points of 
land which have come close together." Also Teckyadough 
Nigarege. 

Teconnet same as Taconnet, q. v. 

Tecumseh Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Shawnee, "I cross 
somebody's path." The great warrior here commemorated 
was also called Meteor, and Crouching Panther: he lived 
1768-1813. 

Teddon, Tadden, Toddin, etc., Piscataquis County, Me. These are 
various English slurrings of the Ahnaki Katahdin, "principal 
mountain." 

Tegoak Rapids, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "waves." This 
is "the cook" or "cauldron" at the Old Town. Modifications 
of this word are used as "river-water driven by waves." 

Teightaquid Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "principal land, 
or island." 

Teikiming Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a fountain," or 
"cool springs place." Given also as Tockiming. 

Tekebisek anciently a village near Cold River, Cheshire County, 
N. H. Ahnaki, "at the place of the cold water spring." Also 
given as Ticopeesok, the Abnaki spring. 

Telastinis Lake, "Little Telos;" see Pataquongamis. 

Telos Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Now called Patawee- 
kongomoc, q. v. Probably not Indian; some guides say it is 
Tea-los, "without tea," since there is a Coffee-los lake nearby. 
A most likely suggestion is that Telos is from Greek, meaning 
"far," "ultimate," or "the end." 

Telosinis Lake ; see Pataquongamis. 

Temahkwecook Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "beaver place." 
But see Maewahoc. 

249 



Temiscouata Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "bottomless," 
or "exceedingly deep all around." See Tommy Squatter. 

Tepenegine near Sheepscot River, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, 
"head of the island." 

Tepikamicut Plymouth County, Mass. Wamfanoag, "at the great 
clearing." Also Tippecummicut. 

Teqiienoman see No Man's Land. 

Terramuggus Lake, Hartford County, Conn. This is the name of a 
Wangiink chief. Another form, Tachamuggus, suggests 
"forest bear," or "digging bear." He sold land here in 1662. 

Tetaukinmio Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "principal 
cool spring." But one authority says, "boggy place around 
a big spring;" another, "camp field spring." 

Tetiquet see Titicut. 

Tewissicke same as Capisic, q. v. 

Texas Falls, Addison County, Vt. Hasinai (a Southwestern 
tribe), "a friend, an ally." 

Tgawistaniyonteh St. Anne's Mission, Grand Isle County, Vt. 
Mohawk, "there a bell is suspended." There are legends of 
similar places at Lake St. Catherine, Rutland County, and at 
Ferrisburg, Addison County, Vt. 

Tiasquam River, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, from the 
name of Metacom's great warrior, Tiashq, or Tuspaquin. 
Sometimes translated as "big salmon," or "red feather." 
See Tisquaquin. 

Ticklenaked Pond, Caledonia County, Vt. It is very doubtful 
that this hilarious name is of Indian origin ; if so, it is possibly 
a much modified Delaware word meaning "beaver kittens 
here."[?] 

Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain opposite Shoreham, Addison 
County, Vt., where Lake George spills into Lake Champlain. 
Mohawk, "where two currents or rivers join." 

Ticonic Falls; see Taconnet. 

Tieronderaquegon Lake Champlain near West Haven, Rutland 
County, Vt. Mohawk, "lake closed in, where two rivers are 
stopped up," or more grammatically, "two rivers without 
an outlet;" South River of Lake Champlain and Wood 
Creek. 

250 



Tihonet Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''at the 

abode of crane or bittern." Also Tionet. 
Tioga Hill and River, Belknap County, N. H. Oneida, "at the 

river forks." 
Tiogue Lake, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett? "low 

place" or "low land," or if Tiohquonque, "it is low." (If 

borrowed from New York, see Tioga.) 
Tiowawaye Third Lake, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki? "empty 

your canoes," ? or "sit in the stern of your canoes." ? 

Tippecansett Pond, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 
great clearing." Variants Tipecanset, Tippecan, Tippeca- 
naunit, etc. 

Tirsick perhaps York County, Me. ? Old Abnaki, "at the bend or 
curve in the stream" ? 

Tiscatuck Swamp, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"at the ford, or wading-place." Variant, Tiscatuk. 

Tishcottic Swamp, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the wading place, or ford." Also Tishcottic. 

Tismattuck Washington County, R. L, and New London County, 
Conn. Eastern Niantic? "wading place," or "crude bridge over 
the river," or "river over which we cross on a driftwood bridge." 
Also Tismatuck. 

Tisquaquin Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, a chief 
called also Watuspaquin. The English called him "The Black 
Sachem," but the name means "big dark feather," or "black 
plume." He was killed in King Philip's War, 1676. 

Tist Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "a bridge," or "a fording 

place." Sometimes Tisk. 
Titicus Village, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place without 

trees." 
Titicut Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "the principal 

river." 
Titicut Village, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

great tidal river." 
Titticut Road, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of the 

principal (or great) river." 

Tittituck the Blackstone River, Bristol and Plymouth Counties, 
Mass. Wampanoag, "the great, or principal river." 

251 



T'Kopesuck the large spring at Indian Point, Hancock County, 

Me. Abnaki, "large cold spring place." 
T'makwa Sibo Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, literally "beaver 

brook." 
Toantik Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "wading 

place." 
Toaskeimck Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a bridge (made 

of wood)"? 
Tobago Pond. A misspelling of Sebago, q. v. 
Tobaskick Falls, York County, Me. Abnaki, "cold water springs." 
Tobegewock Pond, York County, Me. Abnaki, "rapid current at 

the outlet." 
Tobyan Swamp, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"camp"? Perhaps this was a refuge camp? 
Tockiming Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of gushing 

springs, or fountain." 
Tockwotton Hill, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "steep 

ascent to be climbed" ? or "shaped like a pounding mortar?" 
Togue Ponds and Ledges, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki? The 

togue is the same as the namaycush, or nammycush (meaning 

"long fish") — the large deepwater lake trout, Cristivomer 

namaycush. See Tuladi. 
Togus Lakes, River, Stream and Village, Kennebec County, Me. 

Old Abnaki, "brook (entering cove)" or "little stream." See 

Wallamatogus and Togue. 
Tohke commumwachak Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "springs 

at the lookout place," or "fountain near the mountain." 
Toikiming Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the mill," 

or "at the gushing spring" ? 
Tokanock see Taconnet. 
Tokekommiinwadchuck Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"gushing spring at the lookout mountain." 
Tokenake Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "the forest," literally, 

"tree-land." Chief Tokenake sold land here in 1640. 
Tokopissett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "little wilder- 
ness place." 
Tolam Cumberland County, Me. Old Abnaki, "canoes on sand"? 

or "a canoe landing place" ? 

252 



Tolbabawk Orange County, Vt. Abnaki, ''snapping turtle 

pond." 
Tolbuntbessek Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "turtle head," 

a rock at Hampden. 
Tomah Stream, Washington County, Me. Either Micmac, "pipe 

rock;" Abnaki, "deep;" or Natick, "it is flooded." Any of 

these could apply. See Tomahegan. 
Tomah Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, probably from 

the name of the minor Chief Tomah. See Tomah Stream. 
Tomahegan Pond, now Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, 

Me. Old Abnaki, "deep drag," from temi-isquattan, "deep 

all around," or possibly an import from Connecticut. See 

Higganum, Takwangan and Tomhegan. 

Tomakergo Fairfield County, Conn. Paugiissett, "flood tide." 

Tomaquag Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"they who cut" (beavers). Variants, Tommaquag, Tom- 

moeweague, Tummunkque, etc. 
TomLegewoc Pond; Bering Pond, York County, Me. Abnaki, 

"place of the rocky reef in the pond." 
Tomhamiock Creek, Bennington County, Vt. Natick? "full up" 

or "brimming;" or, "it is flooded." 
Tomhamnmucke Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "it is 

flooded," or "at the overflowed place." Also translated as 

"place of grinding," or "mortar place." 

Tomhegan Pond, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, "an axe." See 
Higganum and Tomahegan. 

Tomheganompsket Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "at the 

axe (or tomahawk) stone quarry." See Higganum. 
Tomhollisick Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "samp 

mortar brook," or "grinding place." 
Tommy Squatter fishing spots in deep water near Thompson's 

Point, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, "deep water all 

around here," temi isquattam. 
Tomoek River, Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy, "flooded." 
Tonemy Hill or Tonnemony Hill, York County, Me. Abnaki 

(abbreviated), "red paint source." See Wannametoname. 
Tonisset Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "pine place." 

Variants, Tonissit, Tuisset, etc. 

253 



Tonomy Hill, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, from the 
name of a sachem of Acquidneck ; see Wannemetonomy. 

Tonquewack a summit in the Russell Mountains, Somerset 

County, Me. Abnaki, "great top place." 
Tonset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "hill-place." 

Another source makes this an abbreviation of Annusau- 

tonset, "hoed garden place." 

Took-sunk Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "wading place" or 
"ford." (Orperhaps "wading place where they trod out clams.") 

Topabskwa Split Rock (in Lake Champlain) between Chittenden 
County, Vt., and Essex, N. Y. Abnaki, "the split or cloven 
rock." This was an important boundmark between Mohawk 
and Abnaki territories. 

Topamisspauge (now Randall's Pond) Washington County, R. I. 
Narragansett, "little camp at a pond"? or if Topansissipaug, 
"little twisting river pond" ? 

Topeent an ancient village near Boston? Natick? "he encamps," 

or "abandoned, deserted" ? ? 
Toquams Fairfield County, Conn. Paugiissett, "round rock." 

Toquamske Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "round rock," 
or "heavy rock." 

Torube Pond, Knox County, Me. Old Abnaki, "snapping-turtle," 
Chelydra serpentina, or (along the coast) a large sea-turtle, 
a terrapin. Also any of the edible Emydidae inhabiting 
fresh or brackish water. In Montauk dialect, torup; in Dela- 
ware, tulpe. 

Torup Pond, New Haven County, Conn. QuinnipiacP Mohegan? 
"snapping-turtle," or "terrapin." See Tolbabawk, Toulbah, 
Torube. 

Toskaunk Meadow, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "a bridge," 
or "a ford." Also Toskeunke, Toskiounke, etc. 

Toskibunke Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "a wooden 

bridge." 
Totant An ancient village near Boston, Suffolk County, Mass. 

Same as Topeent? or possibly from Natick, "(the stream) 

winds about." ? 
Totapoag Norfolk County, Mass. An ancient Massachusetts 

village. Natick, "twisted pond." 

254 



Totawamscut Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the crossing, 
by means of (stepping) stones." 

Totheet Suffolk County, Mass. An ancient village near Boston. 
Probably same as Topeent, but possibly Natick, ''beating 
place," where wild flax was beaten, or corn pounded? 

Totoket Mountain, New Haven County, Conn. Western Niantic, 

"on the great tidal stream." Variant, Totocott, Titicut, q. v. 
Totomak Brook, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "a, meadow 

that trembles" when walked on. 
Totonnock Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, ''shaking or quaking 

place," or "a quaky place, a bog." 
Touissett Neck, Bristol County, R. I. Narragansett, "fording 

place." Another source gives "worn-out fields." ? 

Touisset Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fording place." 

Toulbah Mountains, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "snapping 
turtle." See Torup. 

Touskounkanet Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "an en- 
closure near the (stone) fording place." See Totawamscut. 

Towansett Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the 
wading place (or ford)." Same as Touisset and Toweset. 

Towantic Village, New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "wading 
place in the river," or "ford across the river." 

Towantuck Pond, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "fording 
place in the river," or "at the wading place." 

Towcocks Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "cold place" or 
"cold weather;" or possibly "at the wading place." 

Towequensuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 
long wading-place," or "at the long ford." 

Toweset Neck, Mount Hope Bay, Bristol County, R. I. Narra- 
gansett, "near the old fields"? or "at the place of pines"? 
See Touisset. 

Towessek Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, "broken passage." 
Also Tussek. 

Towtaid Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "open, solitary, 
deserted field." 

Towtenhemon Hartford County, Conn. Ttmxis, named after the 
Sachem of Poquonnock, Towtenhemon, circa 1650. 

255 



Towimucksett River, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
ford." Another meaning, "bridge of stepping stones," or 
possibly "mortar place;" where corn was pounded. 

Towwoh York County, Me. Ahnaki? "corn grinding place"? or 
"damp place?" But see Towessek. Variant, Towow. 

Toyaskquit River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 
of the bridge." 

Toyusk New London County, Conn. Narragansett, "a bridge." 
Formerly a crude stepping-stones arrangement near 
Groton. 

Tsabakwa Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "I hide my provisions," 
or, "I cache my food." 

Tuck Mountain, Waldo County, Me. Doubtful; if Indian, prob- 
ably Ahnaki, "a tree." But more likely from English. 

Tuckachawan Windham County, Conn. Nifmuck, "mist over the 
wooded hill." 

Tuckernuck Island, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a 
round loaf of bread," because of its appearance. (It also 
resembles togguwhonk, "a mortar;" and it lies among ketah 
tugooak, "great waves.") Also, Tuckanuck, Tuckonoc. 

Tueskennckinck R. I., location uncertain. Probably Narragansett, 
"a fording place." 

Tug several mountains by this name in New England. All of them 
derive from the Natick word m'tughk, "a tree." A Maine 
locale may be from the cognate Ahnaki, meaning "a tree," 
or possibly, "river." 

Tugemaug Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "place of grinding." 

Tuladi Brook, Aroostook County, Me. MaleciteP "the nammy- 

cush?" See Togue. 
Tulamdie River, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki? MaleciteP 

"canoe on the sandbar." 
Tulanic Stream, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "place where 

they make canoes." 
Tumpum Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "carrying 

strap" ? (possibly English "hillocks" or "heaps" ?) 

Tunipus Beach and Pond, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, 
"tortoise, or turtle." Another source says "small herring." 
Any of these would fit. 

256 



Tunk Lake, Mountain and Stream, Hancock County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"principal or large swift stream," abbreviated from k't-hunk; 

possibly English. 
Tunkahoosen Brook, Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "fast 

flowing brook" ? or "fast flowing gravelly stream" ? 
Tunxis Hill, Fairfield County, Conn. Wangunk, little river." 

Perhaps abbreviation of Tunckseasapose, "fast flowing and 

winding stream." 
Tunxis River, Hartford County, Conn. See Tunxis-sepos. 
Tunxishoag Tunxis Island, New Haven County, Conn. Pau- 

gussett, "at the place of the small stream." Another account 

of this place indicates the name was tuckahoe (Indian turnip 

or Jack-in-the-pulpit), roots which could be roasted and 

eaten like bread. 
Tunxis-sepos Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "fast flowing 

little stream." 
Tuppatuett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "twisting river," 

or possibly "twisted outlet"? 
Turramuggus see Terramuggus. 
Tuscomanset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fording 

place at the point." 
Tuskatucket River, Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

ford (or wading place) in the tidal stream." 
Tuskheganuck New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "where we 

cross the river by wading." Also Tusheganuck. 
Tuttomnest Neck, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"twisted place." Another source gives "blueberry place." 

Tuxis or Tooksees New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "little 

stream," or "little river." 
Tuxisshoag Pond New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "land 

at the little river." Variants, Tuxishocke, Tuxishog, Tuchs- 

hishhoag. 
Tyetilegogtakook the Batten Kill, Bennington County, Vt. 

Mahican? "country around the river of toads." ? 
Tyontkathotha Mount Philo, Chittenden County, Vt. Mohawk, 

"lookout place." 
Tzawapa Knox County, Me. Old Abnaki, "a crossing place in a 

river or stream," that is, "a ford." Also Tzawipi. 

17 257 



-u- 

Ucka times Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small 
neck at the end." 

Ueques Worcester County, Mass. Nipmiick? Mohegan? "this is 

the end, or boundary." 
Uhquanchaug Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the end of 

the hill," or possibly "hook-shaped hill." 
Uhuio New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "it curves and 

winds about." Also Uhuhyock. 
Uhiiponckash New London County, Conn. ? Western Niantic, 

"pipes for tobacco (ceremonial pipes?)." See Calumet. 
Ukquiessa Neck, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end." 
Ulmsaket Ponds, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, "where the 

points meet each other." See Umsaskis. 
Umbagog Lake, Oxford County, Me., and Coos County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "clear lake." Also Umbagoog. See Wambighe. 

Umbawaug Pond, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett; Umpewag 
was an Indian chief who signed a deed for Stamford lands in 
1660. Perhaps the name meant "conqueror, to whom tribute is 
brought." Also Umpawag, Umpawaug, Umpewaug. 

Umbazookgkus Stream, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "clear, 

gravelly outlet." 
Umcolcus Deadwater Lake and Stream, Penobscot and Aroostook 

Counties, Maine. Ahnaki, "a whistling duck." Variants, Um- 

eolquis, Umcoleus, Umkolkwees, etc. 
Umpaehene River, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, said to be 

derived from the name of a chief. Sometimes translated as 

"top man," sometimes as "conqueror." 
Umpame Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "resting place," 

or perhaps "turn around." 
Umpammonoosuc Brook, now Oliverian Stream, Grafton County, 

N. H. Ahnaki, "at the bare (treeless) extended deep outlet." 

Umpanawang Hill and Pond, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, 
"beyond the bend," or if Umpanamaug, "beyond the fishing 
place." 

Umpewage Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "beyond the 
bend." 

258 



Umpog Creek, Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a fishing 

place" ? or ''beyond the bend" ? 
Umsaskis Lake, Aroostook County, Me. Malecite, "points which 

run out to meet each other," or in reference to the chain of 

ponds there, "linked together like sausages." Variants, 

Umasaskis and Ulmsaket. 
Urns qua quospem Washington County, Me. Malecite, "first lake" we 

come to, going upstream; Big Machias Lake, or Lower Sabao. 

Umsquattanack Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
beaver or muskrat domes," or perhaps "rocks sloping down 
place," also "place at the end of the village or mountain." 

Unaganek Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "at the portage," 
near Lubec. 

Uncachewalunk Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "brook 
at the end of the hill," (where we make dishes?), or "place 
of acorns," ? or "place beyond the good hill." Also spelled 
Uncachewhalomaug and Uncachewalumock. 

Uncanoomuc Mountain, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, "at 
the end of the fishing place," or "beyond the fishing place." 

Uncanoonuc Hill, Middlesex County, Mass. Pennacook, "breast," 
or "nipple." 

Uncanoonucks Mountain, Hillsborough County, N. H. Penna- 
cook? "a breast," or "nipple." 

Uncas ville. New London County, Conn. Mohegan. Uncas was 
the family name of a powerful chief of that tribe ; his name is 
a corruption of Wonhcs, "fox" (literally, "the circler.") 
Another name for this same person was Poquiam, "The 
Defender," i588?-i683? 

Uncataquisset Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the end of the 
small stream," or "place of overturned rocks." 

Uncatena Island, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "like a 

hill," or "end of the hill," or "shows from afar." 
Uncawannuck Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "fishing place 

at the furthest place." 
Uncbechewhaton Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at 

the end of the wooded hills." 
Uncheckcathaton Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"cedar mountain." 

^y* 259 



Unchemamuck Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, ''fishing place 

for eels." See Onshaukamaug. 
Uncoa Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "beyond," or "over 

yonder." Variants, Uncowa, Uncoway, Uncowah, etc. 
Uncushnet River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the 

end of the rapid stream." Variants, Ungoshet, Unquoshnet. 

Ungowa-umsock Middlesex County, Conn. Mohegan, "abode of 

old squaws, long tailed ducks." 
Ungwonshackook New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place 

at the bend or fork of the stream." Also Unggwongskakooke, 

Unggwonsuckcook. 

Unjaware possibly in York County, Me. Ahnaki, "sheltered 
place" ? or "end of the portage." ? 

Unkapaukook Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "land at the 
end of the pond," or "place at the bend in the pond." 

Unkawa Fairfield County, Conn. Probably Paugussett, the short 
form of Uncawamuck, "beyond the fishing-place." Variant, 
Unqnowa, Uncoa, etc. 

Unkety Brook, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "at the end, or 
boundary place." 

Unquamonk Hill, Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
end place" or "at the boundary." 

Unquawomuck Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "beyond the 
fishing place" or "the fishing place farther away." 

Unquety Hills, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "boundary," or 
"(hills which are) the boundary." 

Unsatuit Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the place of 
flooding." 

Unshemamuck Pond, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis? "eel- 
fishing place." See Onshaukamaug. 

Upaquoag Woods, Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "land 
where flags (or rushes) grow." See Abaquage. 

Uppanash Konameset Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "cover- 
ing mats at the long fishing place," or "flags (or rushes) used 
for making mats, at the large fishing place." 

Uppooquantup New Haven County, Conn. Western Niantic? "eat 
(bass) head." Sea-bass heads and fine corn meal make a sort 
of "head-cheese." This name may be comparatively recent; 

260 



it is near Momauguin. There was another such place near 

Niantic. 
Upquedopscook River, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "top of 

the rocks place." 
Usgah River, Maine. Ahnaki? "bitter water." ? 
Usquaiok River, Hampden Coounty, Mass. Nipmuck/'aX the end 

of this land," or "boundary place." 
Usquepaug Village, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 

the end of the pond." (In the early iSoo's attempts were 

made to link this with the Gaelic word for whiskey, usque- 

beotha; there is no connection). Variants, Usquebaug and 

Usquepaugh. 
Ussowwack Franklin County, Mass. Nipmnck, "at the end-place," 

or "at the boundary." Also translated as "seething pot." 
Usuntabunt Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "wet head" ? (now 

Rainbow Lake). But if a corruption of Nesuntabunt, the 

meaning is "three heads." 
Utlooskes Washington County, Me. Malecite, "cast a small net 

there,"? or "soak small hides there."? This is the Little 

River, near Perry; perhaps the name is just "small stream 

in that direction," or "go to the small cove." ? 

-w- 

Waashacum Ponds, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "surface of 
the sea." Also translated as "springs bubbling forth." 

Wabacosoos Lake, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "white, shining." 

Wabademsolduwak Wajowuk Coos County, N. H. Penobscot, "The 
White Mountains." 

Waban Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "the wind," especially 
"the east wind." 

Waban Lake, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "east wind." 

Wabaquasset Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck? "a place covered 
with rush matting," possibly a house. One source gives 
"tabernacle covered with rush thatching," perhaps one of 
Eliot's meeting houses; he had spelled it Wabuhquohish. 

Wabaquasset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "flags or 
rushes for making mats." 

261 



Wabaquassick Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, ''place of 

the white stones/' ? or "mats for covering a lodge" ? Also 

Wabas quassuck. 
Wabaquassit Worcester County, Mass. and Tolland County, 

Conn. Nipmuck, (at the place where we make) ''mats for house 

coverings." Variant, Wabaquassuck. 
Waba quassuck see Wabaquasset. 

Wabasgach Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "light colored 

boards," or "white planks" (now Robbinston Mills). 
Wabash Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "the white 

things" (white stones?); or Narragansett, "the winds?" 
Wabassus Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "shining," 

or "torchlight." Variant, Wabasses. 
Wabeno bahntuck Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "white water 

falls," or "the foamy white cataract." 
Wabenock Sagadahoc County, Me.? Abnaki, "the white beach 

place." 
Wabigenek at Kendall Head, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 

"white bone." This is a quartz ledge which resembles a large 

white bone, at a distance. 
Wabiggamus Abnaki village, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "the 

little clear lake." Also Warbeggamus. 
Wabissick Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "at the 

little white place," or "at the small place eastward." Wa- 
bissick was a female chief or Suncksqua. 
Wabossagock Liberty Point, Robbinston, Washington County, 

Me. Abnaki, "white planks place." 
Wabquisset an ancient village, "west of the Quinebaug River," 

Windham County, Conn. ; or the same place as Wabaquasset? 
Wabuhquosish same as Wabaquasset, q. v. 
Wacagasaneps Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "house 

and adjoining fields." 
Wacatuc Worcester County, Mass. NcUick, "bend in the river," 

or "at the end of the river." Also Wacantuck, Wacuntug. 
Waccago ancient Abnaki village, possibly Cumberland County, 

Me. ? Abnaki, "head of the bay." 
Wachamaucutt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "hilly 

land." 

262 



Wachamotusset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''at the 

barren brooklet," or "at the end of the brooklet." 
Wachaqueage New London County, Conn. Western Ni antic, 

"country near the mountain." 
Wachemscusset Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"corn fields place." 
Wachipauke Pond, Grafton County, N. H. Abnaki, "mountain 

pond." 
Wachocastinook Creek, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at 

the place where walnut trees grow on the hill," or possibly 

"land at the stony hill." 
Wachpusk Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "hilly ridge" 

or "hills back." 
Wachquatnach Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "extending to 

the mountain," or "the end of the mountain." Also, Wech- 

quadnach. 

Wachu New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "a hill, or moun- 
tain." 

Wachusett Mountain, Reservoir and State Park, Worcester 
County, Mass. Natick, "near the mountain." 

Wackquigut Back Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "at 
the end of the bay." See Wakogumaak. 

Wacobske Cliff, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a shining 
rock." 

Wacuntug Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "a bend in the 
river." A Nipmuck village, Wacuntuc, was located here in 
the late i6oo's. See Wacatuc. 

Wadadeag see Watatick. 

"Wadatatuk Middlesex County, Conn. Hammonasett, "tree- 
boughs" ? or "river from uttermost distant land" ? See 
Woodtick and Mattatuck. 

Wadawannuc Point, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic? 

"a place destitute of trees."? Other spellings Wadawanak, 

Wattawanett, Woddowonuck, etc. 
Wadchusett see Wachusett. 
Waddaquodduck see Wataquadock. 

Wagumcaquog Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, probably same 
as Maguncaquog, "place of the gift." 

263 



Waguntaquab Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

''sandy gravel.'* 
"Wagwises pastures near Forest Dale, Rutland County, Vt. 

Abnaki, "a fox." 
Wahconah Falls and Park, Berkshire County, Mass. Mohican, 

"daybreak," ? or Mohawk, "the old fort." ? 
Wahkasekhoc Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "at the small 

enclosure," or "at the place of the small pelt-frames." ? ? 
Wahktoohook Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "place of the 

river bend." 
Wahnoosnook Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "deep brook," 

from monoosuck. 
Wainooset Hills and Stream, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 

"a deep brook." See Monoosuck. 
Wajoses Pigeon Hill, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "little 

mountain." 
Wakalosen Fort Knox, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "rocks in 

a circle;" hence an enclosure, a fort. 
Wakeag see Waukeag. 
Wakepeke Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nifmnck? "he 

pitched his tent here," or "reeds for making houses" ? or 

"dwelling place"? 
Wakogumaak Back Bay, Cumberland County, Me. Micmac, "at 

the end of the bay." See Wackquigut. 
Wakoquet Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "house place." 
Waktiompsk Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "rock house," 

or "dwelling among the rocks," or possibly "rock cave 

dwelling." See Watiomsquit. 
Walastegw see Wallastook. 
Walintuk Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "cove in 

the brook," or "bend in the stream." 
Walkamigosek Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "sand scooped 

out." This term is sometimes applied to geological "kettle 

holes." 
"Wallagrass Lake, Stream and Village, Aroostook County, Me. If 

this is Indian, perhaps Micmac, "good river" (easy canoe 

traveling); or Abnaki, "shallow, full of coves." 
Wallamanticuk see Willimantic. 

264 



Wallamanumps Falls, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red 

cliffs," or "red steep rocks/' 
Wallamanumpscook Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

rock standing in the red-paint place," an important boun- 
dary marker. 
Wallamatogus Hill, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "coves in 

a little river." 
Wallastook the St. John River, Aroostook County, Me. Micmac, 

"the beautiful river." Also Woolastook. 
Wallempteweekek South Twin Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. 

Abnaki, "place of the deep round lake." Some Indians give 

it as, "coves surrounded by burned land." Also Walleniptee- 

weekek. 
Walloomsac River, Bennington County, Vt. Mahican, "beautiful 

rocks," or "paint rocks." 
Wallum Pond, Lake and Village, Providence County, R. I. and 

Lake, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmiick, "a dog." See Allum 

Pond. 
Walopeconek Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the good 

little plantation," ? or "at the end of the plantation." ? 
Wamappahesett location unknown. If Natick, possibly "at the 

place of the field with small snares." 
Wambighe now Umbagog Lake, Coos County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"clear lake." This name from Aubery's 1715 map. 

Wamesit Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "there is room for all." 

This was a council place of the Pawtuckets. 
Wamesut Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "place beloved of all." 
Wamkeag Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "white land," 

or "white place." 
Wammasquid Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

plain." 

Wampaketatekam Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "clear 
gushing spring," or "white sandy fountain." 

Wampanic sepoot River, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "at 
the white (clear) stream." 

Wampanoag Lake, Worcester County, Mass., and Trail, in Provi- 
dence and Bristol Counties, R. I. Wampanoag, "people from the 
east." This w^as a major tribe of the Plymouth-Nantucket- 

265 



Martha's Vineyard region, important in early colonial history. 
Actually a confederacy of several sub-groups, they are one 
of the few tribes in southern New England to maintain their 
own identity to the present day. 

"Wampanucket School, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
''at the dawn place," or "at the east," also "place of white 
earth." Also, Wapanucket. 

Wampatuck Norfolk County, Mass. and Pond in Plymouth 
County, Mass. Natick, from the name of the famous John 
Wamxpatuck of Braintree, who aided Pilgrims in 1621. Trans- 
lated as "white river," "eastern river," or "goose." 

Wampecack Creek, Bennington County, Vt. NatickP "place of 
white (fruit), chestnuts." (Or "brant goose place"?) 

"Wampee Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "clear 
water." 

Wampenum Brook, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "white 
falls" ? or "coming from the east." ? 

Wamphanack Avenue, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, 
"place of the wild goose," or possibly "(look to) the place 
eastward." 

Wamphaneeskitt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
where little white shells abound;" also "white meadow place." 

Wamphassuck Point, New London County, Conn. Eastern Ni- 
antic, "at the eastern bog," or perhaps, "walnut trees here." 
Given also as "marshes" and "wet meadows." Variant, 
Womphasset. 

Wampi-hussun-ac River, Windsor County, Vt. Natick? "clear 
stony place." See Pompanoosuc. 

Wampnesick Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 
chestnut trees" (womppimish)? or "place at or in the east."? 

Wampum Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "white stuff." This is 
the collective name of the white beads or "peag" used as 
currency. Although the purple (or "black," as they are also 
known), beads used in barter and in ceremonial "wampum 
belts" were properly called sauhock, English settlers called 
these wampum, too. 

Wampmn Swamp, Plymouth County, Mass. Natick? Wampa- 
noag? "white stuff," white beads used for barter and cere- 
monial purposes. 

266 



Wampum's Rock, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, from an Indian 
family named Wampum which lived near this boulder. 

Wamsutta (or Mooanum) Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
Wamsutta was one of Massasoit's sons, known to the English 
as Alexander. He died in 1662. One translation of Wamsutta 
is, *'he has a kind heart." See Wamesut. 

Wanagamesswak especially in Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, 
"rock fairies." These "wee people" were supposed to be 
friendly to the Abnaki; they made arrowheads, claystones, 
etc., and warned of approaching enemies, especially raiding 
Mohawk warriors. 

Wanascohockett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
end place," or "at the hill marking the plain's end." 

Wanascottaquet River, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "land 
(or place) at the end (or source) of the tidal river." 

Wanashack Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, "at the 
end-place," or "at the source." 

Wanashquodtinook Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "at the 
top of the mountain," or "summit place." 

Wanasquatomska River, Plymouth and Bristol County, Mass. 
Wampanoag, "rock summit." 

Wanasquatuck Bennington County, Vt. Abnaki, "head or source 
of the river." (Headwaters of Otter Creek.) 

Wanasquatuck qut Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 
the end of the tidal river." 

Wancenquag Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the bend or turn." Variants, Wankinquog, Wankonquag, 
Wankinco, etc. 

Wanchatopek Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "where 
to get roots" (for sewing, etc.), or "roots soaked in water"? 
Also Wanketopic, "crooked roots place"? 

Wanepoonseag Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place 
where the nets are set" (for fish? for birds?). More likely, 
"where the brook floods." See Wawepoonseag. 

Wangam Brook and Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett, 
"bend." Also Wangum. 

Wangan River, Piscataquis County, Me. Abnaki, "the bend." 

267 



"Wangombog Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "crooked pond.** 

Spelled also Wangunbog. See Wongumbaug. 
Wankewan Lake, Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, "on the crooked 

route." 
Wankinco River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 

bend in the stream," or "crooked rocks place" ? 
Wannacomet Pond, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

beautiful field," ? possibly "pond field" ? or "beautiful house." ? 
Wannametonamuc Hill, York County, Me. Abnaki, "it produces 

red earth," or "at the red paint hill." See Tonemy, and 

Wannemetonamy. 

Wannamoiset Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "good 

(fishing and) resting place," or "place at the point." Also 

Wanomoycet. 
Wannamoisett Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the good 

fishing place." 
Wannashowatuckqut Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

fork of the river." 
Wannemetoname York County, Me. Abnaki, "red paint hill." 
Wannemetonomy Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "good 

mountains." ? Chief Tonomy was sachem of Aquidneck in 

1638. See Wannemetoname. 
Wannomack Ponds, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "grape 

country." Variants, Wanomehonck, Wannumchunk. 
Wannomoiset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

good fishing place." Variants, Wanamoyset, Wanomoyset, 

"Wannamoiset, etc. 
Wannuehecomecut Neck, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"enclosed camping place," or "plantation at the end of the 

hill." 
Wannuppe Island, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "good 

water," or "good pond." 
Wanomoycet see Wannamoisett. 
Wanonkapooke Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "crooked 

pond," or "land at the bend of the pond." 
Wanoosnuc see Monoosmoc. 
Wanotimyes River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "pleasant 

village,"? or "good land."? 

268 



Wanpawcutt Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place of 

flags or rushes." 
Wanquanchet Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

bend" of the stream. 
Wanshuk Brook, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the 

steep place." Wanskuk and Wanshuck. 
Wanskuck Pond, Providence County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at 

the end-place." 
Wansokett see Woonsockett. 
Wantastiquet Mountain, Cheshire County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the 

end of the river." 
Wantastiquet the West River, Windham County, Vt. Pennacook, 

"head or source of the river." 
Wanungatuck Brook and Hill, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"winding river," or "at the river bend." 
Wapanaki Lake, Caledonia County, Vt. Ahnaki, "from the east," 

or "from the dawn land." 
Wapanoos Point, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"place over east,"? or "east wind blowing"? 
Wapanucket see Wampanucket. 
Waping Addison County, Vt. Delaware? "an opposum"? Or 

possibly a misspelling of Wapping, "east land" or "east place" ? 
Wapoompaukset Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "waiting 

or resting place at the small pond." 
Wapososhe quash Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmnck? 

"white grasses"? or "white fruits;" that is, "chestnuts"? 
Wapowage seeWepowage, 
Wappanuckett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

white earth." See Wampanucket. 
Wappaqua Brook, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "flags or 

cat tails." 
Wappaquassett Pond, Windham County, Conn. Niprmick, "at 

the place of flags or cattails." 
Wappewassick Island, now Prudence Island, Newport County, 

R. I. Narragansett, "at the narrow straits." Variant, Wape- 

wasick. 
Wapping Road, Newport County, R. I. Narragansett, "east land," 

or "dawn place." See Wapping, Conn., below. 

269 



Wapping Village, Hartford County, Conn. Sicaog? ''east land," 
or "dawn-land;" same meaning as Abnaki. 

Wapping Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "in the east" 
or "dawn place." 

Wappinger Confederacy; a federation composed of many small 
Algonquian-speaking bands located chiefly in New York, but 
extending into Connecticut south and west of Hartford. The 
name means, "easterners." They joined the Stockbridge peo- 
ples following the King Philip War. The Wappinger were 
prominent in the manufacture of wampum. 

Wappoquian's Brook, Windham County, Conn. Nifmuck, from 
the name of a Nipmuck Indian, possibly "the white plume." 
Wenepaykin, alias Sagamore George, was in Massachusetts 
1616-1684. 

Wapskenigan Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "white rocks 
portage." Variant, Wapskehagan. 

Waptook Lake, Washington County, Me. Malecite, "wild goose." 

Wapwayset Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "narrow 
place, forded at low water." Also, Wapwaysitt, Wepwassit, etc. 

Waqua Point, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end." 

Waquaick Oak Bay, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? Malecite? 

"at the head ol the bay." 
Waquapaug see Weekapaug. 
Waquepaug see Wecapaug. 
Waquettaquage Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "pond 

at the end." Also Waquittaquay. 

Waquoit Bay and Village, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the end." Also Waquoid. 
Waquompohchukoit Plymouth County, Mass. From Wampanoag, 

"boundary mark corner." 
Waqutuquaib see Waquettaquage. 
Waramanticut see Willimantic. 
Waramaug Lake and State Park, Litchfield County, Conn. 

Mahican, "good fishing place." Variant, Warramock. 

Warametonomy Hill; see Wannemetonomy. 

Waronoco Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck? "winding about." 
Also Woronoco, Worrinoke, etc. 

270 



Warramanticut see Willimantic. 

Warramaug a sachem of Weantinock. See Werewaug. 

Warunlug see Waentug. 

Warunscopage see Maruscopag and Achetaqupag. 

Waruntug Worcester County, Mass. Eastern Niantic? "a good tree." 

Wasaketuwen Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "torch place"? 

Wasapskotock Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 
shining rock." (But possibly "flax or hemp at this river." ?) 

Wasa-umkeag Sears Island, Waldo County, Me. Abnaki, "at the 
shining sandy beach." Also "Wasumkeag and Wassamkeag. 

Washakamaug Village, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick? Dela- 
ware? "fishing place for eels or lampreys." 

Washakum see Weshacum. 

Washaqua Hill, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place beyond, 
on the other side," or "place at the end." A boundary-mark. 

Washiack Hartford County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the mountain." 
This was one of the boundary marks of the Mohegans. 

Washining Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "mountain coun- 
try" or perhaps a corruption of Ossining, "stony land." 
Variant, Washee. 

Washouset Point, Long Neck, Pawtuxet Cove, Providence 
County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of the small hill." But 
see Washquisset. 

Wash qua Outlet, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end." 

Washquisset Point, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"boundary brook." 
Washucke River, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "at the 

hilly place." 
Washukquatom Hill, Providence County, R. L Narragansett, 

"summit of hill." 
Washwantonowmoh Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "hill 

where testimony was taken." ? Also Washwantownowmoh. 

Washwantowminunk Hill, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, 
"hill where the large strawberries grow." ? See Washwanto- 
nowmoh. 

Waskosing Rock, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag? Narra- 
gansett? "whalebones." 

271 



Wasquadomesit River, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"at the end of the hill," ? or "summit of the hill" ? 
Wasquakage Franklin County, Mass. Nipmtick? Pennacook? See 

Squakheag. Variants, Wussquackheag, Squakheag, etc. 
Wasque Bluff and Point, Dukes County, Mass. If Wampanoag, 

"at the end;" if Narragansett, "whalebone," from waskeke. 
Wasquonasak New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place at 

the end of the rock" or "rocky point." See Obscob. 
Wass Island, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki, "shiny," or "white." 

Wassabastegu the White River, Orange and Windsor Counties, 
Vt. Ahnaki, "clear water stream," "white river," and "shining 
river." 

Wassaic Stream, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican? Delaware? 
"rocky land." 

Wassamkihemuk Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the white 
sandy place." This is High Head, Bangor, Me. 

Wassapacoassett Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "place of 
pine roots," ? or "rat place" ? 

Wassaquoick Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, "a clear, 
shining lake," possibly where fish were speared by torchlight. 
Also, Wassataquoick. 

Wassassabskek Rapids, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 
slippery rocks." 

Wassataquoick Stream, Penobscot County, Me. See Wassa- 
quoick Lake. 

Wassategwewick the East Branch of the Penobscot River, Pe- 
nobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the place in the river where 
fish are speared by torchlight," or "at the bright sparkling 
stream." 

Wassaticook Stream, Penobscot County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 
place of the shining, clear stream." 

Wassiog Hartford County, Conn. Mohegan, "hill place," or per- 
haps "place or country beyond." 

Wassokeag Lake, Penobscot and Somerset Counties, Me. Ahnaki, 
"shining fishing place," or "at the whitefish place;" perhaps, 
"fishing by torchlight." 

Wassoosumpsquehemock Island, Marshe's Island, Penobscot 
County, Me. Ahnaki, "slippery rocks place." 

272 



Wassquagos Pleasant River, Washington County, Me. Ahnaki? 

Malecite? "shallow, rough," or "low, rough, overflowed." 
Wassuc Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "between the forks" 

of Cold Brook and Roaring Brook, at Glastonbury. See 

Assawassuck. 

Wassumke Wadjo White Cap Mountain, Piscataquis County, Me. 
Ahnaki, "white sand hill." 

Wassup Lake, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "clear 
stream." 

Wataba Lake, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "roots," the 
kinds of roots used for cord and for thread in sewing canoes. 

Watachun Spring, Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "on a hill" 
or "on a hillside." 

Watagua a reedy shallow stretch in Lake Fairlee, Orange County, 

Vt. Ahnaki, "pickerel." 
Watananock Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place 

where the river winds around the hill," or "bend in the river 

at the hill." 

Watanic now Nashua, Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "climb- 
ing place," or "end of the mountain." 

Watannanuck Hill, Hillsboro County, N. H. Natick, "the place 
where we climb." 

Watanock River, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "land near the 
hill." 

Wataqua now Nashua River, in Worcester County, Mass. and 
Hillsboro County, N. H. Ahnaki, "a pickerel." 

Wataquadock Brook, Hill and Road, Worcester County, Mass. 
Nipmuck, "place where we get fire-wood; branches of trees;" 
or perhaps "lookout place." 

Watatick Pond and Mountain, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, 
"a mountain stream," or possibly "mountain covered 
with trees." Also perhaps, "wigwam river," or "lookout 
place." 

Watcha Pond, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "a hill." 

Watchamoquot Village, Providence County, R. L Narragansett, 
"place of the great spring" ? But see Watchemoket. 

Watchaug Pond, Washington County, R. L, and Brook, Hampden 
County, Mass. Nipmuck, "hill country." 



i8 



273 



Watchemoket Cove, Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "end 
of the fishing place." See Watchamoquot. 

Watchemoquit Cove and Neck, Bristol County, Mass. Narra- 
gansett, "end of fishing place," or "end of the cove." Also, 
Watchymoquett, Watchimoquet, etc. 

Watchemoyket see Watchamoquot. 

Watchic Pond, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the mountain." 
Variants, Watchig, Wachuk, Wadchuck, etc. 

Watchogash Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "near the moun- 
tains," or "mountain country." 

Watchoog Brook, Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the hill," 

or "hilly country." 
Watch quadnach Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at the end 

of the mountains." Other spellings Wech quadnach, Wequag- 

nock, etc. This was the site of a Moravian mission around 

1750. 
Watchusesic Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "at the small 

hill." 
Waternomee Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Pennacook? 

Ahnaki? "a place to climb." 
Water quechee Falls, Sullivan County, N. H. Same as Ottau- 

quechee Falls, Vt. 
Water queechy River, Windsor County, Vt. In this form the name 

is not Indian, but archaic English for "moist, damp, boggy 

ground." This is the same stream as the Ottau quechee River. 
Watesamoonsuck Hill, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 

"other side of the outlet" ? or "junction of brooks." ? 

Watoolwan Gamock St. John Pond, Somerset County, Me. Ah- 
naki, "good hunting from a canoe around this pond." 

Wattamatogue see Wallamatogus. 

Wattankshausepo an old name for Farmington River, Hartford 
County, Conn. Wangunk, "fast flowing stream with many 
turns." Also, Tunxis, Tunkseese, Tunckseapose. 

Wattanumon Brook, Merrimack County, N. H. Named for a 
Pennacook chief who died near Concord, 1632. 

Wattiomsk Middlesex County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the end of 
the rock" or "reef's end" or "rocky point." Also Watiomsque, 
Wattiomsquit, etc. 

274 



Wattoonug River, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "rocky 

place" ? 
Watunkshausepo Hartford County, Conn. Same as Tunxis, q. v. 

Watuppa Pond, Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "roots to be 
used in sewing," or "where we sit and talk" ? 

Watuppa Pond, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "roots" to 

use in sewing. 
Waubansconcett Middlesex County, Mass. Natick? Pennacook? 

"place of white rocks." 
Waubeoka Lake, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "a crossing 

place." 
Waubeyaussuc New London, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "a crossing 

place," "a passage" or "a strait." See Weybosset, R. I. 
Waubosset see Weybosset. 
Wauchimoqut see Watchamoquot. 
Waukeag Neck, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, "a great knoll." 

Waumbek Mountain, Coos County, N. H. Chippewa, "place of 

the white rock." 
Waumbekket Coos and Carroll Counties, N. H. Abnaki? "at the 

place of the white rocks." 
Waumbekketmethna Coos and Carroll Counties, N. H. Abnaki? 

Chippewa? "principal hills at the white rocks place;" the 

White Mountains. 
Waumpanickseepoot Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "place 

of a white foamy waterfall in the river." 

Waunashqua Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
end," or "summit." 

Waunnakeseag possibly at one of the Casco Bay Islands, Cumber- 
land County, Me. Abnaki, "place of the finely painted ones;" 
that is, "place of the mackerel." 

Waupanheeskit Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "small 
white falls." 

Wauregan Pond and Village, Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"a handsome thing." 

Waurenaug Fairfield County, Conn. Patigussett, "good place." 

Waushacum see Weshacum. 

Wauwaskepog see Usquebaug. 

i8* 275 



Wauwinet Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag; Wauwinet 

was an early sachem and counselor at Nantucket in 1660. 

The name approximates, "witness my hand," or "testify." 
Wauwonoquassick Fairfield County, Conn. Siwanoy? "witness 

rocks,"? or "witness rock boundary place."? 
Wawalona Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, said to be 

derived from the name of Wawaloam, the wife of Chief 

Miantonnomoh, prior to 1643. 

Wawashekit Providence County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 
carrying burdens on backs," that is, "a portage." 

Wawayontatt Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "winding 
creek." 

Wawaytick Creek, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "winding 
tidal creek." 

Wawecoes Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "mean- 
dering or twisting."? Also, Wawecoos, Wawwecous. 

Wawecus Hill, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, Wauwecus 
(Wauweekus or Wawequa) was a brother of the famous Uncas 
circa 1600. The name may mean "a swan," or "moonlight." 

Wawela Park, Worcester County, Mass. Pennacook, "white 
ducks." ? 

Wawenock Knox, Lincoln and Sagadahoc Counties, Me. Abnaki, 
"bay country" or "inlet places." Until 1730 ( ?) populated by 
Walinakiak, "people of the bay country" who moved to 
Canada. The last known speaker of the Walinakiak dialect 
died at Becancour, Quebec, in 1919. See Weeweenock. 

Waweonk Creek, Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "twisting 
stream," ? or "place of testimony," ? or "the bay or cove." 

Wawepoonseag Providence County, R. L Narragansett, "place 
where the stream overflows." (This is sometimes given as 
"place where birds are snared;" but such words are a des- 
cription of what happened there, rather than a translation of 
the name.) 

Wawobadenik the White Mountains, Coos, Grafton and Carroll 
Counties, N. H. Abnaki, "at the place of the white mountains." 
This name is also applied to Mt. Marcy, in the Adirondacks, 
New York. 

Wawog Pond, New London County, Conn. Nipmuck, "crooked 
pond." 

276 



Wawona Bristol County, Mass. NarragansettP "the turn."? 

Waworamawak New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "where 
the path -turns," or "place of turning." Also, Wanwaraneanauk 
and Warronawarack. 

Wawoskepog see Usquepaug. 

Wawuttaquatuck Washington County, R. I. Eastern Ni antic? 
NarragansettP "twisting, turning, meandering tidal stream." 

"Wawyachtanock Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place at the 

bend of the river" 
Wayanitoke Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 

Niantic, "twisting current" ? or "waves around a bend" ? 
Waybosset Neck; see Weybosset and Waypoiset. 

Waylumkituk Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "place of the 

round sandy cove." 
Waymessick Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "winding brook," 

or "distant brook." 
Waypoiset Narrows, Newport County, R. L Narragansett, "at the 

narrow place or strait." 
Wayunkeag Hill; see Wayunkeke. 
Wayunkeke Hill, Providence County, R. L Nipmtick, "at the 

bend," or "land at the bend." 
Waywaypounshag Bristol County, Mass. Narragansett, "twisting 

outlet." 
Wdamoganaspskak Aroostook County, Me. Abnaki, "at the place 

of the pipe rocks." 
Wdepsek Isle aux T^tes, in the Richelieu River north of Franklin 

County, Vt. Abnaki, "heads." Abnaki and Mohawk warriors 

exhibited heads of their enemies on this island. 

Weahtaqua Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "end of the creek." 

Weakpocoink Hill, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
end of the pond," or possibly "house poles place." 

Weantinock Fairfield County, Conn. Paugnssett? "where the 
water swirls and tumbles around a hill." Variants, Weanti- 
noque, Wiantenuck, Wyantenug, Weantinaug. 

Weantucket River, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 
"at the winding stream." Also Weatucket. 

Weataug see Weatogue. 

277 



Weatauwanchu Mountains, Litchfield County, Conn. Mohican, 
"wigwam shaped (dome shaped) mountain." 

Weatic Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at the (village of) 
wigwams." Also Wiatic. 

Weatogue Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "at the wigwams 
place," or "he is at home there." This Weatogue is at Sims- 
bury. Also, Wetawk. 

Weaxcashuck Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the end of 

the meadow or swamp." Variants, Wexcashuck, Weex- 

hashuck, Wixhassock, etc. 
Webatuck Stream, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "narrow 

stream," ? or "brant goose" ? 
Webhannet River and Village, York County, Me. Perhaps Ahnaki, 

"at the clear stream" ? 
Webomskat New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "narrow 

passages between rocks," ? or "at the white rock" ? See 

Wasquonasak and Obscob. 

Webotuck Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "river in the 

narrow pass, or gorge." 
Wecapaug Brook, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

"head of the pond," or "end of the pond." Also Wequapaug. 
Wecatheconnet Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "place at the 

end of the enclosed field," or "house in the enclosed field." 

Wechkotetuk Union River, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, (free 
translation), "going upstream, the canoeist is suddenly con- 
fronted by an impassible barrier." Literally, "coming out 
facing river falls." 

Wechquadnach see Wachquatnach. 

Wechquapackat Berkshire County, Mass. ? Mahican, "at the ex- 
treme point." Variants, Wickquapubon, Wichquapuchat, and 
Weekwapawcutt. 

Wecketuckett Brook, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the end of the stream" or "wading river." 

Weckwannuck Brook, now Sugar Loaf Brook, Hampden County, 
Mass. Nipmiick, "at the end of the hill." 

Wecoachett Meadow, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 
the end of the hill," or possibly "basswood hill place." 

Wecobaug see Wickabaug. 

278 



Wecobemeas New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "basswood," 

or "linden" or "tying-bark fiber." 
Wecopesuck a small rocky island at the end of Fisher's Island, 

south of Stonington, New London County, Conn. Narra- 

gansett, ''small object at the end." Also, Weekapeesuck, 

Wickaposset, Wicopesset, etc. 
Wecquaesgeek Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett? "at the end 

of the march." Sometimes given as (probably incorrectly) 

"birch bark kettle," or "birch bark place." This tribe was an 

important member of the Wappinger Confederacy, and was 

almost totally annihilated by a Dutch party in 1643 led by 

Capt. Underhill. Variants, Wechgaek, Wickerscreeke, and 

Weghquagsike. 
Wecuppemee Stream, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "linden 

or basswood inner bark" {wikopi), used for netting, string, 

rope, etc. 
Wecups Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "linden or basswood" ? 

Also Wekups. 
Wedebegek Knox County, Me. Malecite? Micmac? "head of the 

bay," the beginning of Penobscot Bay. 
Weeataug Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett? "place of the 

dwelling," or "at the wigwam." This place was near Salisbury; 

there was a Moravian mission built here around 1750. Also 

Wehtack, Wehtak, Wiatack, etc. 

Weechagaskas Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "place at the end 

of the rocks," or perhaps "rushes or flags for making mats." 
Weecodnoy Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end 

of the hill."? 
Weegoschook New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "near the 

mountain with birches on it." Also Wegasoeguck; but see 

Wachaqueage. 
Weekaasuck Island, Middlesex County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 

of the small house, or small wigwam," or "small wigwam near 

the outlet." Also, Weecasuk. 
Weekachommet see Wecatheconnet. 
Weekapaug Point, Village, Inlet and Pond, Washington County, 

R. I. Narragansett, "at the end of the pond." 
Weekasoak Brook, Rockingham County, N. H. Natick? Abnaki? 

"place of small dwelling" (near outlet?) 

279 



Weepatuck Mountain, Litchfield, County Conn. Mohican, "at the 

narrow passage, or gorge." 
Weepecket Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, possibly from 

Waubackuck, "white headed eagle," or "osprey."? 
Weepoiset Kent County, R. I. Narragcmsett, "at the small ford," 

or "the narrow strait." 
Weequakut Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end." 

Weequancett Neck, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 
place of the torch-light." 

Weeset Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "slippery place," 
or "shiny place." 

Weesquobs River, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "shin- 
ing rocks." These at the river mouth? There is a hint of 
torch-light along the stream, perhaps spearing eels? 

Weetamoe's Crossing, Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 
lodge keeper," or "house keeper," or "house wife." ? At this 
place Weetamoe was drowned in 1676; see below. 

Weetamoo Mountain, Grafton County, N. H. Weetamoo (or more 
commonly, Weetamoe) was the suncksqua, "female chief," 
of the Pocassets. 

Weeweantitt River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "the 
crooked river." 

Weeweeder Ponds, Nantucket County, Mass. From Wampanoag? 
"winding about." 

Weeweenock Lincoln County, Me. Probably the same as Wa- 
wenock, but Weeweenock is cognate with Natick words 
meaning "turning, bending, meandering" probably in re- 
ference to shore line. Other spellings Wewoonoc, Wewenoek, 
etc. See Weweantit, Weweantic, etc. 

Wegquapamisk Tolland County, Conn. Nipmuck, "at the rock 
summit," or "at the end of the rocks" or "rocks at end place." 
This was a boundary-mark at the western end of the Wab- 
aquasset country. 

Weguadnach see Wachquatnach. 

Weikeset Island, Middlesex County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
of the little tent or wigwam." See also Weekasoak. 

Weinshauks New London County, Conn. Pequot, "great rock 
cliff." 

280 



Wekapekatonnic Brook and Hill, Worcester County, Mass. 
Natick, "hill at the end of the divided brook" ? or "end of 
pond near hill" ? or "dwelling near the split mountain." ? 

Wekapekatonnuc Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "end of 
pond near the hill," or "hill at end of the branched stream." 

Wekopee Pond, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "wigwam or 
dwelling near pond," or "house near water." See also Wicopee. 

Wekowamadensees Bird Mountain, Rutland County, Vt. Abnaki, 
"little mountain shaped like (a hemispherical) Indian dwel- 
ling." 

"Wekwabigek Little River (Utloskes), Washington County, Me. 
Malecite, "end of the tidal part." 

Welokinbacook Lake, Androscoggin County, Me. Abnaki, "bay 
and cove place;" or "many curves and indentations." See 
also Wonunkapaugkook. 

Wembemiscook Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place of 
chestnuts," or "place of small white fruit." Also Wombe- 
misiscook, Wombemiscunck, Wombomesscock, etc. 

Wemesuck Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican? "council 
place." 

Wenachus Lake, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "a small bowl" ? 
or "chimney"? or "good hill"? perhaps, "berry hill"? Also, 
Wennuchus. 

Wenaniasoug Windham County, Conn. Mohegan? "end of (our) 
country;" a boundary mark. 

Wenashoge Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "grapes 
country" ? 

Wenatuxet Stream, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place 
of the good brook." Also, Wenatukset, Winnetuxet, etc. 

Wenaumet Bluffs, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the good fishing place," ? or "grapes here" ? 
Wenekei-amaug Hartford County, Conn. Agawam, "at the end of 

the fishing place," or "boundary fishing place." See Conga- 

mond. 

Wenekocamaug Lake, Hartford County, Conn. Tunxis, "near 
the boundary lake," or "fishing place at the boundary." 

Wenimessett Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the good 
fishing place" ? or "grape vines here." ? 

281 



Wenk wida wiwie wak Hermon Pond, Penobscot County, Me. 

Abnaki, "where stream enters, goes down." See Edawi- 

maniwick. 
Wennanatoke Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 

Niantic, ''winding river."? See Weynanitoke. 

Wentukset Stream, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at 

the good tidal stream." 
Wepansock Hartford County, Conn. Tiinxis, "narrow place," 

or "ravine" ? 
Wepaug Tolland County, Conn.? Nipmuck? "edge of the pond." 
Wepawaug Reservoir and River, New^ Haven County, Conn. 

Paugnssett, "narrows," or "crossing-place." 
Wepecket see Weepecket. 

Wepoiset Bristol County, Mass. N arragansett , "at or near the 

little ford." 
Wepoiset Providence County, R. I. N arragansett, "at the little 

ford, or crossing place." 
Wepowage New London County, Conn. Perhaps MoA^g<^n.'^ "at the 

narrows," or "at the crossing place." Variants, Weepowaug, 

Wypewoke, etc. 
Wequadnack Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at the end of 

the mountain." 
Wequaes Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the end or 

boundary." Variant, Uquaes. 
Wequagawaysuk First Falls, Eddington Bend, Penobscot County, 

Me. Micmac or Malecite, "head of the tide." 
Wequanhausick Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the end 

of the neck," or perhaps "abode of swans,"? or "at the end 

of the meadow" ? 
Wequanoc River, Plain and Island, Middlesex County, Conn. 

Western Niantic, "end of the hill." 
Wequanunk Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "stump of a tree," 

or perhaps "mortar for pounding corn" made out a tree stump. 
Wequapaug Brook, New London County, Conn. N arragansett, 

"at the end of the pond." Also Wecapaug, Weakapauge, We- 

kopag, Wickapog, Wequapoag, etc. 
Wequapaugset Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "at the end of 

the small pond." 

282 



Wequaquet Lake, Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, ''the 

shining place" ? or "torchlight place"? Possibly "swampy 

place" ?. 
Wequarunch New Haven County, Conn. Qiiinnipiac, "an upright 

rock at the end." 
Wequash Pond, now Wigwam Pond, Belknap County, N. H. 

Narragansett, "a swan." A Pequot sachem of this name died 

at Saybrook, Conn., in 1642. Also Wicwas, Wickwas. 
Wequashacke Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place of 

brightness, as of torches." 
Wequashcook New London County, Conn. Western Niantic, 

from the name of an Indian, Wequash-cuk, "it is probably 

true." ? But the roots indicate "place of the swans," or 

"bright shining place." 
Wequatuck Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at the 

end of the river." 
Wequatucket Cove and River, New London County, Conn. 

Eastern Niantic, "at the end of the tidal stream." 
Wequatuxet Cove, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "at 

the end of the small stream." 
Weqiiechackomuck see Wecatheconnet. 
Wequeenuck Swamp, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at 

the end of the hill." 
Wequehacke Berkshire County, Mass. ? Mahican, "at the end of 

the territory (or tract)." 
Wequepamish Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "place at the 

end of the rocks." 
Wequepogue Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "end 

of the pond," or "head of the pond." 
Wequetequock New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "place at 

the end of the tidal stream," or "as far as the river goes." 
Wequitaquage Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place at the 

end of the tidal stream," or "as far as the tidal stream goes." 

Wequittayaug Hampden County, Mass. Pocitmtuck, "land at the 
end of the cove." Variant, Wequettayag, "place at the end of 
the stream." 

Wequobsket Cliffs, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place at 
the end of the rocks." Given also as Wequobscut. 

283 



Weraumaug Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "good fishing 

place." 
Werewaug Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "good fishing place." 
Weronke Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "winding about." 

See Woronack, Woronoco, etc. 

Wescogus Pleasant River, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 

"shallow, rough, flowing over." 
Wesconnaug see Wishquodiniack. 

Wescunck Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett, "a stone pounding 
mortar," for making corn meal. 

Wescussauco Essex County, Mass. Pennacook? "end of the rocks." 
Also, Wessacaucon, Wessacumcon, Wissacumquan. 

Wescussue Fairfield County, Conn. From the name of a Paugussett 

Sachem; possible meaning, "he makes earthen pots."? 
Wesgustogo Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "at the mouth of 

the river." 
Weshacum Worcester County, Mass. Pennacook, "surface of the 

sea." See Waashacum, Washakum. 
Weshokastaneek see Wachocastinook. 
Weskeag Creek, Knox County, Me. See Wessaweskeag. 
Wesquacksaug Brook, Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "end 

place," or "source." 
Wesquadomeset Sayles Hill, Providence County, R. I. Nana- 

gansett, "place at the end of the hill"? or "place of walnut 

trees"? (from wussoquatomiset) . 
Wesquage Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "the 

end place;" a cove? (If Wisqussuk, the meaning would be 

"maker of clay pots.") 
Wesquantook New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "source 

of the river," or possibly "as far as this place." 
Wesquo Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "white, shiny 

stone" or "edge of cliff" ? Other spellings Wesco, Wesko, etc. 
Wesquobsk Cliffs, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the end 

of the cliff" or perhaps "white shiny rocks." Also found as 

Weskobs. 
Wessagusset Beach, Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the small 

salt water cove, or outlet," or "place at the edge of the rocks." 

Also Wessaguscus, Wessaquscus, etc. 

284 



Wessappicoassett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "edge 

of the resting place at the pine grove." 
Wessaweskeag Knox County, Me. Ahnaki, "tidal creek at the 

peninsula." Now Weskeag. Variant, Wessamesskek. 
Wesserunsett Stream, Somerset County, Me. Ahnaki, "bitter 

water place" ? Also, Wesserunsicke and Wesseronsaeg. 
Westconnaug Brook and Reservoir, Providence County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "place where walnut trees grow on the hill"? 

See Wesquadomeset. 

Westenhoek Berkshire County, Mass., and Litchfield County, 
Conn. This is not Indian, but Dutch; it is sometimes given 
as Western Chuck, "west corner;" often confused with 
Housatonic. 

Westgustoqua Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "place at 
the end of the river." Also given as "end of the cliff." 

Westotucket Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "at the 
river's end," or "as far as the end of the stream." 

Westquodniake see Wesquadomeset. 

Wesumpsha Path, Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk? Natick? 
"shining or glistening rocks." 

Weswick Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, "tide runs out, salt bay 
here," or "commonly bordered with salt-marsh growth, creek 
runs dry or nearly so at low tide." Also Whiskeag. 

Wetauk see Weatogue. 

Wetau Wadchu Brook and Mountain, Litchfield County, Conn. 
Mahican, "dwelling place on the mountain," or "wigwam 
shaped mountain." Also, Wetawanchu, Weetauwachon, 
Wetautauwachon, etc. 

Wetchi sankasek Sunkhaze Stream, Penobscot County, Me. 

Ahnaki, "concealing outlet." 
Wethunganet Creek, Kent County, R. L Narragansett, "house on 

the other side." 
Wetuset see Wachusett. 
Wewaskepaug see Usquebaug. 
Weweantic River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "crooked 

stream," or "stream that wanders about." 
Weweantit Washington County, Me. Ahnaki? Natick? "winding, 

twisting river." 

285 



Weweeder Creek, Nantucket County, Mass. Wampanoag, "wind- 
ing about." 
Wewensett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the abode 

of horned creatures," probably deer. 
Wexcodowa New London County, Conn. Pequot-Mohegan, "as 

far as the end of the brook." See Wexquapaug. 
Wexquapaug New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "as 

far as the pond (extends)." 
Weybosset see Wapwayset. 
Weynaniloke Point Judith, Washington County, R. I. Eastern 

Niantic, "a sweep around a high point" ? or "winding river." ? 
Weyouchaug Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "as far as the 

mountain" or "at the end of the mountain." Also given as 

Weyeouchaug, Weyouchaugguck. 

Whakepee Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, perhaps wickopy 

or "tying-bark;" possibly "swamp." 
Which quopuhbau Berkshire County, Mass. This is in the southwest 

corner of the state. Mahican, "at the end of the fiat place," or 

"at the end of the fork in the trail." ? Also, Wichquapuchat. 
Whiskeag Creek, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, "creek runs 

nearly dry at low tide." 
Wianno Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, from the name 

of Chief lyannough (or Wianno), "He who wages war." 
Wianumcisses New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "good 

little fish." Also, Wyanemesis. 
Wiashquagwunsuck Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "good 

brook at the end of the meadow." 
Wiatik Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "village of wigwams." 

Also Weatic, Wiatik. 
Wichetseconnet see Wecatheconnet. 
Wichigaskitaywick Wiscasset, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "at 

the river outlet." 
Wickabaug Pond, Worcester County, Mass. Natick, "at the head 

of the pond." Also, Wickabog, Wickapogue, etc. 
Wickaboxet Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "end of the small 

pond," or "as far as the small pond." 
Wickaboxet Pond and State Forest, Kent County, R. I. Narra- 

gansett, "at the end of the small pond." 

286 



Wickapicket Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "among 
the basswoods," or "where we get wickopy (tying-bark)." 
Possibly, from Sachem Wickobema, whose name means 
"basswood." But see also Wickabaug. 

Wickasauke Island, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick? Penna- 

cookP "house at the end of the outlet." Also, Wickasaukee, 

Wicosuck, Wehquasuck, etc. 
Wickalaquay Dukes County, Mass. Narragansett, "at the end of 

the pond," or possibly "the house at the end." 
Wicketaquock see Wequatucket. 
Wicketiquack see Wequatucket. 
Wickwas see Wequash. 
Wicopee Hill, Windham County, Vt. Abnaki, ''tying bark." This 

is the bast from which cord is made. 
Wigudi River, Aroostook County, Me. ? Old Abnaki, "canoe."? 

Wigwam Perhaps a score of place names in New England in- 
corporate this term, as Wigwam Hill, Wigwam Pond, Wigwam 
Brook, etc. All of them derive from the Algonquian wigwam, 
meaning "a dwelling, habitation, or lodge." These were 
rounded or conical structures usually covered with bark or 
rush matting, or occasionally, hides. They are not the buffalo- 
hide tipi of the Plains peoples. 

Wikapokotownow Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "village 
at the end of the pond," or "hill at the end of the divided 
brook" ? See also Wekapekatonnic. 

Williguaganum Grand Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki? 

Malecite? "good lake but so shallow I have to drag my 

canoe." 
Willimansett Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place of red 

earth," ? or "good berries place." ? 

Willimantic Reservoir and River, Tolland County, and City, 
Windham County, Conn. Mohegan, "good cedar swamp." 
Also Waramanticut, Wallamanticuk, Wewemantic, Weamman- 
tuck. 

Willimantic Village, Piscataquis County, Me. Nipmuck, "good 
cedar swamp." 

Wimpeting Litchfield County, Conn? Mahican, "ruinous heap," ? 
or "pile of discarded goods." ? 

287 



Winatompic Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "place 
at the top of the rock," ? or "place at the end of the rocks." ? 

Wincheck Pond, Washington County, R. I. Nipmiick, "at the 
pleasant place." 

Wincittico River, Shepscot River, Lincoln County, Me. Abnakt, 
"crooked river," or "winding river." 

Winechaug Mountain, Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "good 

mountain;" but if Minnechaug, "berry mountain." 
Winegegwok Island Pond, Cheshire County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"abode of otters." Sometimes found as Wnegigwak. 
Winichahanet at Dover Point, Strafford County, N. H. Abnaki, 

"current flows around this place." Also, Winnechahanett. 
Wiiiicowett Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "place of good 

pines." 
Winkompaugh Brook and Village, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki? 

"a good enclosed pond." 
Winnapauckett Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

good pond." 
Winnapaug Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "a 

good pond." 
Winnapauket Kent County, R. I. Narragansett, "land or place at 

the good pond." 
Winnatuxet Brook, Norfolk and Plymouth County, Mass. Natick, 

"at the good brook." Also Winnatuckset. 
Winneagwamuk Bagaduce River, Hancock County, Me. Abnaki, 

"around the place where we pull the canoes out," or "at the 

portage-place." 
Winneamkeak Washington County, Me. Abnaki, "at the rough, 

sandy bank." 
Winneashimut Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "at the good 

spring." (Otherwise Winnesummet. These are old names for 

Chelsea.) 
Winneasquam Essex County, Mass. Natick, "beautiful red rock 

summit." 
Winnebassakek near South Wolfeboro, Carroll County, N. H. 

Abnaki, "portage at the outlet." 
Winnechahannet Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "current 

flows around this place." 

288 



Winnecook Village, Waldo County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the portage." 

Winnecott or Winnecowet River, Rockingham County, N. H. 

Pennacook, "where water flows out." Sometimes translated, 

"at the portage." 
Winnecumek near Hampton Falls, Rockingham County, N. H. 

Ahnaki, "narrow, closed-in portage." Also, Winnecumet and 

Winnecimnet. 
Winnecuimet or Winneconnet Bristol County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"at the place of the good (or beautiful) pines." ? 
Winnegance East Boothbay, Lincoln County, Me. Ahnaki, "the 

little portage." Also at Bath, Sagadahoc County, Me. Variants, 

Winneqansek, Winneqansege, Winniqans, Winnaganset, etc. 

Winnegance Bay and Creek, Sagadahoc County, Me. Ahnaki, 

"little portage," or "little carrying place." 
Winnekeag Lake, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmiick, "good 

fishing place." 
Winnemaug Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "good 

fishing place." 
Winnemisset Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place 

of grape vines." Also Winnimisset. 
Winnemoiset Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "good resting place." 

Winnepesaukee Lake, Belknap and Carroll Counties, N. H. This 
name, which has more than one hundred acceptable spellings, 
is Pennacook. Two of the most reasonable translations are 
"land around the lakes," and "land at outlets around here." 
Some favor Winipisiocket, "at the good lake marsh," or 
"good black earth around the lake." See pages 6-7. 

Winnepoeket Lake, Merrimack County, N. H. Ahnaki, "at the 
portage from the pond." Another spelling is Winnepauket. 

Winnepuck Fairfield County, Conn. Paugussett? "good water" 
or "good pond." 

Winnesmnmet see Winneashimut. 

Winnetuxet River, Bristol County, and Brook, Plymouth County, 
Mass. Wampanoag, "at the good little river," or "near the 
good brook." 

Winnianebiskek Alton Bay, Belknap County, N. H. Ahnaki, "the 
land around the lake." The late Chester A. Price's translation 
is "where water flows down from the narrow part of the lake." 

19 289 



Winnicutt Great Bay, Rockingham County, N. H. Abnaki, "at 

the portage." Also, Winnicott. 
Winnimisset Brook, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, ''near 

the grape vines." Another source gives "deep place or valley." 
Winnipauk Village, Fairfield County, Conn. Mahican, "beautiful 

pond." Winnipauk was a Sachem of Norwalk in 1640. 
Winnipeseekett Essex County, Mass. Pennacook, "land of good 

water all around" ? or Natick, "place of good outlets." ? 
Winnisimmet Suffolk County, Mass. Natick, "fine spring." 

Named for Chief Winnisimmet, Sachem of Chelsea in 1625. 
Winnisquam Lake, Belknap County, N. H. Abnaki, "salmon 

fishing around here" or "salmon fishing at lake outlet." 
Winnocks Neck, Cumberland County, Me. Abnaki, "good place." 
Winona Belknap County, N. H. Chippewa, "first born daughter." 

In Longfellow's poem, Winona was Nokomis' daughter, and 

the mother of Hiawatha. 
Winooskeek an ancient village at the mouth of the Winooski 

River. Abnaki, "wild onion place." 
Winooski City and River, Chittenden and Washington Counties, 

Vt. Abnaki, "wild onions." 
Winooskitook literally the Winooski River in Vermont. Abnaki, 

"wild onion river." 
Winotimies River, Middlesex County, Mass. Natick, "single deep 

place," or "solitary valley." 
Winsachewett New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

"place of the good mountain," ? or "at the brink or edge of 

mountain cliff."? 
Winskeag Otter Creek Point, Mt. Desert Island, Hancock County, 

Me. Abnaki, "long point." 
Winsochook New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "at the rocky 

cliff" ? or "at the mountain" ? 
Wintechog Hill, New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, 

possibly a modification of Minnechog, "berry place." 
Wintoak the lower part of the Lamoille River, Chittenden County, 

Vt. Abnaki, "bone-marrow river"? Also Wintaak, "bad 

sounding." 
Wintucket Cove, Dukes County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the good 

tidal creek." 

290 



Winyah Bay, Dukes County, Mass. Modified name of Winy aw 
Indians, a now extinct and little-known Siouan tribe of 
North Carolina. 

Wionhege "land at the bend.'' See Wayunkeke. 

Wionkhiege see Wayunkeke. 

Wiquasseck Litchfield County, Conn. Mahicanl "place at the end 
of the marsh.'' 

Wisawogamak the narrows between Ferrisburg, Addison County, 
Vt. and Essex County, N. Y. Abnaki, "straits or narrows." 

Wiscasset Village, Lincoln County, Me. Abnaki, "at the hidden 
outlet." See Wetchi Sankasek and Wichigaskitaywick. 

Wiscogosis Lower Sabao Lake, Washington County, Me. Abnaki, 
"lakes strung along." 

Wisconemuck Pond, Hillsboro County, N. H. Pennacook, "place 
of walnut trees" ? or "pottery making place." ? 

Wishoea Pond, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 
end," ? or "kettle shaped." Variant, Wishoea. 

Wishquagawans Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "mist over 
the end of the meadows." 

Wishquodiniack Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "place of the 
walnut trees." Also, Wishquatenniog, Wussoquatak, etc. 

Wisquades New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "little earthen 
pot." 

Wissatinnewag Franklin County, Mass. ? Mahican, "slippery 
hill" ? or Nipmuck, "shining hill" ? This was an ancient village 
somewhere on the Connecticut River, 1663. 

WiwHiameeq the dreaded "monster-of-the-water" which fea- 
tures in Maine and New Brunswick Indian legends. The 
death-thrashings of this horrible beast keeps the water roily 
in Boyden's Lake, Washington County, Me. Present day 
Indians derisively call common snails by this name. 

Wiwinam River, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "winding" ? 
Or modified Paugussett, "grape."? See Weweantic. 

Wnahtookook Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "land at the end 
of the river." Sometimes translated, "great meadow near the 
river." Also Wnoghquetookoke. 

Wnoghquetookoke Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "land at 
the end of the river (great meadow)." ? 

19* 291 



Wobegilseebis Goose Creek, Addison County, Vt. Abnaki, li- 
terally * 'goose creek/* 

Woboostook Baker Stream, Somerset County, Me. Abnaki, 
"white water (or clear water) river/' 

Wochokieskquas Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, ''place near the 
mountains." 

Wochsquammuguck Brook, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"salmon fishing place." 

Woepecket see Weepecket. 

Wojahosen Rock Dunder, Chittenden County, Vt. Abnaki, "For- 
bidder's Rock." This boulder, sometimes called "Guardian 
Rock," figures prominently in folk lore. 

Wokonocob River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, "edge 
(or end) of the rocks" (or "curved ledge" ?) 

Wollamansak sepe Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "red- 
earth country stream." 

Wollimosset see Molligwasset. 

Wolomonopaug Norfolk County, Mass. Pennacook? "red paint 
pond" ? Also Wolomopoag. 

Wolomopoag Pond, Norfolk County, Mass. Nipmuck, "beautiful 
pond" or "shallow pond," (perhaps "dog pond" ?). 

Wolopeconnet Pond, Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, 
"shallow enclosed cove," or perhaps "fine cleared land." 

Wombemando Island, Penobscot County, Me. Abnaki, "white 
devil." This term was applied to Maj. Robert Rogers of the 
Rangers, who surprised and burned St. Francis in 1759. 

Wombemesisacook Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "place 
of the white fruit, or white nuts;" chestnuts. Also Wombam- 
sicunk, Wombameescock, etc. 

Womenshenick Brook, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place 
of steep rocks." 

Wonalancet Mountain and Village, Carroll County, N. H. Penna- 
cook, Wonalancet, "The Governor," was a great Pennacook 
chief who led his people to new homes in Canada during the 
middle 1670's. 

Wonasquam see Annisquam. 

Wonasquatuckett Stream, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 
"at the end of the tidal stream." 

292 



Wonastitguk meadows at West River, Windham County, Vt. 

Abnaki, ''place at the end of the river." 
Wonchesick see Woonsechocksett. 
Wonckompsk Brook, Hampden County, Mass. Mohican? "end of 

the rocks," or "rocky bend" ? Also given as Wanckompss. 
Wongateeg Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "place at the bend." 
Wongatuck or Wongattuck, see Wanungatuck. 
Wongonshock see Wongimshoake, below. 
Wongum Middlesex County, Conn. Wangtmk, "a bend." 
Wongumbaug Lake, Tolland County, Conn. Mohegan, "overflowed 

pond," or Nipmuck, "crooked pond." 
Wongiin Hampshire County, Mass. Nipmuck, "the bend." 
Wongimk Hartford County, Conn. Wangunk, "the bend" in the 

Connecticut River at Glastonbury. This gave the name to the 

Wangunk tribe which controlled a large area. 
Wongunshoake Hartford County, Conn. Mohegan, "place at the 

bend." See Ungwonshackook. 
Wonickcomquacke River, Plymouth County, Mass. Wampanoag, 

"long crooked marsh," ? or "meadow swamp place" ? Another 

spelling, Wonocomquake. 

Wonkees-ohke "fox country;" another name for King Philip. 
Wonkemaug Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "fish 

curing place at the bend of the river." 
Wonketopic see Wanchatopeck. 

Wonkituck Windham County, Conn. Nipmuck, "crooked river." 
Wonkkecomaug see Wonkemaug. 
Wonksacoxet see Woonksechocksett. 
Wonksunkamug Pond, Hartford County, Conn. Mahican ? "fishing 

place at the bend in the stream." 
Woonashquoom see Annisquam. 
Wonnehockset Merrimack County, N. H. Pennacook, "at the place 

of the beautiful trees." Variants, Hooksett, Onnahookset. 
Wonnmnetonomy see Wannemetonomy. 
Wonococomaug Pond, Hartford County, Conn. Nipmuck, "fish 

weir" ? or "fishing place" ? 
Wonokakeetookeese Little Otter Creek, Addison County, Vt. 

Abnaki, "little river abode of otters." 

293 



Wonomenok Pond, Cheshire County, N. H. Now Monomonock 

Lake, q. v. 
Wononke New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "hollow place;" 

probably one of the glacial kettle holes. 
Wononkpakoonk Litchfield County, Conn. ? Mahican, "an open 

place;" from Wunnompamukqitok, or Wunnompeukonat? 
Wononpacook Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "land at 

the bend of the pond." 
Wononsco Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "place at the 

bend of the pond." 
Wononskopomuc Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "rocks 

at the bend in the lake." 
Wonimkapaugkook Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. Paugussett, 

"rocky point where the lake bends." 
Woodtick New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac? "boughs, 

branches, or limbs," (wudtuckquash) or "piece of wood," 

(wudtukqun.) 
Wookutcakoospa Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "at the 

top of the rocky cliff," ? or "rock-lined pool or well." ? 
Woolamonuppoque Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "red pond." 
Woolastookwaguamok Baker Lake, Somerset County, Me. Ab- 

naki, "near the source of the beautiful river," (the St. John's 

River) . 

"Woonachasset Coasters Harbor Island, Newport County, R. I. 

Narragansett, "crooked little hill,"? or "at the place of se- 
paration;" that is, a boundary mark? 
Woonasquatucket Park, Reservoir and River, Providence County, 

R. L Narragansett, "at the head of the tidal river" (as far as 

the tide goes, not the source?) 
Woonksechocksett Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "fox 

country." See Chocksett. Another spelling, Wonksacoxet. 
Woonsocket City, Hill and Reservoir, Providence County, R. I. 

Nipmuck, "place of steep descent." (Or "two brook place," 

from Niswesocket.) 
Wopowage Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the narrows," 

or "at the crossing place." 
Wopowog Middlesex County, Conn. Wangunk, "a crossing 

place." 

294 



Woquogonset Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, ''at the 
end of the plain/' or "as far as the place at the plain." 

"Woronock New Haven County, Conn. Quinnipiac, "turning place'* 
or "winding stream" ? Also Oronoke. See "Woronoco. 

Woronoco Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "winding about." 
Other spellings, Woronoack, Worrinoke, Warronoco, etc. 

Worromotogus Kennebec County, Me. Ahnaki, "coves in brook," 

near Pittston. See Wallamatogus. 
Worumbo Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "a cove or bay." 
Woruntuck an ancient Massachusetts village; location uncertain. 

Mohican? "winding river." 
Wotchaugh Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "hill 

place." 
Wotesamoonsuck Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, 

"junction of brooks." 
Wowoskepaug see Usquepaug. 
Woxadowa see Wecapaug. 
Wtakantschan Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, "great wooded 

mountain." This is the same as Taghkanick, q. v. 

Wullamanic Hill, Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

place of red paint." 
Wune Wahjet (Indian Hill Cemetery) Middlesex County, Conn. 

Wangunk? Natick? "at the place of the good mountain," of 

"on the beautiful hill." 
Wunnamuktukoogk Barnstable County, Mass. Wampanoag, "g00^ 

fishing place at the river." 
Wunnaqueckset Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the end" 

or "end-place." (Probably a boundary mark.) 

Wunnashowatuckqut Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "wher* 

the river splits" or "at the river fork." 
Wunnegimset Hill, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "bowl 

shaped place." 
Wunnompamukquock Fairfield County, Conn. Wappinger, "in 

the open place;" an intervale. See also, Wononkpakook. 

Wunohke Norfolk County, Mass. Natick, "good land." 

Wuskowhananaukit Worcester County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at th:4 
abode of pigeons," or "pigeon country." 

395 



Wussquackheag see Squakheag. 

Wussquamhegonset places below the falls on tributaries to the Pe- 
nobscot River, Me. Penohscot-Ahnaki , "at the place where 
fish can be scooped out in a net." See also Quamphegan. 

Wuthommonassak River, New Haven County, Conn. Hammo- 
nassett, "at the small well" ? See Hammonassett. 

Wuttochoquisk Tolland County, Conn. Nifmuck, "rocky hill." 
Variants, Wachaqueage and Wochokeisqiias. 

Wuttoonug River, Fairfield County, Conn. Mohican, "rocky 
place." 

Wyantenuc Litchfield County, Conn. Mahican, "at the parley- 
place." Possibly this was the council place near Bantam. 

Wyapumscut Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "place of 
rushes,"? or "place at end of rocks."? Another source gives 
"hill (or rocky hill) at end of cove." Variant, Wyaxcumscut. 

Wyasup Lake, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "flags, or 
wild flax, or rushes." 

Wyben Hampden County, Mass. Nipmitck, "white stuff" (possibly 
a fabric made from inner bark.) 

Wyngaersheek Essex County, Mass. Not an Indian name, but 
Dutch: Wyngaer's Hoek, i. e., Wyngaer's Point. 

Wyoma Lake, Essex County, Mass. Natick, "a gathering," ? or 
Delaware, "a flat place" ? 

Wyoming Essex County, Mass. and Washington County, R. I. 
Delaware, "the large prairie." 

Wytopitlock Village, Aroostook County, Me. Ahnaki, "at the 
place where there are alders." 

-X- 

Xsebem Moosehead Lake, Piscataquis County, Me. Ahnaki, 
"extensive water," or "big lake." 

-Y- 

Yacum Hill, Hillsboro County, N. H. No satisfactory translation. 

If Indian, perhaps Natick, "yonder house." 
Yageshon Bear Notch, Orange County, Vt. Mohawk, "among the 

rocks." 

296 



Yagompoh Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "that 

opening (mouth of stream) is crooked." 
Yagompsh New London County, Conn. Narragansett, "on that 

side of the rock," or "extended rocks." 
Yagunsk New London County, Conn. Eastern Niantic, "on that 

side of the rock" or "extended rocks." 
Yankee Tuladi Brook, Aroostook County, Me. EngHsh and 

Malecite, "togue" or "nammycush," or "fork-tailed trout," 

but see Tulanic. 
Yanondasa hills in Essex County, Vt. Huron, "small mountains, 

or foothills." 
Yantic River and Village, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 

"as far as the tide goes up this side of the river." 

Yantuc River, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "extended 
river," or "going as far as the tidal stream;" also "on that 
side (one side) of the stream." Other spellings Yomtack and 
Yontahque. 

Yantuckkoyog Windham County, Conn. ? Mohegan, "boundary 
place of the extended stream," or "source of the stream"? 

Yashkwongunnuck Pond, New London County, Conn. Mohegan, 
"place of the extended pond or lake or fishing place." Other 
spellings, Yoskcowwongamuck and Yaskowunganuck, some- 
times translated as "extended bends." 

Yaubucks New London County, Conn. Mohegan? "on that side 
(or one side) of the small pond." 

Yawgobby New London County, Conn. Mohegan, "extended 
rocks." 

Yawgoo Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "red 
pond" ? or "fire place" ? or "as far as this place" ? Variants, 
Yawgoag, Yawgoog, Yawgook, Yawcook. 

Yawgoog Pond, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "one 
side of the pond," or perhaps "here are many lice." 

Yawgimsk Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "as 
far as that rock." 

Yayompoh Brook, Washington County, R. I. Narragansett, "that 
opening (mouth of stream) is crooked." Also Yogompoh. 

Yeapskasset River, York County, Me. Ahnaki, "near that big 
rock." 

297 



Yecompsky New London County, or Windham County, Conn. ? 

Mohegan, "as far as those rocks." (A boundary marker.) 

Also Yeeompsky and Yeeomskgie. 
Yennenstyaks Frankhn County, Vt. Mohawk? "one breaks corn 

grain" or "corn seeds broken by crushing." Possibly the site 

of extensive corn meal grinding. 
Yeushquatuck Windham County, Conn. Mohegan? or Pequot? 

"as far as the river extends," or "as far as the end of the 

river." 
Yewtack New London County, Conn. ? Mohegan- Pequot, "fire 

place." Yotaanit is given as "fire-god" by Roger Williams. 
Yocum Pond, Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, from the name 

of Sagamore Yokun, or "Captain Yoghum." Also Yokun. 
Yokiin Seat (Mountain), Berkshire County, Mass. Mahican, 

from the name of Chief Yokun, or Yoghum, a Stockbridge 

who aided Jonathan Edwards in 1788. 
Yomtack see Yantuc. 
Yomtonoc Washington County, R. I. Eastern Niantic, "flood 

tide there." Variant, Yomtunnock. 
Yontahque see Yantuc. 
Yoskowwimganuck see Yashkwongunnuck. 
Yotenyatarokte Lake Champlain below the Narrows, Rutland 

County, Vt. Mohawk, "end of the lake." (Found in older 

works as Caniaderi-Oit, "tail of the lake.") 
Yowimck homuck Hampden County, Mass. Nipmuck, "at the 

other side, or end, of that field." 

-z- 

Zooquageers a name applied to the Ahnakis along Lake Champ- 
lain, Vt. by themselves and their relatives. Probably from 
Ahnaki, Sokokis, "those of the southern part," or "those of 
the river outlet." Variant, Zooquagees. 



298 



APPENDIX 



The following section presents a glossary of the most common 
root words found incorporated into various Algonquian place 
names. In the first column are the English equivalents, arranged 
alphabetically, giving as closely as is possible the sense conveyed 
by the Algonquian term. In the second column are those place 
names found in Northern New England, (NNE), which incor- 
porate these roots, together with variant forms. 

The third column, in italics, lists the root itself which has been 
incorporated into the preceding place name. Literal translations 
are included to more clearly explain the usage. 

In the fourth column are those place names more commonly 
found in Southern New England dialects, (SNE), and the final 
column again gives the root term found in the preceding, as well 
as literal interpretations. 

It is the hope of the compiler that this wiU enable the interested 
r.eader to make further analyses of Algonquian geographical terms, 
and also that it will more clearly reveal the methods whereby the 
Indian joined various phonemes to form such place names. 



300 



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Capecorpus 
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"deer meat' 
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368 



PLACE NAME GLOSSARY 



Abandoned lands, Tawawag 
Abnaki spring, Tekebisek, T'Kope- 

suck 
Acorns, Anchamaunnack, Kache- 

walunk 
Adder snakes, Iroquois 
Alder place, Wytopitlock 
Alewives, Ma-adameg, Madahumuck, 

Madamascontee, Meddybemps 
Alexander, Wamsutta 
Ancient beaver hunting, Koghserage 
Arrow place, Pakwakek 
Artificial outlet, Sahkahegan 

Bald eagle, Sowangan 

Bare rock, Punkups 

Bark cabin stream, AUagash 

Basket, Munt, Nootash 

Beads, Sawacook, Sawgogue, Shee- 

hauge, Wampum 
Bear's den, Pegansic, Puckhunkon- 

nuck, Squapan 
Beautiful island, Gawenio 
Beautiful river, Aroostook, Ohio, 

Oloostook, Wallastook, Walloom- 

sac 
Beautiful valley, Genesee 
Beaver, Dawinehpeh, Gaentake, Ho- 

chelaga, Jamaica, Oselaga, Seki- 

dawe, Shumack, Sumpauge, Sym- 

paug, Tamonquas, T'makwa, To- 

maquag; also Koghserage 
Bend in stream, Walintuk, Wangan, 

Wankinco, Wonckompsk, Won- 

gum, Wongunk, Wonkemaug, Wo- 

ronoco 
Berry mountain, Attitash, Minne- 

chaug, Minnechoag 
Big boulder, Cutchegun, Massekump 
Big shoulders, Moosamuttuck 
Big still water, Jimskitikuk 
Bird carvings, Sepsis-edal-apskit 
Bittern Kaskoi, Kaskoo, Tallawan- 

da, Taquahunga, Tihonet 
Black feather, Sassaquin, Tisquaquin 



Black earth, Metewemesick, Metta- 
wee, Saccanossett, Sassucksuck, 
Sicaog, Sicojoeke 

Black potion, Osceola 

Black Sachem, Tisquaquin 

Black William Manatohqua 

Blessed hereafter, Ponemah 

Blood-brother, Netop 

Boards, Chimenasanganum, Dekas- 
wenkarorens, K'chi p'saganum, 
Menes-saganaganis, Psiscontic, 

Wabasgach, Wabossagock 

Bog, Hassacky, Maasbaak, Macwa- 
hoc, Magawok, Maspenock, Massa- 
co, Megwak-angamik, Narragua- 
gus, Quack, Quag, Tatamuckata- 
kis, Tatomuck 

Boundary, Bunganut, Bungee, Ca- 
nangogum, Chaubongum, Cheebee 
At que, Neutaqunkanet, Notacon- 
kanut, Pepemightughk, Topabsqua 

Bowl, Onagunset, Wunnegunset 

Breakers, Pemategu 

Breast, Tacoma, Uncanoonuc 

Burnt land, Pataweekongomoc, Qua- 
wejoos, Schodack, Schohomogo- 
moc, Scoodeag, Wallempteweekek 

Canoe harbors, Agawam, Aigio com- 
muck, Bedabek, Cataumet, Cata- 
wamkeak, Meniekec, Mishaum, 
Shawomet, Shawmut, Tahonwen- 
ta, Tolam 

Caribou, Magallo, Magurrewock, Me- 
gurrewock 

Caribou trail, Mugaleep-ahwangan 

Carrying place, Deyehonwakwatha, 
Mannamoiset, Mishimayagat, Ma- 
namoyik Neekounegan, Ounega- 
nisis, Pewagon, Unaganek, Winne- 
cook, Winnegance 

Carvings on rock, Assonet, Hoosic, 
Hoosic whisic Humolatski hegon, 
Sepsis-edal-apskit 



24 



369 



Catamount, Lunksoos, Quoquinna 
Cats, Poohookapaug, Poohpoosaug 
Cemetery, Bosquenaghook, Pone- 

mah, Wune Wahjet 
Chestnuts, Wampnesick, Wombe- 

mesisacook 
Chief's house, Pometacomet, Sachi- 

mo Comaco 
Chipmunk, Anequasset, Anqueet 
Circler, Uncas, Wonkees-ohke 
Clams, Essick, Poquahaug, Quahog 
Codfish, Pacamkik 
Cold spring, Takebi-suk, T'Kopesuck 
Cold stream, Ammadamast, Sankaty, 

Scituate 
Cornfield, Nutskamongan, Tawawag 
Com grinding, Nokhigan, Samp Mor- 
tar, Taghomiuay, Tagwahogan, 
Tagwonk, Takemmy, Takwangan, 
TomhoUisick, Yennenstyaks 
Corn harvest, Scammon, Sconunga- 

nuc, Skamonikoos 
Cowardly Spirit's rock, Regiochne, 
Rodsio Ganyatare, Rogeo Rottsi- 
ichni 
Cranberry, Omquemenikeag, Sasa- 

gacha, Sassamon, Sassaquin 
Crane, Kaskoi, Tallawanda, Ta- 

quahunga, Tihonet 
"Crouching Panther," Tecumseh 
Curing fish, Ahmelagognetercook, 
Ameriscoggin, Amessecantee, Am- 
macongan, Amoskeag, Arrockau- 
mecook, Atgatogwisas, Comphegan 
Congamond, Skipmaug, Wuss- 
quamhegonset, 

Dancing, Alnobaganock, Nodawan- 

gak, Pauchauog, Pomagusset, 

Pompanuck, Popumossett 
Dawn land, Abenaki, Abnaki, Wam- 

panoag, Wapanaki, Wapping 
Dead water, Jimskitikuk, Skaki, 

Skitticook 
Deep, Merrimac, Mollywooket, Mo- 

lunkes, Mona, Monoosuck, Moo- 

nassachuet, Temiscouata 
Deer, Askenonten, Nohlkai, Nolkai- 

anak, Ohskenonton 
Defender. Uncas 



Destroyers, Pequod, Pequot, Pequt 

toog 
Devil's Den, Madahondo apskwa 
Dirty mountain, Quagachusque, Qua- 

weejoos 
Divided, see SpUt 
Dog, Almouchicoisen, Alum, Atie 
Double hill. Papas quash, Paupas- 

quachuke, Popsquatchet 
Double pond, Petow Pargow,"^ Poco- 

topaug 
Double stream, Nissitisset, Pampas- 

keshanke 
Down-hill, Penacook, Penecoog 
Drowned land, Maasbaak, Onderi- 

guegon 
Duck, Colicum, Darangowa, Kwik- 

wemes, Quacumquasset, Sabag- 

wilha, Shecoway, Sip, Sipsaconta, 

Umcolcus, Umcolquis, Ungowa- 

umsock, Wawela 

Eagle, Millimagassett, Sennemah- 
gesso, Sowangan, Swango, Wee- 
pecket 

Eels, Gonomo, Gushankamaug, Ken- 
duskeag, Kochisuk, Konomoc, Ma- 
guaguayic, Mettuckquashapock, 
Naamkeak, Nahumkeag, Naum- 
keag, Nequamwicke, Nesenkeag, 
Nesopack, Onshaukamaug, Sassa- 
wich, Skunkamug, Tabusintac, 
Taubakonommock, Unshemamuck 

Eggs, Owweonhungganuck 

EngUshmen, Scammon, Swank wahi- 
ganus 

Extended current, Pemigewasset 

Extended fog, Panawansot 

Extended land, Pemaquid 

Extended mountains, Pemadnek, 
Pemadinisikek 

Extended rocks, Seremobscus 

Extending water, Pannaway 

Extinct seals, Hahkik Watpuk 

Falls in river, Bashbish, Mali Panjah- 
lok, Nahnek-bahntik, Netahme 
Puntook, Panatucket, Pantigo, 
Pantook, Pantukket, Pat-higget, 
Patuxet, Pawtucket, Sahnghib 
pahntook 



370 



Feather, Kutshamakin, Massasoit, 
Osamequin, Sassaquin, Tiasquam 
Tisquaquin, Wappoquian 
Fertilizer, Koo.masabunkawitt, Me- 
nada, Munnatawkit, Namaskeese, 
Namassakeeset 
"Finely painted," Waunnakeseag 
Fire, Bomoseen, Cabassauk, Chacka- 
cust, Cheekheek, Chequaquet, 
Chickatawbut, Edjida Waskodek, 
Mahackemo, M'skutook, Schodack, 
Schohomogomoc, Schoodic, Yew- 
tack 
First-born daughter, Winona 
Fish, Amaseconti, Amoskeag, Cano- 
za, Chamcook, Cobossecontee, Ka- 
tamaug, Keekomkwak, Kenosha, 
Kwenosakek, Madahumuck, M's- 
qiiamscook, Mameeg, Naacook, 
Nahmakanta, Namaascottic, Na- 
maskik, Nemdamassuagum, Num- 
demosees, Obumkeag, Oquossoc, 
Pacamkik, Papanomscutt, Pokah- 
ganeh, Quinshepaug, Sickenames, 
Skutarza, Squam, Squamicuk, 
Squeteague, Togue, Tuladi, Uppo- 
oquantup, Wataqua 
Fish line, Pemunneaht 
Flags, Abaquage, Ayasup, Mundoo- 
uscoo, Upaquoag, Wappaquasset, 
Wyasup 
Food cache, Muttoneguis, Tsabakwa 
Foods, Anitaash, Apwonnah, Attebe- 
meuck, Attitash, Minnechoag, 
Owweonhungganuck, Essick, Nok- 
higan, Paupock, Quahog, Samp, 
Sippenak, Sipsaconta, Succotash, 
Torube, Uppooquantup, Wampne- 
sick, Wenaumet, Wapososhe quash 
Winnemisset, Wintechog, Wintoak, 
Wish quo diniack, Wombemesisa- 
cook. See also Acorns, garden stuff, 
ducks, eels, fish, etc. 
Foothills, Penacook, Penagou 
Fording place, Astimoost, Aswagus- 
cawadic, Kedumcook, Ozwazogeh- 
suck, Pomkikin, Poniken, Taas- 
camessick, Tauskounk, Tismat- 
tuck, Tist, Toskaunk, Toskibunke, 
Towantic, Toyusk, Tueskennck- 



inck, Tuscomanset, Tuskhega- 
nuck, Tzawapa, Wapwayset, Wee- 
poiset, Weybosset 

Forest, Mashantackack, Mashan- 
tucket, Mashentuck, Mattatig, 
Mattatuck, Shantituck, Tachan- 
nike, Taconic, Tokenake, Tug, Wa- 
tatick, Woodtick 

Fork in stream, Anackatuseck, Nica- 
tow, Nichmug, Nickwacket, Nikisi- 
pik, Piscatacook, Piskaquoag, Sca- 
tacook, Schaghaticauke Schaticook 

Fork-tailed terns, Nigakws->vakeag 

Fountain, Ashimuet, Astimoost, Kee- 
kamuit, Tohke commumwachak, 
T'Kopesuck, Toikiming, Wampa- 
ketatekam 

Fox, A'wumps, Muchaquema, Wag- 
wises, Wonkees-ohke 

Fox country, Chocksett, Ocsechoxit, 
Shockolog, Woonksechocksett 

Frog, Chickwohiepy, JigwalUck 

Frost fish, Papanomscutt, Poppo- 
nesset 

Games, Pompanuck 

Garden stuff, Agutteback, Ash quo- 
ash, Caskak, Easkissey, Squanna- 
cook, Squannahonk 

Gathering place, Maanexit, Miamo- 
gue, Wamesit 

Geological terms, Monadnock 

Glacial kame, Adowaukeag, Doua- 
quet, Waukeag 

Glooscap stories, Kineo, Kokadjo, 
Madagamus, Moos-i-katchick, 

Moosepayechick, Oolaghesee, Os- 
quoon, Sabotowan 

Gluey, Squeteague 

Good, Handsome, Wauregan 

Goose, Hinkum, Honkamonk, Sa- 
konnet, Seekonk, Wampatuck, 
Waptook, Wobegilseebis 

Graphite, Cajoot, Metewemesick 

Grassy, Askaskwigek Wadjo, Menas- 
quassicook, Meskeekwagamasic, 
Missis quoi, Moz Mushkeg, Mus- 
kagwah, Muskapasset, Muskeget, 
Muskehtu-auk, Musquetohauke 

Great Commander, Massasoit 



M* 



Z7^ 



Great Spirit, Ketsi M'weskw, Mani- 

too 
Great Swamp Fight, Quawawehunk, 

Sasco 
Great trail, Mishimayagat 
Gulls, Caucomgomoc, Kaouasaki 

Hardwoods, Kamouraska, Machlich- 
Nagook, Pemmaquan, Pemsquam- 
kutook 

Hell, Chaboken, Chebacco, Chepi- 
noxet, Shabokin 

Hiawatha's mother, Winona 

Hidden outlet, Sunkaze, "Wiscasset 

High, Acomes, Acqunkoke, Ado- 
waukeag, Aspetuck, Asproom, At- 
tawaugan, Cocumcussuc, Cos Cob, 
Cotackta Gungy Wamps, Hoosic, 
Kodttukoet, Kongscut, Konikey, 
Kunckquachu, Mahoosuc, Quinu- 
qui 

Hill, Penacook, Wajoses, Washouset, 
Washucke, Wassiog, Watchaug, 
Watchoog, Watchusesic, Wotch- 
augh 

Hollow, Pogotossuc, Sologismoodik, 
Wenachus 

Hooded seals, Hahkik, Quaco 

Hook, Harco monco, Hoccanum, 
Hockanum, Hocquan, Mamacock, 
Mashoquen 

House, Annawoncoate, Asnacanco- 
mic, Assameekq, Chicomico Hassu- 
nek, Macomet, Mogewetu, Natick, 
Nukkekummees, Odana, Pometa- 
comet, Quinsnikit, Sachimma Co- 
mock, Shekomeko, Wakoquet, We- 
atic, Weatogue, Wekopee, Wiatik, 
Wigwam Wickasauke 

Indian Joe, Sozap 

Indian Molly, Mali bowk 

Indian Preacher, Occum 

Infant, Papoose 

Insect, Alkarmus, Jabish, Kermes, 
K'mokadich, Okemo, Occooch 

Island, see names containing syl- 
lables quid-; man-; mon- -naghe 

Joint, Machegony, Quinneaska 

Junction, see branch; split 



Kettle, Augutteback, Chee Coke, Co- 
casset, Cuppan augunit, Hoosac, 
Keeck, Keoka, Kochekok, Kok 
adjeweem, Kokadjo, Mangunk 
akuk, Nanacoicus, Nonacoicus, 
Ohkakquiset, Oukote, Walkami- 
gosek, Wesquage, Wisconemuck 

King Philip, Cbocksett, Metacom, 
Pacanoket, Pokanoket, Pometa- 
com, Sowamsett, Squakheag, 
Wampanoag, Wonkees-ohke, Wo- 
onksechocksett 

Knee, Chegony, Machegony, Mage- 
gunuck, Mashoquen 

Lady Rebecca, Pocahantas 

Lakes strung out, Amgopilasig, Po- 

mersimbeke, Oulakese, Wiscogosis 
Lamprey eels, Konomoc, Taubakon- 

nommock 
Lands, abandoned, Tawawag. See 

burnt lands 
Largest N. E. boulder, Cutchegun 
"Lazy portage," Mallicooniganus 
Leatherwood, Menikpodik, Wecup- 

pemee, Whakepee, Wickapicket, 

Wicopee 
Lighthouse, Pessakenew Agenek 
"Little God," Montowese 
Little portage, Winnegance 
Lobsters, Ashanteaug, Masenunck- 

quock 
Lookout, Manatuck, Manetic, Mati- 

anuck, Matomy, Matunuck, Mo- 

nadnock, Skowhegan, Squakheag, 

Tyontkathotha 

Mackerel, Waunnakeseag 
Magical rushes, Mundoo-uscoo 
Mahican, Muhhekaneew 
"Mahican's River," Manigana-tica- 

uoit 
jNIaples, Pemmaquan 
Mats, Abaquakea, Ahapaconsett, 

Uppanash Konameset, Wabaquas- 

set, Wabquisset, Wappaquassett 
Medicine man. Paw Woh, Ponus, 

Pow Wow 
Micmac, Tarratine 
"Moon Chief," Nanepashemet 



372 



Moose, Moosabek, Moz Mushkeg, 
Original 

Moravian missions, Peantam, Sheko- 
meko. Watch quadnach, Weea- 
taug, Wequadnack 

Mountain, see names with: wad- 
watch, waj-, -adn-; also names of 
larger mountains. 

Mud, Auco Cisco, Casco, Chuquisak, 
Kebumkewis, Macwahoc, Passa- 
noke, Pishatipaug, Podunk, Quil- 
licksq, Sasco, Sicaog, Sisquisic, 
Susquesong 

Muskellunge, Maskwenozakek 

Muskrat, Kahus weskeete, Moskwas- 
wagamok, Musquash 

Muskrat lodges, Donwagayon, Odon- 
wagayon 

Nammycush, Nammygoe, Togne, Tu- 
ladi 

Narrows, Piamikin, Wappewassick, 
Wapwayset, Waubeyaussuc, We- 
botuck, Weepatuck, Weepoiset, 
Wepawaug, Wepowage, Weybos- 
set, Wopowage 

Narrow trail, Pemenos, Pokamquoh 

"No-cake," Nokhigan 

Oak, Puckcommeagon 

Ocean, see Atlantic 

Opposite points, Teckyadough, Um- 

saskis 
Otter, Dawinehneh, Sekidawe, Wine- 

gegwok, Wonokakeetookeese 
Otter slide, Aguahassideck 
Outlet sandbar, Sakadamkiak 
Oxbow, Azzastakak, Pattagussis, Pe- 

tagoubky, Weeweantitt, Woronoco 
Oysters, Apponaug, Apwonnah 

Paint, Metewemesick, Olamon, Tala- 
godissek, Wannametonamuc, Wul- 
lamanic 
Papoose-bear, Passaconaway 
Parallel, Abagamok, Abahos 
Path, Minnewokun, Sogkunate 
Pestilence, Mashepagonoke 
Pickerel, Kenosha, Kenoza, Quins- 
hepaug, Watagua 



Pigeons, Wuskowhananaukit 

Pine, Coassit, Coaticook, Cohoes, 
Coos, Koessek 

Pinnacle, Mahoosuc 

Pipes, Calumet, Megantig, Uhu- 
ponckash, Wdamoganaspskak 

Plateau, Pachquinacook 

Point, Adonniate, Naiag, Naquag, 
Narragansett, Nauseag, Nayatt, 
Nayaug, Nayumpsk, Nehantic, Ni- 
antic, Nyac, Schodack, Schoodic, 
Scoodik 

Portage, see Carrying place 

Prairie, Wyoming 

"Praying Towns," Chabanakongko- 
muk, Coatue, Cowate, Hassana- 
mesit, Magaenak, Magunhukquok, 
Magunkahquog, Manitwa tootan, 
Nashamoiess, Nashoba, Natick, Ne- 
masket, Okommakemsit, Pakemit, 
Panatucket, Pequimmet, Ponkapog, 
Quanatusset, Titicut, Wamesit, 
Wamesut 

Quail, Paupock, Popo quash 
Quarry, Tomheganompsket 

Rabbit, Madagascar, Mateguasaden 

Rapids, Cocheco, Cochichewick, 
Cochituate, Kassanum, Kawap- 
skitchwak, Kuladam-itchwan, Me- 
tichawon, Nallahoodus, Narantso- 
ak, Nesowadnehunk, Newichwan- 
nock, Norridgewock, Orantsoak, 
Ottauquechee, Pejipscot, Pemige- 
wasset, Pennechuck, Pennichuk, 
Queachik, Quequecham, Skitche- 
waug, Skookum Chuck, Sobscook, 
Tunkahoosen, Tunxis, Wattanks- 
hausepo 

Ravine, Molechunkemunk, Molnich- 
wock, Molunkes, Packwacke 

Red paint, Mun-olammon ungun, 
Olamon, Oolamongamook, Tono- 
my, Wallamanumpscook, Wanna- 
metonamuc, Wolomonopaug, Wul- 
lamanic 

Rejoicing, Nonantum 

Resting place, Abonesig, Appama- 
tox, Apponaug, Mattabesec, Matta- 
pan, Mattapoisett 



373 



Robin, Opechee 

Rock, bare, Punkups 

Rock carving, Assonet, Humolatski- 

hegon, Sepsis-edal-apskit 
Rock circle, Wakalosen 
Rock fairies, Wanagamesswak 
Rocking stone, Tataesset, Tattahas- 

sun 
Root thread, Wanchatopek, Wa- 

tuppa 
Rotten corn, Anitaash 
Round, Betuckquapock, Pataconk- 

set, Pattaquattic, Puttacawmaum- 

shcuck, Puttuckqumpscut 
Round clam, Quahog 
Round loaf, Tuckernuck 

Salmon, Gonic, M'squam Nebis, 
Quamscook, Squam, (Head), Squa- 
magonic, Squamokwisseeboo, Win- 
nisquam 
Sand bar, Bamedumpkok, Capa- 
wack, Gunasquamecook, Hammo- 
nassett, Katawamkeag, Kebec, Ke- 
bumkewis, Kennebunk, Kepam- 
kiak, Kwetahwamkituk, Mashaw- 
mut, Mattawamkituk, Mattawam- 
keag, Medumcook, Mekwamkesk, 
Memkeeswe, Meniekec, Merricon- 
eag, Mishawum, Nolangamoik, 
Nunnakomac, Onset, Pamedom- 
cook, Pautonk, Pemadumcook, 
Petekamkes, Pogamqua, Pogum- 
kik, Puggamugga, Quotonset, 
Shawmut, Tolam, Waylumkituck 
Sausage casing, Oolagheese, Oula- 

kese 
Scoop net, Atgatogwisas, Comphe- 
gan, Quaiombog, Quamphegan, 
Wuss quamhegonset 
Sea, Kehtah hanit, Sobagwa, Taha- 

nock; see Atlantic 
Sea bass heads, Uppooquantup 
Sea gulls, Caucomgomoc, Kaouasaki 
Sea shore trail, Quinnipiac, Mishi- 

mayagat, Sacunyte 
Seed corn, Menomee 
Selected tree, Pepemightughk 
Separated, Chaboken, Chappa quid- 
dick, Chepinoxet, Chipchug, Chi- 



ponaug, Chippachaug, Chippu- 
achack, Tsabakwa 

Shaking meadow, Hassacky, Tata- 
muckatakis, Tatnock, Tatomuck, 
Totomak 

Shark-shaped, Sekled Obscus, Sisla- 
dobsis 

Sharp bend, Kananghet'ne, Quinne- 
aska, Mashoquen 

Shell beads, Sawgogue, Solikuk, 
Sowanoxet, Succanesset, Wam- 
pum 

Shell people, Siwanog, Siwanoy 

Shining, Passagas-sa-waukeag, Pen- 
nessewassee, Wabassus, Wasa-um- 
keag, Wass, Wassaquoick, Wasso- 
keag, Weesquobs, Wequashacke, 
Wicwas 

Short carry, Mailicooniganus, Ooni- 
ganissek 

Shortest route, Sebasticook 

Shoulder, Moosamuttuck 

Skull, Cheebeeantups 

Slender trout, Oquasanock 

Sloping ledge, Sawad Apskek 

Small bend, Pewonganuck 

Small fork, Nicatowis 

Smoking mixture, Kinnicnm 

Snake, Sasagook, Scook, Scucurra, 
Sisikwa, Skug; also Iroquois 

Snake dance, Skogogwaganock 

Snowshoe tracks, Madagamus, Mo- 
semadage 

Soothsayer, Moharmet's, M'leoulin 

Split, Nicatowis, Pabaquamiske,Pagh- 
maigah, Pashesauke, Pashipscot, 
Pauqununch, Peskebegat, Peske- 
ompscut, Pesketuk, Piscataqua, 
Pocotopaug, Scaticook, Topabskwa, 
Wunnashowatuckqut; see Branch 

Spring (of water), Ashimuet, Nippoo, 
Nipsic, Scamscammuck, Shamuet, 
Shawkemo, Shenipsit, Shimmoah, 
Shumuit, Squog Kane Kaneek, 
Takebi-suk, Tashmuit, Teikiming, 
Tekebisek, T'kopesuck, Winne- 
ashimut, Winnisimmet 

Spring (of year), Seeconnesset, Se- 
gunesit, Sigwanawock, Singrawac 

Squirrel, Anequasset, Mishanneke 



374 



Steam baths, Kussompskauk, Patta- 
quasset, Pattaquonset, Paukyowo- 
hog, Pesuponck, Pissapogue, Pisse- 
punk 

Steamer clam, Essick, P'sahn, Sa- 
quish. See Bar Harbor, Mount 
Desert 

Strange light, Pennessewassee 

Sturgeon, Cobosseecontee, Kobossee, 
Passawaukeag 

Sucker fish, Keekomkwak, Nemda- 
massuagum 

Summit, Annisquam, Hoosac, Ko- 
daak, Kodttukoet, Kongscut, Ma- 
hoosuc, Qununckwattchu, Wa- 
nashquodtinook, Wanasquatoms- 
ka, Washukquatom, Waunashqua, 
Wawobadenik, see High 

Suncksqua, Polucko's, Quaiapen, 
Weetamoo 

Sunken land, Quabacook 

Supernatural, Gallowa, Ketsi M'- 
weskw, Kinkajou, Lunksoos, Ma- 
dahondo, Mundoo, Wiwiliamecq 

Swamp, Hassacky, Ohomowauke, 
Quack, Quag, Quakish 

Swan, Wawecus, We quash 

Sweat lodges, see steam baths. 

Tail of lake, Yotenyatarokte 
Teardrop, Peegwon 
Thankfulness, Tabuttantam 
There she blows! Potowadjo 
Thunderstorm, Nimpanick Hicka- 

nuh, Patant atonet 
Tomcod, Papanomscutt, Popponesset 
Top, Ongeachonta 
Torchlight spearing, Passagas-sa- 

Tvaukeag, Wabassus, Wassaquoick 
Trading place, Assawompset, Paudo- 

waumset, Pautonk, Potowomut 
Trail, Awanganis, Manomet, Mishi- 

mayagat, Popumossett, Subecwan- 

gamook 
Trap, Appaum, Chickamug, Egge- 

moggin, Kenduskeag, Naperhan, 

Nulhegan, Mousam, Sungahnee 

took 
Tree stump, Wequanunk 
Trembling, Hassacky, Kekamooch- 



aug, Quaquoountuck, Quawaweh- 
unk, Tatamuckatakis, Tatnock, 
Tatomuck, Tatuppequaog 

Trout, Acquessuc, Musquinepash, 
Namaaskotic, Namagonic, Nam- 
mygoe, Oquassanock, Scotomak, 
Skuthazis, Togue, Tuladi 

Turning place, Chepachague, Che- 
pachewag, Pachaug, Pachet, Packa- 
chaug, Paskhommuck, Patchogue, 
Quinnipiac, Waworamawak 

Turtle, Namokanok, Ohnowarake, 
Tolbuntbessek, Torube, Torup. Tu- 
nipus 

Two-by-two, Nesenkeag 

Tying bark, Menikpodik, Wecobe- 
meas, Wecuppemee, Wecups, 
Whakepee, Wickapicket, Wicopee, 
Wyben 

Upright stone, Nepasooeneg 

Virginia Princess, Pocahantas 

Waiting place, Appaum, Apponaug, 

Skaki, Skowhegan, Squakheag 
Wampum, see shell beads 
Wampum belt, Machemux 
Weakfish, Squeteague 
Wee people, Mikumwessak, Muggs, 

Mukyaweesug, Nutskamongan, 

Wanagamesswak 
Weeping rocks, Nebissee-woldam-wo- 

gan 
Wells, Amaganset, Ashimuet, Ham- 

monasett, Machaquamaganset, 

Meshomasic, Nipsic, Onkoskopsug, 

Shenipsit, Shickasheen, T'Kope- 

suck 
Wet head, Usuntabunt 
WTialebone, Siasconset, Waskosing, 

Was que 
Whiskey Pond, Usquepaug 
White boards, Wabasgach 
White bone, Siasconset, Wabigenek, 

Waskosing, Was que 
White captive, Pewampskine 
White falls, Wabeno bahntuck 
White plume, Wappoquian's 



375 



White sand, "Wassamkihemuk 
White stone, Wapskenigan, Wesquo, 

Wesquobsk 
WTiortleberries, Attitash 
Widening stream, Pannaway, Po- 

casset, Pocowset, Powakasik 
Wigwam place, Weatogue, Wiatik 
Winding stream, Wawayontatt, We- 

antinock, Weweantic, "Weweantit, 

"Weynanitoke, Woronoco 
Winter fish, Papanomscutt, Poppo- 

nesset 



Wintry place, Keewaydin, Koghser- 

age, Peboamauk 
Wolf, Marchin 
"Wolf People," Mohanhegnmewog, 

Mohawk, Moheganick 
Woman's mountain, P'ahnmoiwadjo 
Woodchuck, Acquasimink 
Woodpecker, Pongokwahemook, 

Rockabema 

Yellow plume, Osamequin, Massasoit 

Younger sister, Sepunamus 



376 



CAMP NAMES 

AbasanddganaL Modern Ahnaki, the Northern Hghts or Aurora 
borecdis. 

Achsinik. Mahican, at the big rock. 

Acquasimink. Mahican, abode of the woodchuck. 

Adchaukoma. Natick, hunting lodge. 

Agwonk. Natick, under a tree. 

Akinagan. Ahnaki, a cradle. 

Akwatain. Ahnaki, source of the river. 

Alnobaganock. Ahnaki, dancing place. 

Anaquesuonk. Natick, a joint (such as an elbow); 

Angawi. Ahnaki, hidden. 

Annumwussukuppe. Natick, willow tree. 

Anockqus. Natick, a star. 

Anwohsinook! Natick, rest ye! 

Appehmehtig. Natick, resting tree, or bower. 

Appin. Natick, place for sitting; place for sleeping; bed; place for 
resting. 

Aquene. Narragansett, peace ; or, a truce. 

Aquene-ut. Narragansett, peace place; or, truce place. 

Arami. Ahnaki, delight; joy. 

Ashim. Natick, a spring of water. 

Ashkoshquhkontu. Natick, in green pastures. 

Askuhquame-ut. Natick, a greenwood tree; or, under the green- 
wood tree. 

Askuwhetae-komuk. Natick, watch-tower. 

Assemi. Modern Ahnaki, indulge in a bath. 

Assunekoaz. Natick, thorn bush; briar patch; refuge place. 

Atki. Ahnaki, nest or cradle. 

Attitash. Narragansett, huckleberries. 

Auwepin. Narragansett, calm; the wind ceases; calm of the 
evening. 

Awikhigan-gamigwe. Modern Ahnaki, writing room. 

Bessanswi-zambon. Modern Ahnaki, I heat soup. 

Chepewissin. Natick, northeast wind. 

Chepiokomuk. Natick, house of ghosts; hell; haunted place. 

377 



Chickabi. Natick, swift water. 
Chikkup. Natick, red cedars; a cedar. 

Chippa puock. Narragansett, they are apart; they form a group 
by themselves. 

Gernamen. Ahnaki, hand-holding. 
Gwanso. Ahnaki, I stay overnight. 

Hassunegk. Natick, a cave ; a cavern ; a rock shelter. 
Hopuonck. Narragansett, a (tobacco) pipe. 
Huan. Ahnaki, I walk in the snow. (I ramble) 

Itsin. Ahnaki. I tear flesh. (I wolf down my food) 

Kahagon. Iroquois, in the forest. 

Kahyonhes. Mohawk, long stream. 

Kandadiwi. Modern Ahnaki, a feast. 

Kanosera. Iroquois, temporary shelter. 

Kanti. Modern Ahnaki, plenty, or abundance, e.g. 

kemak-kanti. plenty of lice or gnats. 

namagwe-kanti. plenty of fish. 

norke-kanti. plenty of deer 

sipsi-kanti. plenty of birds (ducks) 
Kaski. Modern Ahnaki, deep. 

tegwe-kaski. river, deep. 

nebes-kaski. pond or lake, deep. 
Kateganiwi. Modern Ahnaki, by night, nocturnally. 
Katinon Kwat. Huron, heart's desire. 
Kchi Alakwas. Modern A hnaki, morning star ; evening star ; great 

star. 
Kchi Pontegwa. Modern Ahnaki, a grand rapid; the principal 

rapid. 
Keda Kukusis. Modern Ahnaki, thy little kettle. 
Keektawhank. Mahican, rapid stream; dashing current. 
Kehchippam. Natick, on the shore. 
Kehtahannupog. Natick, waters of sea. 
Kenn! Modern Ahnaki, Thanks! Thank you! 
Kerahigan. Modern Ahnaki, log trap, deadfall. 
Kespatte. Modern Ahnaki, dry. 
Kestaubeunk. Mohican, principal camping place. 
Ketasoot. Natick, a king. 

378 



Ketsessaiwi. Ahnaki, near the fire. 

Kiga bait. Modern Ahnaki, a bachelor (man). 

Kiga eskwait. Modern Ahnaki, a bachelor girl; an "Old Maid." 

Kikki-Kizos. Ahnaki, land of the sun; month of May. 

Kishkituckock. Mohican, by the riverside ; on the banks of the 

stream. 
Kisos. Modern Ahnaki, sun or moon. 
Kitompanisha. Natick, break of day. 
Kodtompskoag. Natick, summit of a cliff; top of the rock. 
Kodttukoe. Natick, summit (of a mountain or hill) . 
Kojkehooponat. Natick, to be drunk; state of being drunk. 
Kuppokoma. Natick, a grove; enclosed place; place of refuge; 

hiding place. 
Kussamp kussum. Natick, a furnace or oven; literally, "he makes 

rocks hot." 
Kussitchuan. Natick, rapid stream. 
Kutsah'arigan. Modern Ahnaki, stew. 
Kutsa-harigan-kanti. Modern Ahnaki, stew-a-plenty. 
Kutshamimat. Natick, lightning. 
Kwadarwi. Ahnaki, between waters. 
Kwask watsi. Modern Ahnaki, extreme cold. 

Machemotae.A^'^^^'c^, lasting; enduring; long-wearing; dependable. 
Magoshketomp. Natick, a huge man; a giant. 
Maguagon. Modern Ahnaki, a rainbow. 
Mahanepes. Mahican, slow water; sluggish stream. 
Mahshagquodt. Natick, (time or place or condition of) famine. 
Maiyaeog. Natick, they assemble. 
Mamada-ki. Modern Ahnaki, barren land. 
Mamankwe. Modern Ahnaki, chew ye! (eat!) 
Maneskammen. Modern Ahnaki, a flocking together. 
Manoonsket. Natick, place of clay. 
Manshk. Natick, a fort; a place of defense. 
Manusqussedash. Narragansett, beans. 
Maskwamozi. Modern Ahnaki, a birch tree. 
Massatigk. Natick, great tree. 
Matanbenigan. Ahnaki, a harbor. 
Matsi Nepi. Ahnaki, bad water (undrinkable) . 
Mattanaukonash. Narragansett, mats to sleep on; (and by in- 
ference) sleeping-bags. 
Mattapsh yoteg! Narragansett, sit by the fire ! 

379 



Mautabon. Natick, dawn; morning; daylight. 

May-yea -komiik. Narragansett, meeting house; gathering place; 

wayside-inn. 
Meechumee-komuk. Natick, food-house ; pantry ; (or by inference) 

grub tent ; dining hall. 
Meitch! Narragansett, eat thou! or, come on, eat! 
Mekwamke. Ahnaki, red earth. 
Menahan. Modern Ahnaki, an island. 

Meskwaka. Ahnaki, always green; ever green; spruce tree. 
Messubisuk. Ahnaki, place of the large pond. 
Michemohteau. Natick, it endures forever. 
Mickuck askeete. Narragansett, a meadow. 
Migat. Modern Ahnaki, two at once. 
Mishadchu. Natick, 2l great mountain. 
Mishannock. Natick, great star; morning star. 
Mishoadtue. Natick, precious; of great price. 
Mishoon. Natick, canoe. 

Mishquammauquock. Narragansett, red fish; salmon. 
Mishquawtuck. Narragansett, red wood; cedar. 
Mishquockuk. Narragansett, a red copper kettle; (or sometimes) 

a red earthen pot. 
Mishqushkou. Natick, a trout. 
Mogke koma. Natick, a great house. 
Mohtompan. Natick, it is day. 
Monunks. Natick, ash-tree. 
Moonooe nippeash. Natick, deep waters. 

Moosompsquetuli. Natick, upon the smooth, weathered rocks. 
M'skikwiminar. Ahnaki, strawberry; grass-berry. 
M'skwooteh. Ahnaki, field; burned-over-land. 
Munnanock. Natick, the moon; wonderful star. 
Muscoota. Mahican, grassy land; meadow; pasture. 

Nadialoi-ki. Modern Ahnaki, hunting ground. 

Nagontu. Natick, in the sand; among the dunes. 

Nahoosik. Natick, a pinnacle. 

Nanacheestawack. Mahican, fort ; place of safety. 

Nanwat. Ahnaki, far away. 

Nanwiwi. Ahnaki, in the middle. 

Napachamach. Mahican, fish weir ; place of the fish trap. 

Naskade. Ahnaki, a bottomless pit. 

Nebes. Modern Ahnaki, a lake; at the lake. 

380 



Nebessis. Modern Ahnaki, a pond; a small pond. 

Necawnauqun. Narragansett, the old barn. 

Necawnaqunash (plural). Narragansett, the old barns. 

Neckick. Narragansett, (to) my house. 

Nedak kikkem. Modern Ahnaki, my garden. 

Nedakki. Modern Ahnaki, my estate, property, land. 

Neimpauog. Narragansett, thunder. 

Ne ketemenesk. Modern Ahnaki, I am lazy. 

Nepanon. Natick, a shower of rain. 

Nepauz-pashpishau. Narragansett, (it is) sunrise. 

Netop. Natick, my friend ; blood-brother. 

Niben. Modern Ahnaki, summer time. 

Niben-aki. Modern Ahnaki, land of summer time; south-land, 

Nikamiwi. Ahnaki, sunset; sunset lodge. 

Nipauz. Narragansett, the sun; place in the sun. 

Nittauke. Narragansett, my land. 

Nodawangak. Ahnaki, dancing-place. 

Nompakou. Natick, a jewel; a treasure. 

Nootau. Narragansett, a fire. 

Notamiset. Natick, at the oak tree. 

Nunksqua. Natick, a girl. 

Nunnakoma. Natick, dry land; the shore. 

N'wedderra. Modern Ahnaki, to get out of doors. 

Ohkuk. Narragansett, a kettle. 

Omaen. Natick, fisherman. 

Omaenuog (plural). Natick, fishermen. 

Onahgesona. Iroqviois, silver birches. 

Onkouchtae mehtugquash. Natick, shady trees; shady grove. 

Onkouohtae. Natick, shade; shadow. 

Onkuppe. Natick, strong drink. 

Onontakah. Iroquois, hillside. 

Oonouhkoi. Natick, a valley; low land. 

Otahnagon. Iroquois, in the pine woods. 

Ouwan. Natick, the mist. 

O'wdesis. Modern Ahnaki, a path; a trail. 

Panjahlok. Modern Ahnaki, a cascade; a waterfall. 
Pantucoog, Ahnaki, place at the falls in the river. 
Paponetin. Natick, the west wind. 

381 



Paskamontamoonk-komak. Natick, starvation manor; 

where-you-starve plantation. 
Pauwasq. Natick, a sorceress; a witch (female). 
Pauwaw. Natick, a sorcerer; a witch (male). 
Pawtuck. Narragansett, a water fall. 
Pebon-ki. Modern Ahnaki, wintry land. 
Peeksq. Natick, a night-hawk. 

Peeyaush, netop! Narragansett, come hither, friend! 
Pekkeniwi. Ahnaki, in the shadows. 
Petukimok. Hammonassett, at the round rock. 
Pili Kisos. Modern Ahnaki, new moon. 
Pipegiwi. Ahnaki, stormy water. 
Pisowa-kamigwa. Modern Ahnaki, the wilderness. 
Piwi. Ahnaki, small; pee-wee. 
Pogwas. Modern Ahnaki, moon. 
Pohkuhtemis. Natick, a white oak. 
Pohkuk-misqui. Natick, red oak. 
Pompanuck. Natick, a place for playing games; game room; 

rumpus room. 
Pontegwa. Modern Ahnaki, a rapid. 
Powwaw. Narragansett, a conjurer; sorcerer; wizard. 
Puppinashimwog. Natick, wild beasts. 
P'wadagameh. Ahnaki, cove in lake. 
P'wat-begek. Ahnaki, cove or bay in a river. 
Pwatsobagwa. Ahnaki, cove in the sea; bay on the sea cost. 

Quannacut. Natick, the rainbow. 
Quequeciunauog. Narragansett, ducks. 
Qunnimkque-komuk. Natick, a high tower. 

Sachem. Natick, a king. 

Sachemaoug (plural). Natick, kings. 

Sachimo comaco. Natick, chief's house. 

Sagamore. Natick, a king; a chief. 

Sagamore -comiuck. Natick, a chief's house. 

Sakkade. Ahnaki, fiat; level. 

Sasamick pamuck. Narragansett, sassafrass tree. 

Say-kwahigan. Ahnaki, (by inference), hunting ground; open 

country. 
Sekidawe. Ahnaki, beaver dam. 
Senojiwi. Modern Ahnaki, the shore; a bank (of a stream). 

382 



Sepoese. Narragansett, little river; a brook. 
Sibo. Modern Abnaki, a river. 

Sibosis. Modern Abnaki, a brook; a stream; a small river. 
Siguan. Modern Abnaki, springtime. 
Siguanak-wekowam. Modern Abnaki, vernal lodge. 
Sipsi konta. Abnaki, birds a-plenty. 
Skassen. Abnaki, the northwest wind. 
Skwahigan. Abnaki, waiting place; tryst. 
Sobagua. Modern Abnaki, the ocean. 
Sohkohsuonk. Natick, victory. 
Sohsumwae. Natick, shining. 
Sonkippog. Natick, cold water. 
Sonkisq. Natick, a queen. 
Sowan-aki. Modern Abnaki, south-land. 
Sowanishin. Natick, south wind. 
Sowanohke. Natick, the south-land. 
Spemki. Modern Abnaki, heaven; paradise. 
Spiwi. Abnaki, on high; upwards. 
Squashes. Narragansett, a little girl. 
Sunnadin. Natick, north wind. 

Swish cuttow wauog. Narragansett, literally, "wigwam with three 
fires;" the special name for the Belt of Orion constellation. 

Taatabiwi. Modern Abnaki, happily. 
Tabuttantamoonk. Natick, thanksgiving. 
Taguahogan. Modern Abnaki, mill. 
Taguahogan-sebo. Modern Abnaki, mill stream. 
Taguogo. Modern Abnaki, autumn. 
Tahonwenta. Mohawk, canoe-launching place. 
Takekom. Narragansett, a spring of water ; a fountain. 
Tapantam. Natick, it satisfies. 
Tapapimin. Natick, room enough for all. 
Taushkaubik-au. Chippewa, a split rock. 
Tegwa. Modern Abnaki, a river. 
Tekasmwadi. Abnaki, bathing place. 
Tese Ramsen. Abnaki, the wind blows. 
Tkassem wagan. Modern Abnaki, bath. 

T'kebi. Modern Abnaki, spring water; fountain; springing foun- 
tain. 
Tomhannock. Natick, flooded; brimming. 
Tsibai. Abnaki, ghost. 

383 



Tuohkomuk. Natick, a forest. 

Tzawapi. Ahnaki, a crossing-place; ford in a stream. 

Tzekesi. Modern Ahnaki, I light a fire. 

Ukquanoequon. Natick, a rainbow. 

Uppohquos. Natick, a tent; an awning; a covering. 

U-ragan. Modern Ahnaki, bark dishes, plates. 

Wad amiwi. Modern Ahnaki, baggage. 

Wadchmeshash (plural). Natick or Narragansett, small moun- 
tains; hills. 

Wadchumes. Natick or Narragansett, small mountain ; hill. 

Wadtch. Natick, a bird's nest. 

Wanaskwinigan. Ahnaki, the end of the trail; journey's end. 

Wanaskwiwi. Ahnaki, at the highest point; summit; at the 
furthest place. 

Wasaiwi. Ahnaki, at the top. 

Waskwaha. Iroquois, camp. 

Wassenema. Modern Ahnaki, give light, illumine. 

Wattawesswa. Ahnaki, a star; evening star. 

Wawwhunnekesuog (plural). Narragansett, they have handsome 
colors; they are finely painted. Refers to "mackerel." 

Wayaawi. Natick, sunset. 

Wayont. Natick, sunset. 

Wegenagat. Ahnaki, the length of a night; overnight; an over- 
night stop. 

Weetimoquet. Narragansett, it has a sweet odor (as, new mown 
hay, fresh baked corn bread, etc.) 

Weetimung quot. Natick, a perfume; a sweet, pleasant odor (as 
in a glade with wild honeysuckle.) 

Wekinea uquat. Narragansett, fair weather. 

Wekkwakamigek. Ahnaki, land at end of the earth; trail's end? 

Wenauwetu. Natick, well housed; sturdy home. 

Wenomin. Narragansett, grape. 

Wenomineash (plural). Narragansett, grapes. 

Wequanunkq. Natick, stump of a tree; wooden mortar for grin- 
ding com. 

Wequarran-woddish. Natick, eagle-nest. 

Wequashim. Narragansett, moonlight; a swan; (name of an early 
chief) . 

Wesattimis. Natick, a red oak. 

384 



Wessikkat. Ahnaki, ebb tide. 

Wetapwauwwas! Narragansett, sit ye down and talk with us; 

squat and chat. 
Wetomp. Natick, a favorite ; a dear friend. 
Wetompaog (plural). Natick, favorites; dear friends. 
Wetu. Narragansett, a house. 
Wetu-hahanuonk. Natick, house of laughter; (and by inference) 

house of merriment. 
Wetuomemese. Narragansett, a little house. 
Wetu-wayont. Natick, house (of the) sunset ; sunset cottage. 
Wili-ki. Modern Ahnaki, fertile land. 

Windigo. Ahnaki? ruler of winter region; mighty, dreaded giant. 
Wirini. Modern Ahnaki, give thanks, "it is well." 
Wisawogamak. Modern Ahnaki, at the straits or narrows. 
Wiwibiwi. Ahnaki, alone; solitary; off by itself. 
Wohsumoonk. Natick, shining forth. 
Wompatucket. Natick, abode of the gray goose. 
Wompiskuk. Natick, osprey; great white bird; eagle. 
Wonogq. Natick, a hole ; a hollow. 
Wski wigwam. Ahnaki, a new house. 
Wtseka-aban. Ahnaki, morning breaks. 
Wudtuckquanash! Narragansett, lay wood on the fire! 
Wunnegin! Natick, welcome! 

Wunnegin! cowish! Narragansett, welcome! Sleep here! 
Wunneta wetu. Natick, happiness manor. 
Wunni komuk. Natick, happiness manor; great happy home. 
Wimohke. Natick, good ground. 
Wusapinuk. Natick, edge or bank of river. 
Wuske. Natick, new. 

Wussaumpatamoonck. Narragansett, a prospect; a view. 
Wussock hosick. Natick, writing-house; office. 
Wussooquatomis. Pequot, a walnut tree. 
Wussoquatominash (plural). Pequot, walnut trees. 
Wuttahamununk moonoi. Natick, the well is deep. 
Wuttamasim! Narragansett, give me tobacco! 
Wuttaminneoh. Narragansett, strawberry. 
Wuttaminneash (plural). Narragansett, strawberries. 
Wuttogki. Natick, it is wet (deer's nose). 

Yotahkoda. Iroquois, at the end of the trail. 

Yau-ut nashin. Natick, it is four-square ; it is on the square. 

*5 385 



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394 



INDEX 



Abington, Mass., Manamookeagin 
Addison, Me., Wassquagos 
Addison, Vt., Chemaun-Nayaug, Ka- 

nionra 
Agawam, Mass., Cottinackeesh, 

Naggawoomcom, Pauhunganuck, 

Usquaiok 
Alburg, Vt., Algonkine, Ga non wa 

ro hare, Wdepsek 
Alder Brook, Me., Peskedopikek 
Alexander's Lake, Conn., Mashipaug 
Alfred, Me., Bunganut 
Allis Park, Vt., Ahwassoos Aden 
Alton Bay, N. H., Quannipi, Winni- 

anebiskek 
Amesbury, Mass., Attitash 
Amston, Conn., Ashowat 
Andover, Conn., Watehogash 
Andover, Mass., Quayachick 
Androscoggin River, Me., Nagusset, 

Pescedona 
Ansonia, Conn., Pacoquarocke 
Ant Hills Island, Me., Emikus 

wassissek 
Apple Tree Point, Vt., Darongowa 
Argyle Boom Island, Me., K'noonag- 

hek 
Arlington, Vt., Kansas, M'kuigen, 

Nebraska, Ondawa, Tyetilegogta- 

kook 
Arrowsic Island, Me., Ke Kepan Ag- 

liesek, Manaskek, Koswie 
Ashaway, R. I., Ashawaug 
Ashburnham, Mass., Watatick 
Ashby, Mass., Neesepegesuck, Ne- 

moset, Squannacook 
Ashford, Conn., Acquebatuck, Assa- 

waug 
Ashland, Mass., Magunhukquok, 

Magunkah quog 
Athol, Mass., Pahquioque, Pequiog 
Atlantic, Kehta Hanit, Sobagwa 



Augusta, Me., Cushnoe, Negwamkeag 
Ayers Rips, Me., Nalumsunk-hungan 

Bagaduce River, Me., Winneagwa- 

muk 
Baker Lake, Me., Woolastookwagua- 

mok 
Baker River, N. H., Abocadneticook, 

Asquam Chumakee 
Baker Stream, Me., Woboostook 
Baker's Island, Mass., Fennapoo 
Bald Hill Cove, Me., Edali teh 
Bald Hill Mountain, Me., Eskwesk- 

wewadjo 
Bangor, Me., Paamtegwitook, Pem- 

tegwatook 
Bantam, Conn., Peatam, Wyantenue 
Bar Harbor, Me., Abessah, Ahbasak, 

Manesaydik, Pais-unk, P'sahn. See 

Mount Desert. 
Bamet, Vt., Scotomak 
Bamett, Mass., Kuppowonkunok 
Barnstable, Mass., Canaumet, Cotton- 

chnsett, Cummaquid, Mattakesett, 

Pawpoesit, Saughtuckquett, Sawa- 

quatock, Skunkamug, Wa quoit 
Barrington, R. I., Maskituash, Na- 

hett, Nockum 
Barter Island, Me., Moniecook 
Bartlett, N. H., Pequawkett 
Bartlett Peak, N. H., Attilah 
Bath, Me., Towessek, Weswick, 

Whiskeag, Winnegance 
Batten Kill, Vt., Ondawa, Saratogue, 

Tyetilegogtakook 
Beach Pond, R. I., Pawcomet 
Beacon Falls, Conn., Capage 
Bearcamp River, N. H., Awassokik 
Bear Island, N. H., Awasaswi Me- 

nahan 
Bear Notch, Vt., Owassoosen, Yages- 

hon 



395 



Beaver Pond, N. H., Shoneeto 
Beaver Tail Point, R. I., Qummuna- 

gat 
Bedford, N. H., Massasecum 
Belchertown, Mass., Paquonk qua- 

maug, Paskesickquopoh 
Belfast, Me., Paquatanee, Passagas- 

sa-waukeag 
Bellows Falls, Vt., Chee Coke, K'chi 

Ponteguh, Kitchee Ponteguh, 

Niben 
Bennington, Vt., Askaskwigek Wadjo, 

Moosompsquetuh, Sancoik, Taas- 

camessick, Walloomsac 
Berkshire Mountains, Mass., etc., 

Tachannike, Taghkannuc 
Berlin, Mass., Kequassagansett 
Bernardston, Mass., Coassit, Koes- 

sek, Nallahamcongan, Natanas 
Berwick, Me., Neguttaquid, Osabeg 
Bethel, Conn., Unkawa, Waubeoka 
Beverly, Mass., Mingo 
Big Lake, Me., Amilesk, Chimena- 

sanganum, EUitegway gamek, Me- 
. nes-saganaganis 
Big Ledge Carry, Me., Katopskone- 

gan 
Billerica, Mass., Popossego quohock 

egge 

Birch Stream, Me., Perns quamku- 

took 
Black Duck Stream, Me., Kwik- 

wimes-witieook 
Black Island, Me., M'kazanikut- 

menahan 
Blackman Stream, Me., Madamis- 

comtis 
Blackmore Pond, R. I., Pesaumka- 

mesquesit 
Black Pond, Me., Meskeekwaga- 

masic 
Black River, Lincoln County, Me., 

Abonegog 
Black River, Orleans County, Vt., 

EUigo-sigo 
Black River, Penobscot tributary, 

Me., Kahgognamock 
Black River, Windsor County, Vt., 

Alskachewack, Kaskactchawack, 

M'kazawitego 



Black River, Lower Kennebec, Me., 
Sasanoa 

Blackstone River, Mass., Kittituck, 
Kuttutuck, Mutighticoss, Neetmock, 
Sneeehteconnet, Tittituck, Wunna- 
showatuckqut 

Block Island, R. I., Manisses, Sa- 
chem 

Bloody Point, N. H., Squamscott 

Bloomfield, Vt., Mozias, Nebisonbik, 
Skahogan 

Blue Hill, Me., Awanadjo 

Blue Hill Tide Falls, Me., Kuladam- 
itehwan 

Bonnabeg Pond, Me., Squimonk 

Boom Islands, Me., Menehanis-cook 

Boston, Mass., Accomonticus, Ama- 
ganset, Hoanantum, Mashawmut, 
Shawmut 

Boston Neck, R. L, Namkook 

Bowditch Ledge, Mass., Fennapoo 

Boyden's Lake, Me., Nahsaick, Ne- 
sayik 

Bradford, Vt., Kikon, Maasbaak, 
Madagascar, Madahondo apskwa, 
Mahsunquamassec, Nasawi, Nok- 
higan 

Braintree, Mass., Cochessett, Ma- 
nanticut, Minotoquid, Wampatuck 

Brandon, Vt., Neshobe, Wag wises 

Brattleboro, Vt., Keetadoganapskwa 
Seebis 

Brewer, Me., Aguncia, Kaghsk-i- 
binday, Pesut amesset, Sedunke- 
hunk 

Bridgeport, Conn., Miamogue, Pe- 
quonnock 

Bridgewater, Mass., Nameunkquas- 
set, Nunkatusset 

Brighton, Vt., Oswegachie 

Brimfield, Mass., Ashquoash, Quina- 
baag, Wullamanic 

Bristol, R. L, Chisawannock, Papas- 
quash 

Brookfield, Mass., Masquabamisk, 
Massaquockumnie, Matchuk, Mus- 
quebaug, Nacommuck, Nanantom- 
qua, Neesepegesuck, Pataug, Po- 
dunk, Quabaconk, Wullamanic 

Broken Island, Me., Boskquenuguk 



396 



Brooklyn, Conn., Tatnic 
Brooksville, Me., Winneagwamuk 
Brunswick, Me., Pescedona, Pogam- 

qua, Puggamugga, Seogogguane- 

gabo 
Brunswick, Vt., Nebisonbik, Nol- 

kaianak 
Bucksport, Me., T'kopesuck 
Bullock's Cove, R. I., Wannamoiset 
Burden's Pond, Me., Puscommatas 
Burlington, Vt., Darongowa, Misk- 

wa-aubik, Nonnowigil Menahol, 

Otstenrowanen, Paliten, Regiochne, 

Skanentgraksenge, Winooskeek 
Burrilville, R. I., Matomy 
Buzzards Bay, Mass., Poughkeeste 
Byram River, Conn., Armonek, 

Cockamong, Comonck 

Cabot, Vt., Mali bowk, Mali panjah- 

lok 
Cambridge, Mass., Anmoughcawgen 
Camden, Me., Mada-Kamigosek, Me- 

gunticook, Negunticook 
Camel's Hump Mountain, Vt., Dyo- 

nondakren, Ta wak be dee eeso 

Wadso 
Canaan, Vt., Namaaskotic, Yanon- 

dasa 
Canterbury, Conn., Wanungatuck 
Canterbury, N. H., Plausawa, Sabba- 

tus 
Cape Elizabeth, Me., Poodik, Pur- 

poodik, Quack 
Cape Neddick, Me., Quaco 
Cape Porpoise River, Me., Mousam 
Cape Rosier, Me., Edali chichi 
Caribou Lake, Piscataquis County, 

Me., Mahnekebahntic, Nahnek- 

bahntic 
Casco Bay, Me., Manan, Marchin 
Castine, Me., Bagaduce, Edali, Mose- 

madage, Pentagoet 
Castleton, Vt., Wekowamadensees 
Cathance Lake, Me., Posseps Canga- 

mock 
Center ville, Mass., Wequaquet 
Central Connecticut, Nawaas, No- 

washe 



Chamberlain Lake, Me., Apmoojene- 

gamook, Baamchee nungamook 
Charles Island, Conn., Poquahaug 
Charles River, Mass., Ashunaiunk, 

Cowate, Messatsoosec, Quinnebe- 

qui, Shannock 
Charlestown, Mass., Accomonticus, 

Mashamugget, Mashawmut, etc. 

See Boston. 
Charlestown, R, I., Bapetanshant, 

Chemunganock, Machaquama- 

ganset 
Charlotte, Vt., Adonniate, Aswah- 

denick, Mateguasaden, Ohnowa- 

rake, Pawonbowk, Tommy Squat- 
ter, Topabskwa 
Charlton, Mass., Quassaponikin 
Chatham, Mass., Manamoyik, Mana- 

mo quack, Matchapoxet 
Chebeague, Me., Jebucto 
Chelmsford, Mass., Neesepegesuck, 

Tadmuck, Waymessick 
Chelsea, Mass., Naamkeak, Winne- 

ashimut, Winnisimmet, see Boston 
Chepachet, R. I., Matomy, Squam* 

micott 
Chester, Conn., Pattaquonk, Sep- 

unamus 
Chesterfield, N. H., Wantastiquet 
Chibanook Lake, Me., Saponac 
Chicopee, Mass., Chequapee, Chikabi 
Chilmark, Mass., Nashuae-Komuk, 

Nimpanick Hickanuh 
Chimney Point, Vt., Ghemaun Nay- 

aug, Kanionra, Teckyadoughin- 

yariga 
Chimon Island, Conn., Mamachimins 
Chittenden, Vt., Nickwacket 
Choke Cherry Island, Me., Attebe- 

meuck 
Churchill Lake, Me., AUagask wiga- 

mook 
Clifton Hills, Me., Pemadinisikek 
Clyde River, Vt., Misquiquaunga- 

meck 
Coasters Harbor Island, Me., Woo- 

nachasset 
Cohasset, Mass., Musquashcut 
Colchester, Conn., Cassacubque, 

Cheebeeantups 



397 



Colchester Point, Vt., Agenyateon- 

nia, 
Concord, Mass., Annursnack, Mus- 

ketaquid, Nasawtuck, Punkatesset 
Concord, N. H., Wattanumon 
Concord, Vt., Skahogan 
Connecticut River, Counnitegou, Gu- 

onitogou, Kwini teguh, Manigana- 

tica-uoit, Quinnehtukqut, Quinti- 

koock, Quonektacut, Passquis- 

hunk, Sicojocke, Sokoquois 
Cononicus' Boulder, R. I., Neotacon- 

konitt 
Corinth, Vt., Oquassanock 
Corinth- West Fairlee, Vt., Yageshon 
Corliss Cove, R. I., Saxafrax 
Cos Cob, Conn., Cassacubque 
Cousin's River, Me., Sis quisle, Sus- 

quesong, Sysquisset 
Coventry, R. I., Machepaconapun- 

suck, Scatacook 
Cowesett, R. I., Metaubscot 
Cow Island, Me., Kaoosi Menahan 
Cranston, R. I., Maushapogue, Pata- 

conkset, Papaquinapaug, 
Crawford, Lake, Me., Gaywaysick 
Crooked Island, Me., Bakun Guna- 

hik, Pikaghenahik 
Cross Island, Me., Sibegehanuck 
Cross Lake, Me., Bamonewengamok 
Cuttyhunk Island, Mass., Cappiquat, 

Kehtitanunk, Poo Cuttahunk Anow 

Daggett Pond, Me., Moskwaswaga- 

mocsis 
Damariscotta, Me., Kananghetne, 

Madamascontee, Tamescot 
Damariscotta River, Me., Appowick, 

Pedaugbiouk 
Damariscove Island, Me., Aguahega 
Dana, Mass., Neeseponsonet, Potta- 

paug 
Danbury, Conn., Pahquioke, Tanki- 

teke, Unkawa 
Danville, Vt., Sozap Nebees 
Dartmouth, Mass., Akusenag, Assa- 

meekq, Coquitt, Cushenag, Macka- 

toy, Nukkekummees, Pascomanset 
Dedham, Mass., Pomham, Powisset, 

Pumham, Tist 



Deerfield, Mass., Paucomptucke, Po- 

comtakuke, Pocumtuc 
Deer Island, Me. Nohlkai manahan 
Dennis, Mass., Nobscusset 
Denny's River, Me., Ket h'nik 
Derby, Conn., Squantuck, Weanti- 

nock 
Devils' Head, Me., see D'Orville's 
Devil's Island, R. I., Chepinoxet 
Dighton Rock, Assonet 
Dobsy Lake, Me., Deekeewenskek, 

Sisladobsis 
Dochet Island, Me., Mutanagwes 
Dorchester, Mass., Kutshamakin, 

Megansett, Menchoiset, Shawmut 
Dorset, Vt., Netop, Wanasquatuck 
D'Orville's Head, Me., Quagachus- 

que, Quaweejoos 
Dover, N. H., Chebeague, Gocheco, 

Jebucto, Newichwannock, Pan- 
way, Scatuate, Winichahanet 
Dracut, Mass., Augamtocook 
Dudley, Mass., Kekamoochaug, Ke- 

kamowadchaug, Quitemaug, Toh- 

ke commumwachak 
Dummerston, Vt., Skamonikoos, 

Wicopee 
Dunstable, Mass., Mashepagocke, 

Mashepagonoke 
Dutch Island, R. L, Aquednesset, 

Quatenus 
Dyer's Neck, Me., Kemboes Kisek, 

Nasso-emek 

Eagle Lake, Me., Pongokwahemook 
East Boothbay, Me., Winnegance 
Eastern River, Me., Mundoo-uscoo 

took 
Eastford, Conn., Abaquage 
East Greenwich, R. I., Pootowoomet 
Eastham, Mass., Naamcoyicke, Oci- 

namunt, Potenumacut 
Easthampton, Mass., Aspowunk, As- 

satayag, Minhan, Nashawannuck, 

Nayasset, Pasacomuk, Petowwag 
East Hartford, Conn., Namareck, 

Upaquoag 
East Haven, Conn., Mioonkh-tuk 
East Limington, Me., Watchic 
East Lyme, Conn., Mamacock 



398 



Easton, Mass., Hockamock 
East Pepperell, Mass., Babbatasset 
Eastport, Me., Cobscook, Muselenk 
Eddington, Me., Mantawassuk, Mi- 

taganessuk 
Edgartown, Mass., Kamesset, Nunni- 

paug. see Martha's Vineyard 
Eel Brook, N. H,, Nesenkeag 
Elbow Lake, Me., Numachinaga- 

mook, Numtsceenaganawis 
Elizabeth Islands, Mass., Onkatom- 

ka, Pacamkik, Peschameeset 
Ellsworth, Me., Wechkotetuk 
Equinox Mountain, Vt., Ekwanok 
Essex, Conn., Pataquasek 
Etna Pond, Me., Nawlombages 
Exeter, R. I., Basso qutogaug, Hake- 

wamepinke, M'squamscook, Shank- 

hassick, Shawunkhassick 

Fairfield, Conn., Chickons, Weanti- 

nock 
Fairhaven, Vt., Cooksacky 
Fairlee, Vt., Sennemahgesso 
Fall River, Mass., Copicut, Que- 

quecham, Watuppa 
Falls Point, Me., Adowaukeskeag, 

Douaquet, Waukeag 
Falmouth, Me., Scittery gusset, Skaki 
Falmouth, Mass., Ashimuet, Shamuet, 

Succanesset 
Farmington, Conn., Tunxis, Wepan- 

sock 
Farmington, Me., Amaseconti, Ames- 

sagunticook, Amessecantee 
Farmington River, Conn., Chee- 

sechankamuck, Pacomtock, Pau- 

tonk, Tunxis, Watunkshausepo 
Feeding Hills, Mass., Noycoy 
Fenton River, Conn., Nahwesetuck 
Ferdinand, Vt., Seneca 
Ferrisburg, Vt., Dawinehneh, Don- 

wagayon, Jigwallick, Pekontuk, 

Sungahnee took, Wisawogamak, 

Wobegilseebis 
Field's Pond, Me., Piwan gamosis 
First Eddington Falls, Me., Wequa- 

gawaysuk 
Fisherman's Island, Me., Epituse 
Fisher's Island, N. Y., Munnatawkit 



Five Islands Falls, Me., Kessalo- 
gesso Modik, Sologismoodik 

Forest Dale, Vt., Wag wises 

Fort Knox, Me., K'tchi-peskwahon- 
da, Wakalosen 

Fort Point, Me., Aguahassideck, 
Negas 

Fort Trumbull, Conn., Mamacock 

Foster, R. I., Connaug, Mashentuck 

Foxboro, Mass., Cocasset 

Fox Island Narrows, Me., Hahkik 
Watpuk, Sahbahesset 

Fox Island, R. I., Azoiquoneset, 
Nanaquonset, Nanequoxet, Sona- 
noxet, Sowanoxet 

Framingham, Mass., Nobscot, Pe- 
nobscot 

Franklin, N. H., Nikisipik 

Freese Island, Me., Nolat keehee- 
mungan 

French Island, Me., Keenaht Nas- 
sick, Mada-waniganook 

Fryeburg, Me., Pigwacket 

Gales Ferry, Conn., Awcumbuck 
Gardiner's Lake, Conn., Mashipaug 
Gardiner's Lake, Me., Nemdamassu- 

agum 
Gardner, Mass., Quag, Watatick 
Garner's Neck, R. I., Mattapoysett 
Gates Pond, Mass., Kequassagan- 

sett 
Georgetown, Me., Sagassett 
Georgia, Vt., Sekidawe 
Gilford, N. H., Menunquatucke, Nor- 

wottock 
Glastonbury, Conn., Assawassuck, 

Kongscut, Mabautuantucksuck 
Glocester, R. I., Paquantuck, Shins- 

katuck 
Glover, Vt., Nagwadog, Pekdabowk 
Goat Islands, R. I., Nantusiunk 
Goffstown, N. H,, Uncanoomuc, Un- 

canoonucks 
Goose Creek, Vt., Wobegilseebis 
Goshen, Conn., Massapoag 
Gould's Island, R. I., Aguspemo- 

kick, Aquopimokuk 
Grafton, Mass., Hassanamesit 
Granby, Conn., Gongamuck 



399 



Granby, Mass., Pitchawamache, 

Quaquoontuck, Suchow 
Granby, Vt., Moccasin 
Grand Isle, Vt., Gawenio, K'chena- 

menahan, Kahwehniyo, Oselaga, 

Ohskenonton 
Grand Lake, Me., Cheputneticook, 

Chilnucook, Matagamook, Willi- 

guaganum 
Grand Landing Place, Me., Cata- 

wamkeak, K'tahguantek 
Grand Manan Channel, Manahnook 
"Grand Marais," Onderiguegon 
Great Barrington, Mass., Maswasehi 
Great East Lake, Me., Newichwani- 

mak 
Greenfield, N. H., Sebosenee 
Green Island, Me., Manaskoos 
Greenland, N. H., Winnicutt 
Greenwich, Conn., Asamuck, Sioas- 

cauk 
Griswold, Conn., Chabunnuck 
Groton, Conn., Gungy Wamps, Po- 

quiant, Shenecosset 
Groton, Mass., Abaquakea, Massa- 

poag, Petapauket, Waubansconcett 
Gull Island, N. Y., Nayantacawnick 

Haddam, Conn., Cossonowock 
Hadley, Mass., Chusick, Coassit, 

Hoccanum 
Hadley 's Lake, Me., Sabagwagum, 

Subecwangamook 
Hale Brook, Me., M'squamagwe- 

seebo 
Hamilton, Mass., Aspowunk 
Hampden, Me., Edali weekek, Sa- 

wad Apskek, Sewad apskak, Tol- 

buntbessek 
Hampton River, N. H., Winnecu- 

mek, "Winnecunnet 
Hancock, Me., Adowaukeag 
Hancock, Vt., Texas 
Hanover, Mass., Assinipi 
Hardwick, Mass., Magus, Sasagoo- 

kapaug, Wombemesisacook 
Hardwood Island, Me., Machlich- 

Nagook 
Harpswell, Me., Merriconeag, Quo- 

hoag, Sebascodegan 



Harrington Lake, Me., Pokumkesa- 

wangamoksis 
Harrison's Island, Me., Epuk unikek 
Harrow Pond, Me., Megwakanga- 

mosis 
Hartford, Conn., Appaquag, Na- 

waas, Saukiog, Sequassen, Sicaog 
Hartland, Vt., Water quechee 
Harvard, Mass., Chaboken, Shabokin 
Harwich, Mass., Monamesset, Satuit, 

Sawaquatock, Sawkatucket 
Hatfield, Mass., Capawonk, Cappo- 

wongamuck, Chickons Cattones, 

Mincomonk, Wonckompsk, Yo- 

wunck homuck 
Hathaway Point, Vt., Sabagwilha 
Haverhill, Mass., Contoocook, Pen- 
tucket 
Haydenville, Mass., Unquamonk 
Haymock Lake, Me., Nahma jimski 

congomoc 
Hermon Pond, Me., Edawi maniwik, 

Kwedawi-manwik, Wenk wida 

wiwie wak 
Heron Island, Vt., Kaskoi Menahan 
Herring Pond, Mass., Commquessa- 

kumkanet 
High Head, Me., Wassamkihemuk 
Hinsdale, N. H., Squakheag 
Hobart Stream, Me., Acrupsak 
Hockanum, Conn., Noeutuck 
Hockomock Point, Me,. Hobbomocka 
Hog Island, R. I., Chisawannock 
Holden, Mass., Hassunek 
Holeb Pond, Me., Pascongamoc 
Holland, Mass., Kesiog, Massapoag 
Holland Pond, Vt., Massawipi 
Holhston, Mass., Boggistow 
Hoosac River, Vt., Atgatogwisas, 

Kaskekouke, Schaticook 
Hopkinton, Mass., Kattenanit,* Ma- 
gun quog, Magunhukquok, Ma- 

gunkahquog 
Hopkinton, R. I., Mamaquag, Mos- 

howunganuck, Neshunganset, Wo- 

tesamoonsuck 
Hop River, Conn., Sagumumpske- 

tuck 
Housatonic River, Conn., and Mass., 

Ousatunick 



400 



Hubbardston, Mass., Canestow 
Hughesdale, R. I., Wanepoonseag 
Humphrey's Pond, Me., Monnebassa 

Indian Hill Cemetery, Middletown, 

Conn., Wune Wahjet 
Indian Island, Old Town, Me., Al- 

nambi-i-menahan 
Indian Point, Bucksport, Me., Al- 

nambi kwaysah wayk, T'Kopesuck 
Indian Pond, Kennebec Co., Me., 

Sebahticook, Seebaticook 
Ipswich, Mass., Agawam 
Island Pond, Vt., Menanbawk 
Isle au Haut, Me., Solikuk 
Isle la Motte, Vt., Gawenidakhe, 

Tgawistaniyonteh 
Islesboro, Me., Kaskoo naguk, Pi- 
tow baygook 
Isles of Shoals, N. H., Montinicus, 

Mootinoo 
Israel's River, N. H., Sigwooganock, 

Singrawac, Soucook 

Jacques' Island, Me., Sachtalen 
Jamaica, Vt., Shatterack, Skamoni- 

koos 
Jewett City, Conn., Pautuxet 
Jockey Cap Mountain, Me., Pequaw- 

kett 
Joe-Mary Lakes, Me., Melanpswan- 

gamoc 
Joe's Pond, Vt., Sozap Nebees 
John Compound's, Conn., Com- 

pounce 
Johnson Brook, Me., Mantawassuk 
Johnston, R. I., Absolonomiscut, As- 

sapumsic 
Jonesport, Me., Esqui wamigook, 

Moosepayechick, Seguin 
Jug Island, Me., Bokajenesquis 

Kendall Head, Me., Wabigenek 
Kent, Conn., Pateook, Scaticook, 

Schaghaticauke 
Kidderville, N. H., Mohawk 
Killingly, Conn., Aspinook, Massa- 

poag 
King PhiUp, Metacom, Metacomet, 

Pometacomet, Wonkees- Ohke 



Kingston, N. H., Massapaug 
Kingston, R. I., Cajoot, Namcook, 
Shamcook, Shewatucquese, Ship- 
pa quonset 
Kittery Point, Me., Amiciskeag 
Knightsville, R. I., Mashantackack 

Lake Bomoseen, Vt., Maskeekoh- 
wogam 

Lake Champlain, Vt., Andiarocte, 
Aniadarawonte, Caniaderi Gua- 
runte, Canuxsawhory, Kanondoro, 
Kanyatatakwaronte, Onderigue- 
gon, Oneadalote, Onyatalot, Peton- 
bowk, Petow Bowk, Petow Pargow, 
Rodsio Canyatare, Skanentgrak- 
senge, Skanetoghrowa, Teckyadou- 
ghinyariga, Ticonderoga, Tieron- 
deraquegon, Wisawogamak, Yoten- 
yatarokte 

Lake Chauncey, Mass., Naggawoom- 
com 

Lake Fairlee, Vt., Kejigigilhasis, 
Quinibeck, Tolbabawk, Watagua 

Lake Sunapee, N. H., Oquasskikona- 
quam 

Lakeville, Mass., Pocksha 

Lambert's Cove, Mass., Konikey 

Lamoille River, Vt., Kwenosakek, 
Wintoak 

Lamprey River (Lamper Eel 
Stream), N. H., Piscasset 

Lancaster, Mass., Chesquonopog, Ho- 
sokey, Penacook 

Lancaster, N. H., Sowniganock 

Lanesboro, Mass., Shonkamonke, 
Shoonkeek Moonkeek 

Lebanon, Conn., Poquechanneeg 

Ledyard, Conn., Acomekes, Cuppa- 
comuck, Maushantuxet, Ohomo- 
wauke 

Leicester, Mass., Mossonachud, Tow- 
taid, Wekapekatonnic 

Lenox, Mass., Perquanapaqua, Squog 
Kane Kaneek 

Levant, Me., Tchebatigosak 

Lewey's Lake, Me., EUitegway ga- 
mek 

Lewis Creek, Vt., Jigwallick, Sun- 
gahnee took 



26 



401 



Lewiston, Me., Amitgon pontook 
Lilly Bay, Me,, Potobek 
Lincoln, Me., Pematinek 
Lincoln, N. H., Kancamagus 
Lincoln, R. I., Amataconet, Quins- 

nikit 
Lisbon, Conn., Showatucket 
Litchfield, N. H., Naticook, Nesen- 

keag 
Little Bell's Place, Me., Swank wahi- 

ganus 
Little Black River, Me., M'kaga-ook 

took 
Little Compton, R. I., Coaxet, Nuk- 

kekumniees, Pachet, Tunipus 
Little Dochet Island, Me., Muttoneg- 

wenish 
Little Falls Stream, Me., Ehkapsak 
Little Hemlock Island, Me., K'seusk- 

i-naghassik 
Little Otter Creek, Vt., Wonokakee- 

tookeese 
Little River, Me., Wekwabigek 
Little Round Lake, Me., Pataquon- 

gamis, Piwan gamosis 
Little St. Croix River, Me., Magua- 

guavic 
Littleton, Mass., Magunco, Nashoba 
Lobster Lake, Me., Peskebegat 
Lone Tree Hill, Vt., Nagwadog 
Long Island, Penobscot County, Me., 

Cheemahn 
Long Island, Waldo County, Me., 

Pitow baygook 
Longmeadow, Mass., Asnuntuck, 

Masacksicke, Pecowsic, Quillicksq, 

Scantic, Watchaug 
Long Neck, R. I., Washouset 
Long Reach, Me., Kwaykway-nah- 

mak 
Lonsdale, R. I., Wawepoonseag 
Loon Lake, Me., Kwanok sagamik 
Lowell, Mass., Massick, Naamkeak, 

Pantookaeg, Pantoocoog, Wicka- 

sauke 
Lower Dobsy Lake, Me., Sisladobsis 
Lower Sabao Lake, Me., Wiscogosis 
Lower Saco River, Me., Sockhigones 
Lower Waterford, Vt., Muskagwah 
Lubec, Me., Kepamkiak, Unaganek 



Ludlow, Mass., Minnechoag, Wine- 

chaug 
Lunenburg, Mass., Catacoonamug, 

Makamacheckamucks, Massapoag, 

Uncachewalunk 
Lunenburg, Vt., Tug 
Lyme, Conn., Mamachoag 
Lyme, N. H., Ordonakis 

Madison, Conn., Tuxisshoag 
Maine Coast, Apistama, Neskett 
Malletts Bay, Vt., Ouisnouski 
Mallison Falls, Me., Nagwamqueeg 
Manchester, Mass., Mascanomo 
Manchester, N. H., Cohoes, Namas- 

kik, Naumkeag, Squog 
Manchester, Vt., E kwanok 
Manomet, Mass., Aptuxet, Scook, 

Scusset 
Manomet River, Mass., Pimsepoese 
Mansfield, Conn., Nawbesetuc 
Marblehead, Mass., Massabequash, 

Nanepashemet 
Marion, Mass., Acoont, Aucoot, Me- 

tukpogkottomis, Pawhikchatt, 

Pitchoohutt, Seipican 
Mark Island, Me., Kaskoo-naguk 
Marlboro, Conn., Ungwonshackook 
Marlboro, Mass., Ockoogangansett, 

Okommakemsit, Teightaquid 
Marshes Island, Me., Wassoosumps- 

quehemock 
Marshfield, Mass., Massasaugatukut 
Marsh River, Me., Kwikwimes-witi- 

cook 
Martha's Vineyard, Mass., Capa- 

wack, Cape Higgon, Capoag 
Mason's Island, Conn., Chippachaug 
Matinicus Island, Me., Emmetinic, 

Menas quassicook 
Medway, Me., Nicatow, Patagumkis, 

Petekamkes 
Megantic Pond, Me., Damisokantic 
Mendon, Mass., Miscoe, Nippsatchuk, 

Quisset, Tattamasket, Tuttomnest 
Meredith, N. H., Aswaguscawadic, 

M'squam Chumaki 
Merrimack River, Mass., and N. H., 

Cabassauk, Kaskaashadi, Mom- 
mock 



402 



Merrymeeting Bay, Me., Abagadusset, 

Chisapeak, Kebec, Nassouac, Qua- 

bacook 
Mianus, Conn., .Mayannoes 
Middleboro, Mass., Keticut, Muttock, 

Nadhuset 
Middlebury, Conn., Meshapock 
Middleton, Mass., Annasnappet 
Middletown, Conn., (Indian Hill 

Cemetery) Awannoa, Coschow 
Middletown, Conn., Mattabesec 
Milford, Conn., Owenoke, Poqua- 

haug, Woronock 
Milford, Mass., Magomiscock, Mas- 

penock 
Milford, Me., Saquaische, Sunkaze 
Milford, N. H., Wisconemuck 
Millbury, Mass., Packachoog 
Miller's River, Mass., Baquag, Pap- 

pacontucks quash 
Millis, Mass., Boggistow 
Mill River, Mass., Pewonganuck 
Mill River, Me., Cowesiseck 
Milton, Mass., Hoosicwhisic, Unca- 

taquisset 
Milton, Vt., Kwenosakek, Wintoak 
Mirror Lake, N. H., Aroosabaug 
Moat Mountain, N. H., Atie ompsk 

a ooe di 
Mohawk Brook, Mass., Nepasooenegg 
Mohegan, Conn., Mangunk akuk, 

Mohanhegumewog, Muckhaneek, 

Muggs 
Molly's Pond, Vt., Mali bowk 
Monhegan, Me., Mananis 
Montville, Conn., Cochikuack 
Monument Brook, (on the Maine- 
New Brunswick Boundary), Chee- 

bee Atque Seep 
Monument Mountain, Mass., Maus- 

waseekhi 
Monument Pond, Mass., Kitteaumut 
Moosabec Reach, Me., K'mokadich 
Moose River, Me., Kweu-euk to- 

noonk began, Sahkabehaluk 
Moosehead Lake, Me., Mozodup 

Nebes, Tomahegan, Xsebem 
Mopang Lake, Me., Apskikek, Es- 

cutnagen 
Morgan, Vt., Namagonic 



Moutonboro, N. H., Chenayok, K'chi 

Nayok 
Mt. Agamenticus, Me., Sasanow 
Mt. Anthony, Vt., Askaskwigek 

Wadjo 
Mt. Ascutney, Vt., Askachewack, 

Askutegnik 
Mount Desert Island, Me., Pais-unk, 

Pemadnek, Pemategu, Pemetic, 

P'sahn, see Bar Harbor 
Mt. Mansfield, Vt., Dyonondakren, 

Mozodepowadso 
Mt. Paxton, Mass., Asnebumsket 
Mt. Philo, Vt., Aswahdenic, Mate- 

guasaden, Tyontkathotha 
Mt. Toby, Mass., Kunckquaehu, 

Qununkwattchu 
Mt. Tom, Mass., Paskhommuck 
Mt. Waldo, Me., Kinabsk atnek 
Mt. Washington, N. H., Agiochook, 

Kodaakwadjo, Maji Neowaska 
Muck Pond, Me., Poekwockamus 
Mud Pond, Me., Megwak-angamik, 

Pamgockamock 
Muscongus Island, Me., Amobscot, 

Seremobscus 
Muskeget Island, Mass., Kotget 

Namokanok Island, Me., K'tolbeh 
Nashua, N. H., Pennichuck, Wata- 

nic, Wataqua 
New Bedford, Mass., Nequechoke, 

Potumska, Quequecham 
New Braintree, Mass., Menemesseck, 

Wenimessett, Winnemisset 
Newbury, Mass., Quascacunquen, 

Wescussauco 
Newbury, N. H., Oquasskikonaquam 
Newbury, Vt., Coos, Goosuck, Mus- 
quash, Sozap 
Newburyport, Mass., Moniack 
Newcastle, Me., Nasso-emek, Pedcoke 

gowake 
Newcastle, N. H., Pannaway 
New Found Lake, N. H., Passaguanik 
New Haven, Conn., Mautunsq, Quil- 

lipiac, Mishimayagat 
New London, Conn., Aukumbumsk, 

Awcumbuck, Catumb, Mameeg, 

Nameaug 



26* 



403 



Newmarket, N. H., Washucke 
New Marlboro, Mass., Umpachene 
New Milford, Conn., Kenunck Pa- 

cooke, Metichawon 
Newport Pond, Me., Sagon-dagon 
Newport, R. I., None quit, Tittituck 
Newport, Vt., Misquiquaungameck 
New Sharon, Me., Amaseconti 
Newton. Mass., Ammocangen, Wino- 

timies 
Nichols Rock, Me., Sobscook 
No Man's Land Island, Mass., Cappo- 

quidnet, Tequenoman 
Noroton, Conn., Norsaton 
Norridgewock, Me., Narantsoak 
Northampton, Mass., Pewonganuck, 

We quittay aug 
North Branch, Marsh River, Me,, 

Catamawawa 
Northeast Harbor, Me., Asticou 
Northern N. Y. and Vt., Koghserage 
Northfield, Mass., Coassit, Coasuck 
North Kingston, R. I., Matatucket, 

Shewatucket, Wannuehecomecut 
North Lake, Skiff Pond, Me., Ni- 

gakws-wakeag 
North Schoodic Lake, Me., Omque- 

menikeag 
North Smithfield, R. I., Nippsat- 

chuk, Quatoncanit 
North Stonington, Conn., Assekonk, 

Chickamug, Cosattuck, Cuppan 

augunit M aumsuck 
Norwalk, Conn., Mahackemo, Nau- 

wot, Norwauke, Prosewamenos 
Norwottock, Mass., Masqnomp 
Notched Head, Me., Psinkskihigan- 

i-ontop 

Oak Bay, Me., Waquiack 

Oak Bluffs, Mass., Assanotucket, 
Hummock, Quinnamuck see Mar- 
tha's Vineyard 

Olamon, Me., Waylumkituk 

Old Town, Me., M'skutook, Negan 
odanak, Neekounegan, Panna- 
wambskek, Panoumke, Tegoak 

Oliverian Stream, N. H., Umpam- 
monoosuc 

Orleans, Vt., Keekomkwak 



Orson Island, Me., Asnela, K'chi 

mugwock 
Otter Creek, Vt., Dawinehneh, Ka- 

hyonhes, Neshobe, Pekontuk, Ne- 

tahme Puntook 
Owl's Head, R. I., Ohomowauke 
Owl's Head, Me., Kokohas wante- 

pek 
Owl's Place, Conn., and R. I., Oho- 

mowauke 
Oxford, Mass., Augutteback, Saca- 

rappa 

Palmer, Mass., Pattaquattic 
Palmertown, Conn., Mashantackack 
Patience Islands, R. I., Chibacoweda 
Pawlet, Vt., Mettawee 
Pea Cove, Me., Kwetahwamkituk 
Peebles' Neck, R. I., Papanomscutt 
Pelham, Mass., Jabish 
Pembroke, Me., Pemtaquiauktook 
Pembroke, Mass., Namaskeese 
Pepperel, Mass., Nissitisset 
Perry, Me., Sebeskiak, Wajoses, 

Wiwiliamiecq 
Perry Island, R. I., Chisawannock 
Peterborough, N. H., Minniwawa 
Petersham, Mass., Nichewaug 
Petit Manan, Me., Menanouze 
Pickpocket Falls, N. H., Pakwakek 
Piermont, N. H., Moz Mushkeg 
Pigeon Hill, Me., Wajoses 
Pittsfield, Mass., Ousehankamaug, 

Washakamaug 
Pittston, Me., Nahumkeag, Nehum- 

keag, Worromotogus 
Pleasant Lake, Me., Maklic-ongomoc 
Pleasant Point, Me., Seebyik 
Pleasant River, Me., Mun-olammon 

ungan, Wescogus 
Plymouth, Mass., Gaskak Ches quash, 

Chipascutt, Gashee, Hobbomoc 
Point Judith, R. I., Mattoonue, Nay- 

anticot, Nianticut 
Pokomoonshine, Lake, Me., Menik- 

podik 
Pomfret, Conn., Newiehawannock, 

Tamonquas, Uhquanchaug, Wap- 

poquian 
Portland, Conn., Maromas 



404 



Portland, Me,, Acocisco, Auco Cisco, 

Machegony 
Portsmouth, N. H., Sagamore 
Portsmouth, R. I., Pocasset 
Potter Hill, R. I., Chippachooag 
Pownal, Vt., Nebissee-woldam-wo- 

gan, Schaticook 
Preston, Conn., Checapscaddock 
Princeton, Mass., Wanchatopek 
Princeton, Me., Memada-Kamioguk, 

Wapskenigan 
Priestly Lake, Me., Awanganis 
Prospect, Me., Penopsquacook 
Prospect Ferry, Me., Edali quh 
Providence, R. I., Chaubatik, Moose- 

hausic, Pattukkett, Pomham 
Prudence Island, R. I., Wappewas- 

sick 
Putney, Vt., Kawassentekwa, K'chi 

Muskegw 

Quoddy Village, Me., Sebayek 

Ragged Island, Me., Raggertask 
Ragged Lake, Me., Menhaneekek, 

Nikanagamak 
RagmufE Stream, Me., Pataweektook 
Rainbow Lake, Me., Mahnagwaneg- 

wa Sebem 
Randall's Pond, R. I., Topamiss- 

pauge 
Randolph, Mass., Cochessett 
Rattlesnake Hill, Conn., Somersic 
Rattlesnake Island, N. H., Sisikwa 

Menahan 
Rattlesnake Mountain, Mass., Mans- 

kussehoank 
Rattlesnake Peak, Mass., Deowcook 
Raynham, Mass., Cohanit, Nippa- 

honset 
Red Hill, Vt., M'kuigen 
Redrock Point, Vt., Miskwa-aubik 
Rehoboth, Mass., Annawon, Chacha- 

pacasset, Mamwhauge 
Rhode Island, R. I., Aquednessick, 

Aquidneck, Aquidnic 
Richmond, N. H., Nip muck 
Richmond, R. I., Ashunaiunk, Co- 
nob, Ohomowauke, Shawnuck 
Ridgefield, Conn., Asproom, Canda- 

towa, Ramapoo 



Ripogenous Lake, Me., Nolan gamoik 
Roach Pond, Me., Kok adjeweem 

gwasebem 
Robbinston, Me., Mekwamkesk, 

Quinnisk-wouk-ook, Qunnos- 

kwamkook, Wabasgach, Wabossa- 

gock 
Rochester, N. H., Schohomogomoc, 

Squamagonic 
Rochester, Vt., Michigan, Texas 
Rock Point, Vt., Mistasenee, Neg- 

weesen, Otstenrowanen 
Rockland, Me., Bedabek, Catawam- 

keak, Katawamkeag, Chickawau- 

kee. Madam Bettox 
Rockwood, Me., Tomhegan 
Roily Lake, Me., Nesayik, Wiwilia- 

mecq 
Roque Bluffs, Me., Humolatski hegon 
Rose Island, R. L, Conockonquit 
Round Pond, Me., Petegwamgamek 
Royall's River, Me., Swegustagoe 
Rumford Falls, Me., Pennecook 
Russell Mountains, Me., Tonque- 

wack 
Rutland, Mass., Pascatiguage, Po- 

magusset, Quaquananawich 
Ryegate, Vt., Scotomak 

Saco, Me., Chouacoet, Massagika, 
Sakadamkiak, Sawacotuck, Shawa- 
cotoc, Sockhigones, Sowhigginock 

St. Albans, Vt., Kanyagwaronton, 
Popas quash, Sabagwilha 

St. Anne's Shrine, Vt., Tgawista- 
niyonteh 

St. George's Island, Me., Meniekec 

St. George Peninsula, Me., Konesa- 
nouskek 

St. George River, Me., Saquid, Se- 
gocket 

Salem, Conn., Pagwonk, Paugwonk 

Salem, Mass., Nameaug, Namkeag, 
Nanepashemet, Naumkeag 

Salisbury, Conn., Kisnop, Panna- 
heconnok, Weatic, Wiatic 

Salisbury, Vt., Keewaydin, Moosa- 
lamoo 

Salmon Falls, N. H., Newich wan- 
nock, Seminenal 



405 



Sandwich, Mass., Aquednet, Ashi- 
muet, Katomuckett, Massassomi- 
neuk, Skauton, Pimsepoese, Pum- 
pisset 

Sandy River, Me., Penobsquisum- 

quisebou 
Sawyer's Mountain, N. H., Cunney 
Saybrook, Conn., Pashebesauke 
Sayles Hill, R. I., Wesquadomesset 
Scalp Rock, Me,, Psinkwandissek 
Scarboro, Me., Owascoag 
Seal Head, Me., Hahkik watpuk 
Seal Rock, Me., Minnecopscook 
Sears Island, Me., Awassawamkeak 
Searsmont, Me., Quontabacook 
Sedgwick, Me., Sepsis-edal-apskit 
Seponac Lake, Me., Chibanook 
Seymour, Conn., Scucurra 
Seymour Lake, Vt., Namagonic 
Shad Island, Me., Sataylan 
Shadow Lake, Vt., Pekdabowk 
Shad Pond, Me., Nalaseemagamobsis 
Shaftsbury, Vt., Tomhannock 
Shallow Lake, Me,, Moskwaswaga- 

mok 
Sharon, Conn., Guna, Wachquat- 

nach, Wequadnack 
Sharon, Mass., Wolomonopaug 
Sharon, Vt,, Pantigo 
Sheepscott, Me., Aponeg, Cowsigan, 

Nekrangen, Pashipscot 
Sheffield, Mass., Mannanpenokean 
Shelbume, Vt., Quinneaska 
Shoreham, Vt., Kanondora, Teckya- 

dough Nigarige 
Silver Lake, Me., Oolamonogamook 
Simsbury, Conn., Massaco 
Sipp Bay, Me., K'chi punahaquot 
Skiff Pond (North Lake) Me,, Ni- 

gakws-wakeag 
Smith Brook, Me., Messatoocus 
Smithfield, R. I., Toskaunk, Tues- 

kennckinck 
Socatean Stream, Me., Mesakketesa- 

gewick 
Sock's Island, Me., Sachtalen 
Somers, Conn., Missatchawag 
Somersworth, N. H., Pisgatoek, 

Quamphegan 
Soper Brook, Me., Peskebskitegwek 



South Berwick, Me., Newicha wan- 
nock 
Southbridge, Mass., Cohasset 
South Corinth, Vt., Oquassanock 
South Kingston, R. I., Ohomowauke, 

Pesquamscot, Quawawehunk 
South Orrington, Me., Walintuk 
Southport Me., Nekrangen 
South Windsor, Conn., Nowashe 
South Wolf eboro, N. H., Winnebassa- 

kek 
Spencer Pond, Me., Kok adjeweem 

gwasebemis 
Springfield, Mass., Masacksicke, Paca- 

tuck, Pecowsic, Wequanhausick 
Springfield, Vt., Poosumsuck, Skit- 

chewaug 
Spruce Island, Me., Esqui wami- 

gook 
Squam Lake, N. H., M'squam Nebis 
Squaw Mountain, Me., P'ahnmoi- 

wadjo 
Stamford, Conn., Mahackemo, Toto- 

mak, Umpewage 
Sterling, Mass., Chocksett, Moantuk- 

cake, Tahanto 
Stetson Pond, Me., Nexaongermek 
Stewartstown, N. H., Metallak 
Stillwater Lake, Me., Seeogamook 
Stockbridge, Mass., Mahkeenac, 

Wnahtookook 
Stockton, Me., Essick, Ooniganissek 
Stoddard, N, H., Quinibaak, Wine- 

gegwok 
Stonington, Conn., Asupsuck, Aush- 

pook, Canonchet 
Stony Creek, Conn, Agiocomook, 

Aigio commuck 
Stoughton, Mass., Pakemit, Pekenut, 

Pequimmet 
Stow, Mass., Pompositicut 
Stratford, Conn., Cupheag, Nayumps, 

Pisqueheege 
Sturbridge, Mass., Poohookapaug, 

Quinebaug 
Sudbury, Mass,, Magaenak 
Sugar Island, Me., Sugalmanahan 
Sugar Loaf Brook, Mass., Weckwan- 

nuck 
Sugar River, N. H., Askutegnik 



406 



Sunderland, Mass., Saw watep ske- 

chuwas 
Sunkhaze Stream, Me., Wetchi san- 

kasek 
Sutton, Mass., Manchaug 
Swansea, Mass., Keekamuit, Wanna- 

moiset, Wepoiset 
Swanton, Vt., Maskwenozakek, Mis- 

sisiasuk 

Tauton, Mass,. Cohannet, Masstuck- 
sett, Nesquabinanset, Seewamuck 

Telosimis Lake, Me., Pataquongamis 
Telos Lake, Me., Sahkahegan 
Thames River, Conn., Pequod, Pe- 

quot, Puccatannock, Sepos Tame- 
suck 
The Gulf, Me., Mahkonlahgok 
The Hook, Me., Kedumcook 
The Narrows, R. I., Weybosset 
The Notch, Mass., Norwottock 
The Notched Head, Me., Psinkskihi- 

gan-i-ontop 
The Weirs, N. H., Aquadoctan 
Thomaston, Me., Sawquid, Squitco- 

megek, Tahanock, Wessaweskeag 
Thompson, Conn., Maanexit, Mana- 

nexit, Manexit 
Thompson's Point, Vt., Ohnowa- 

rake. Tommy Squatter 
Thoroughfare Brook, Me., Sahbims- 

kitegwek 
Three Heads Mountain, Me., Nesun- 

tabunt 
Tisbury, Mass., Ohkonkumme. See 

Martha's Vineyard 
Tiverton, R. I., Pocasset, Puncatest, 

Quamquit 
Tolland, Conn., Nip muck 
Topsfield, Maine, Simquish 
Topsham, Me., Psazeske, Sawacook 
Townshend, Vt., Kamouraska 
Treat's Falls, Me., Bemidjiwok, 

Pemj eedge wock 
Treat Island, Me., K'chi penabsq 
Treat Webster Island, Me., Talago- 

dissek 
Truro, Mass., Meeshawn 
Turner Brook, Me., Ahsedakwasic 
Turner's Falls, Mass., Peskeompscut 



Twin Islands, Me., Tagwesi Menahol 
Twin Lakes, Conn., Pannaheconnok, 
Wallempteweekek 

Union River, Me., Sennebec, Wech- 

kotetuk 
Uxbridge, Mass., Chockalog, Wacun- 

tug, Watchusesic 

Veazie, Me., Wabeno bahntuck 
Vergennes, Vt., Netahme Puntook, 

Pecontook 
Vernon, Vt., Koessek, Odana, Squak- 

heag 
Verona Island, Me., Nalagwem Me- 

nahan 
Victory, Vt., Mozias 
Voluntown, Conn.^ Monhungunuck, 

Walopeconek 

Waits River, Vt., Mahsunquammasec 
Waldoboro, Me., Penobseese 
Wallis Pond, Vt., Namaaskotic 
Wallum Lake, R. I., A'wumps 
Walpole, N. H., K'chi Ponteguh 
Ware, Mass., Wembemiscook 
Wareham, Mass., Cromesit, Misqui- 

tucket, Wawayontatt, Weweantic 
Warehouse Point, Conn., Nameroke 
Ware River, Mass., Menameset, Mis- 

quatucket 
Warner, N. H., Schodac 
Warren, Mass., Naltaug 
Warren, R. I., Nahett, Pacanoket, 

Pokanoket, Scamscammuck, So- 

wampsett, Toskaunk 
Warwick, R. I., Aquitamoset, Mis- 

hawomut, Pomham 
Waterbury, Conn., Achetaqupag 
Waterford, Conn., Oswegatchie 
Watertown, Mass., Pitchgussett, Win- 

nemaug 
Waterville, Me., Keta Kouan, Neg- 

wamkeag, Taconnet 
Webster Stream, Me., Madunke- 

hunk, Nemadunkehunk 
Wellfieet, Mass., Nampshaket, Puno- 

nakanit 
Wells, Me., Nampscoscoske, Negun- 

tequit, Webhannet 



407 



West Arlington, Vt., Annisquassi- 

coke 
Westboro, Mass., Hobbomoc, Nagga- 

woomcom 
Westbrook, Conn., Pachaug 
Westbrook, Me., Sacarappa 
Westerly, R. I., Achagomiconset, 

Acontaug, Ascomacut, Mamanis- 

kak 
Westfield, Mass., Pachasuck, Paw- 

tuxet, Poyasuck, 
Westford, Mass., Kissacook, Nab- 

nasset, Tadmuck 
West Greenwich, R. I., Mishnock, 

Tippecansett, Wequapaugset 
West Haven, Vt., Gashekwaneh, 

Tier ondera quegon 
West Lake, Me., Abagamok 
Westmore, Vt., Pisgah 
Westport, Conn., Hassacky 
Westport, Mass., Gotomska 
West Quoddy, Me., Pessakenew 

Agenek 
West River, Vt., Wanasquatuck, 

Wantastiquet 
West Rock, New Haven, Conn., 

Mautunsq 
West Windsor Locks, Conn., Uns- 

hemamuck 
Wethersfield, Conn., Pyquiag, Si- 

caog, Sowheage 
Weymouth, Mass., Weechagaskas 
Whale Mountain, Me., Potowadjo 
Whately, Mass., Capawong, "Weck- 

wannuck 
Whetstone Brook, Vt., Keetadoga- 

napskwa Seebis 
Whetstone Falls, Me., Popokumuk 

wodchussu 
Whiskey Pond, R. I., Usquepaug 
White Cap Mountain, Me., Wassum- 

ke Wadjo 



White Mountains, N. H., Annis- 
quam, Attilah, Cowissewaschook, 
Kodaak Wadjo, Misadene, Waba- 
demsolduwak Wajowuk 

White Oak Pond, Me., Pawnook 
White River, Me., Woboostook 
White River, Vt., Cascadnac, Madi 

tegou, Pantigo, Wassabastegu 
White Rock Portage, Me., Waps- 

kenigan 
White Squaw Island, Me., Kahno- 

nahjik 
Whiting River, Me., Keght Niganish 
Wickford, R. I., Kesickamuck, Nam- 

quoxet, Opuitowaxet 
Williams River, Mass., Taupagoh 
Willimantic, Conn., Mama quag, Nah- 

wesetuck 
Winchendon, Mass., Penkese 
Winchester, Mass., Aberjona 
Windham, Vt., Kamouraska 
Windham, N. H., Gaentake 
Windsor, Conn., Chesechankamauk, 

Cushankamaug 
Winthrop, Me., Maroonscook 
Wolcott, Vt., Wapauaki 
Wolves Rocks, Me., Adogenadesk 
Woodstock, Conn., Segunesit, Se- 

nexet, Pompwanganug 
Woodstock, Vt., Ohio, Pogue 
Woolwich, Me., Nasket 
Woonsocket, R. I., Niswosaket 
Worcester, Mass., Packachaug, Sa- 

gatobscot 
Worden's Pond, R. I., Aquebapaug 
Wrentham, Mass., Wolomonopaug 
Wright's Island, Conn., Manhan- 

nock 

Yarmouth, Me., Wesgustogo 
Yarmouth, Mass., Acqueet, Hocquan 
York, Me., Yeapsikasset 



408 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES